Solomons family tree

Solomons family tree DEFAULT

King Solomon

King Solomon is a name that conjures extraordinary images out of history and legend: A glittering court known throughout the world. A thousand harem princesses. Idolatry. A gift of divine wisdom. Demonic possession. And above all, the magnificence of the Holy City’s First Temple. From the bloody birth of King David’s wars came a golden age in Jerusalem, with a glory and mystery that would never be repeated.

Thousands of years after King Solomon’s reign, tales still endure of the splendor of Solomon’s court in Jerusalem, his wisdom, and the lush indulgence of his lifestyle, which included a vast harem of foreign princesses. Solomon’s crowning achievement was the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem, which would create a deep impact on the kingdom for centuries to come. The towering majesty of the Temple elevated Jerusalem to the status of a Holy City.

Solomon boasted a vast army of 1,400 chariots, the most advanced military technology of the period. His father David, a war hero from the first, had conquered substantial lands of the Philistine and Edomite peoples, and it was Solomon who reaped the rewards. He married the Pharaoh’s daughter, cementing an alliance with the powerful Egyptian kingdom.

Solomon’s reign is shrouded in many mysterious legends which feature him communing with demons, performing magic, and even being imprisoned by a demonic spell. His servant Benayahu son of Yehoyada is said to have carried out quests for him which involved magical beings.

The most famous of Benayahu’s adventures is his fabled quest for the Shamir, a worm that could eat through stone. Legend tells of Solomon’s unwillingness to use knives to cut the stones that would build the First Temple. No warlike tools, he believed, should be used to erect a symbol of peace.

According to the Holy Scriptures, Solomon’s wisdom was a divine gift—a gift so powerful that he could understand the speech of animals. God, it is written, asked Solomon what he most desired, and Solomon’s request was for the ability to govern God's People wisely. Thus people came far and wide to Jerusalem for Solomon’s celebrated wit in adjudicating court cases. The Queen of Sheba, now believed to be the historical Queen Mekada, in admiration of Solomon’s wisdom, came bearing gifts of gold and her allegiance. A verse in Scriptures is believed by many to have been a veiled implication that the Queen returned to her country pregnant with Solomon's child, and it was upon that belief through a well-kept genealogical record that Ras Tafari Mekonnan took the throne of Ethiopia as Emperor Haile Selassie I with the Davidic moniker "Lion of the Tribe of Judah" which birth the the Jamaican religion of Rastafarianism, believing Selassie to be the Messiah.

But perhaps the most powerful legend of King Solomon is that at the end of his reign, he was possessed by the demon prince Asmodai.

The First Temple was to exert a deep influence on the future development of religion in Judea. But Solomon still built shrines to other gods, and the heavy burden of taxation that he imposed upon Israel tore the kingdom apart after his death. Solomon is therefore judged a failure in the Scriptural texts, but a magnificent failure: like a meteor rising high, aflame with power and light, only to fall with a devastating crash to earth.

Solomon’s kingdom, which ended in blood, also began in blood. David’s illicit cohabitation with Solomon’s mother, Bathsheba, started it all; and before Solomon was to become king, he would first be tested in a raging gauntlet of family intrigues, betrayal and murder.


bet hamikdash rishon -832 -423 // bet hamikdash sheni -353 +68 // purim -356 // chanuka -164

1st temple 410 years // 2nd temple 420 years

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missing_years


Entonces David llamó a Betsabé y le dijo: Llamadme al sacerdote Sadoc, al profeta Natán, y a Benaía hijo de Joiada. Y ellos entraron a la presencia del rey. Y el rey les dijo: Tomad con vosotros los siervos de vuestro señor, y montad a Salomón mi hijo en mi mula, y llevadlo a Gihón; y allí lo ungirán el sacerdote Sadoc y el profeta Natán como rey sobre Israel, y tocaréis trompeta, diciendo: ¡Viva el rey Salomón! . . . Llegaron los días en que Davíd había de morir, y ordenó a Salomón su hijo, diciendo: Yo sigo el camino de todos en la tierra; esfuérzate, y sé hombre. Guarda los preceptos de Jehová tu Dios, andando en sus caminos, y observando sus estatutos y mandamientos, sus decretos y sus testimonios, . . . para que confirme Jehová la palabra que me habló, diciendo: Si tus hijos guardaren mi camino, andando delante de mí con verdad, de todo su corazón y de toda su alma, jamás, dice, faltará a ti varón en el trono de Israel. . . Y Salomón amó a Jehová, andando en los estatutos de su padre David . . . Y se le apareció Jehová a Salomón en Gabaón una noche en sueños, y le dijo Dios: Pide lo que quieras que yo te dé. Y Salomón dijo: Tu hiciste gran misericordia a tu siervo David mi padre, porque él anduvo delante de ti en verdad, en justicia, y con rectitud de corazón para contigo; y tu le has reservado esta tu gran misericordia, en que le diste hijo que se sentase en su trono, como sucede en este día . . . Da, pues, a tu siervo corazón entendido para juzgar a tu pueblo, y para discernir entre lo bueno y lo malo; porque ¿quién podrá gobernar este tu pueblo tan grande? Y agradó delante del Señor que Salomón pidiese esto. Y le dijo Dios: Porque has demandado esto, y no pediste para ti muchos días, ni pediste para ti riquezas, ni pediste la vida de tus enemigos, sino que demandaste para ti inteligencia para oir juicio, he aquí lo he hecho conforme a tus palabras; he aquí que te he dado corazón sabio y entendido, tanto que no ha habido antes de ti otro como tú, ni después de ti se levantará otro como tú. Y aun también te he dado las cosas que no pediste, riquezas y gloria, de tal manera que entre los reyes ninguno haya como tú en todos tus días. Y si anduvieres en mis caminos, guardando mis estatutos y mis mandamientos, como anduvo David tu padre, yo alargaré tus días . . . Reinó pues el rey Salomón sobre todo Israel . . . (y) toda la tierra procuraba ver la cara de Salomón, para oir la sabiduría que Dios había puesto en su corazón. . . Pero el rey Salomón amó, además de la hija de Faraón, a muchas mujeres extranjeras; a las de Moab, a las de Amón, a las de Edom, a las de Sidón, y a las heteas; gentes de las cuales Jehová había dicho a los hijos de Israel: No os llegaréis a ellas, ni ellas se llegarán a vosotros; porque ciertamente harán inclinar vuestros corazones tras sus dioses . . . Y cuando Salomón ya era viejo, sus mujeres inclinaron su corazón tras dioses ajenos, y su corazón no era perfecto con Jehová su Dios, como el corazón de su padre David. . . Los días que Salomón reinó en Jerusalén sobre todo Israel fueron cuarenta años. Y durmió Salomón con sus padres, y fue sepultado en la ciudad de su padre David; y reinó en su lugar Roboam su hijo. 1 Reyes, capítulos 2-11.
Third king of all Israel; reigned from about 971 to 931 B.C ; second son of David and Bath-sheba (II Sam. xii. 23-25). He was called Jedidiah (= "beloved of Yhwh") by Nathan the prophet, the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 9) assuming that David was told by Yhwh that his son's name should be Solomon (="peaceful"). These two names are predictive of the character of his reign, which was both highly favored and peaceful. —Biblical Data:

The sources for the history of the reign of Solomon are II Sam. xi.-xx. and the corresponding portions of I Chronicles, also I Kings i.-xi. 43 and I Chron. xxviii. 1-II Chron. ix 31. Some second or third-hand material is found in Josephus, Eusebius, and elsewhere, mostly taken from the books of Kings and Chronicles. The circumstances attending Solomon's birth indicate that he was "beloved of Yhwh" (II Sam. xii. 24, 25), and that Nathan stood in close association with David's household. Bath-sheba's relations with Nathan at the attempted accession of Adonijah (I Kings i.) show that she was a woman of no mean talent. Solomon's respect and reverence for her, even after his accession to the throne, point in the same direction. By nature and training Solomon was richly endowed and well equipped for the office of leader.

The question of David's successor had come to the front in Absalom's rebellion. That uprising had been crushed. As David was nearing his death, Adonijah, apparently (I Chron. iii. 1-4) in order of age the next claimant to the throne, prepared to usurp it, but passed over, in the invitation to his coronation, some of the most influential friends and advisers of David, as well as his brother Solomon. This aroused the suspicions of Nathan, who so arranged that simultaneously with Adonijah's coronation the court advisers, by order of David, crown Solomon, son of Bath-sheba, king of Israel. Adonijah fled in terror to the horns of the altar, and left them only on the oath of Solomon that his life should be spared. Beginning of Solomon's Reign.

David, before he died, had given Solomon a charge regarding his own actions as a man, and regarding his attitude toward several of the influential personages about the king's court. As soon as Solomon had become established over the kingdom, Adonijah, through Bathsheba, the queen-mother, asked the king for Abishag the Shunammite as a wife. This request was equivalent to asking for coregency, and Solomon so regarded it, for he quickly sent Benaiah to slay Adonijah. Abiathar, formerly David's trusted priest, who had conspired with Adonijah, was sent to the priest-city Anathoth, to his own fields, and deprived of his priestly office. Joab, learning the fate of Adonijah and Abiathar, fled to the altar for refuge; but Solomon commissioned the same executioner, Benaiah, to slay him there. Shimei, who had cursed David, was also in the list of suspects. He was given explicit orders to remain in Jerusalem, where his movements could be under surveillance. But on the escape of two of his servants to Philistia he left Jerusalem to capture them; and on his return he, too, fell under the sword of the bloody Benaiah. This completed the destruction of the characters whose presence about the court was likely to be a perpetual menace to the life of Solomon. Solomon's Choice.

Thenceforth Solomon proceeded both safely and wisely in the development of his government. He came into possession of a kingdom organized and prosperous. His part was to increase its efficiency and glory and wealth; but to succeed in this he needed special gifts. When he went to Gibeon to offer sacrifices—a thousand burnt offerings—Yhwh appeared to him in a dream, saying, "Ask what I shall give thee." Solomon, conscious of the heavy responsibility of the ruler of such a realm, chose the wisdom that is needful in a judge. His choice of this rather than long life, wealth, honor, and the destruction of his enemies, greatly pleased Yhwh.

The wisdom of the young king was soon put tothe test. Two harlots appeared before him, each carrying a child, one living and the other dead. Their dispute involved a decision as to the maternity of the children. Solomon, knowing the tender affections of a mother, ordered the living child to be cut into halves with a sword. The problem solved itself, and the king's insight and justice received due praise in Israel.

Solomon chose as his advisers the influential men of his kingdom (I Kings iv. 1-20). His standing army consisted of 12,000 cavalry, with 4,000 stalls for his chariots. The commissary department was thoroughly organized, and his court was one of great magnificence. The organization of Solomon's government carried with it a definite policy regarding his non-Israelitish subjects. Following the custom of the day, he secured for himself a wife from each of the neighboring royal houses, thus binding the nations to him by domestic ties. These various alliances introduced to the Israelitish court a princess from Egypt (for whom the king erected a special residence), and others from the Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Zidonian, and Hittite courts, who brought with them certain alien customs and religions, and, best of all, a kind of guaranty of peace. A court of such mixed elements involved also certain requirements which were a charge upon the royal treasury, such as homes for these foreigners and the installation of places for their religious observances. Solomon seems to have fulfilled all his obligations of this nature so lavishly as to have aroused his people near the close of his reign to the point of rebellion. Solomon's Buildings.

No sooner had the king thoroughly organized and set in motion his civil and military machinery than he planned to carry out the desires of David by building a temple to Yhwh. In doing this he utilized his father's friendship with Hiram of Tyre to secure from the latter an agreement to supply cedar from Lebanon for use in the building. He levied also upon his own people and sent, in courses, 150,000 men to Lebanon to cut and hew the timber. Stones were cut for the buildings to be constructed, and the timber was floated in rafts to Joppa and transferred to Jerusalem. Stones and timber were put together noiselessly. Seven years of work completed the Temple, and thirteen years the king's palace. The best and most skilled workmen were Phenicians. Their artistic taste was exercised both on the buildings and on the vessels with which they were furnished (I Kings vii. 13 et seq.). In addition to completing these two chief structures, Solomon enhanced in other ways the architectural beauty of the city.

Solomon's foreign alliances formed the basis for foreign commercial relations. From the Egyptians he bought chariots and horses, which he sold to the Hittites and other peoples of the North. With the Phenicians he united in maritime commerce, sending out a fleet once in three years from Ezion-geber, at the head of the Gulf of Akaba, to Ophir, presumably on the eastern coast of the Arabian peninsula. From this distant port, and others on the way, he derived fabulous amounts of gold and tropical products. These revenues gave him almost unlimited means for increasing the glory of his capital city and palace, and for the perfection of his civil and military organizations. Supposed Stables of Solomon at Jerusalem.(From a photograph by Bonfils.)Solomon's Wisdom.

Solomon's wisdom seems to have been as resplendent as his power and glory. His tact in dealing with his subjects and his acquaintance with all that was known in that day regarding trees, fruits, flowers, beasts, fishes, and birds gave him great renown. His genius in composing proverbs and songs was known far beyond the bounds of his own kingdom. His wisdom was said to have surpassed that of the children of the East and all the wisdom of Egypt. He was wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman,and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol (I Kings iv. 30, 31). People came from all parts to see the wisest man in the world. The Queen of Sheba traveled with a train of attendants, carrying much wealth, from southwestern Arabia, about 1,500 miles distant, to test the wisdom of Israel's ruler. Solomon's Religion.

Solomon's religious ancestry and training had given him a basis for a strong life. His own request at Gibeon and his zeal in the worship of Yhwh fore-told a vigorous religious career. But, though he built the Temple, and in the prayer attributed to him expressed some of the loftiest sentiments of a man thoroughly zealous in his worship of Israel's God, his career did not fulfil his early religious resolves. The polytheistic worship introduced by his foreign wives into Jerusalem and his faint and ineffectual opposition to their request that their gods should be shown respect led to his moral and religious deterioration, until he lost his hold on the people as well as on his own faith. Disaffection in Edom and in Syria, and the utterances of the prophet Abijah to Solomon's overseer, Jeroboam, portended disintegration and dissolution. In the decline of his life his power waned, and his death was the signal for the breaking up of the kingdom.

The extent of Solomon's permanent literary work is very uncertain. It is possible that he left several psalms and a portion of the Book of Proverbs. It seems to be probable that his life formed the basis of the Book of Ecclesiastes, and possibly of some elements of the Song of Songs. Importance in Jewish Legend. —In Rabbinical Literature and Legend: Solomon's House of the Forest of Lebanon.(Restored by Chipiez.)

Solomon not only occupies a very important part in rabbinical legend, but is glorified even from a theological point of view. It must be added, however, that the Tannaim, with the exception of Jose b. Ḥalafta, were inclined to treat only of his weaknesses and his downfall. Solomon was one of those men to whom names were given by God before their birth, being thus placed in the category of the just ("ẓaddiḳim"; Yer. Ber. vii., 11b; Gen. R. xlv. 11; Tan., Bereshit, 30). Besides his three principal names, Jedidiah (II Sam. xii. 25), Ḳohelet (Eccl. i. 1 et passim, Hebr.), and Solomon, various others are assigned to him by the Rabbis, namely, Agur, Bin, Jakeh, Lemuel, Ithiel, and Ucal (Prov. xxx. 1, xxxi. 1), the interpretations of which, according to the earlier school, are as follows: "He who gathered the words of the Torah, who understood them, who later enunciated them, who said to God in his heart, 'I have the power; consequently, I may transgress the prescriptions of the Torah.' " The later school, on the other hand, adopts the following explanations: Agur ="he who girt his loins"; Bin = "he who built the Temple"; Jakeh = "he who reigned over the whole world"; Ithiel = "he who understood the signs of God"; and Ucal = "he who could withstand them" (Cant. R. i. 1; Midr. Mishle xxx. 1; Targ. Sheni to Esth. i. 2). Solomon was also one of those who were styled "baḥurim" (="chosen"), "yedidim" (="friends"), and "ahubim" (="beloved ones"; Ab. R. N., ed. Schechter, p. 121). Solomon's instructor in the Torah was Shimei,whose death marked Solomon's first lapse into sin (Ber. 8a). His Prayer for Wisdom.

The Rabbis concluded that Solomon was twelve (in Targ. Sheni l.c. thirteen) years old when he ascended the throne; he reigned forty years (I Kings xi. 42), and consequently he lived fifty-two years, as did the prophet Samuel (Seder 'Olam R. xiv.; Gen. R. c. 11; but comp. Josephus, "Ant." viii. 7, § 8, where it is stated that Solomon was fourteen years old when he began to reign, and that he ruled eighty years; comp. also Abravanel on I Kings iii. 7). He was considered by the Rabbis, who glorified him, to have been the counterpart of David, his father: each reigned forty years, and over the whole world; both wrote books and composed songs and fables; both built altars and transported the Ark of the Covenant with great ceremony; and in both dwelt the Holy Ghost (Cant. R. l.c.). Solomon is particularly extolled by the Rabbis for having asked in his dream nothing besides wisdom, which they declare served him as a shield against sinful thoughts. In this respect Solomon's wisdom was even superior to that of his father. Solomon passed forty days in fasting so that God might bestow upon him the spirit of wisdom (Pesiḳ. R. 14 [ed. Friedmann, p. 59a, b]; Num. R. xix. 3; Eccl. R. vii. 23; Midr. Mishle i. 1, xv. 29). Solomon and Pharaoh.

Solomon was the wise king par excellence, a fact which is expressed in the saying, "He who sees Solomon in a dream may hope for wisdom" (Ber. 57b). He is said to have understood the languages of the beasts and the birds and to have had no need of relying on witnesses in delivering a judgment, inasmuch as by simply looking at the contending parties he knew which was right and which was wrong. The words "Then Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord" (I Chron. xxix. 23) are interpreted to this effect, and an example of such a judgment is that pronounced in the case of the two har-lots (comp. I Kings iii. 16 et seq.), which judgment was confirmed by a Bat Ḳol (Cant. R. l.c.; Targ. Sheni to Esth. i. 2). Indeed, Solomon's bet din was one of those in which the Holy Ghost manifested its presence through a bat ḳol. Independently of this, Solomon is considered as one of the Prophets, in whom the Holy Ghost dwelt. It was under the inspiration of the latter that he composed his three works, Canticles, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes (Soṭah 48b; Mak. 23b; Cant. R. i. 1; Eccl. R. i. 1, x. 17). His wisdom is stated to have excelled that of the Egyptians (I Kings v. 10), which assertion is the basis of the following legend: "When Solomon was about to build the Temple he applied to Pharaoh, King of Egypt, for builders and architects. Pharaoh ordered his astrologers to choose all the men who would die in the current year; and these he sent to Solomon. The latter, however, by simply looking at them, knew what their fate was to be; consequently he provided them with coffins and shrouds and sent them back to Egypt. Moreover, he gave them a letter for Pharaoh informing him that if he was in want of articles required for the dead, it was not necessary for him to send men, but that he might apply direct for the materials he needed" (Pesiḳ. R. l.c.; Pesiḳ. iv. 34a; Num. R. xix. 3; Eccl. R. vii. 23). Solomon's Judgments.

Owing to his proverbial wisdom, Solomon is the hero of many stories, scattered in the midrashic literature, in which his sagacity is exemplified. Most of them are based upon his judgment regarding the harlot's child; many of them have been collected by Jellinek in "B. H." iv., one of which is mentioned in Tos. to Men. 37a as occurring in the Midrash. It runs as follows: "Asmodeus brought before Solomon from under the earth a man with two heads, who, being unable to return to his native place, married a woman from Jerusalem. She bore him seven sons, six of whom resembled the mother, while one resembled the father in having two heads. After their father's death, the son with two heads claimed two shares of the inheritance, arguing that he was two men; while his brothers contended that he was entitled to one share only. They appealed to Solomon, whose sagacity enabled him to decide that the son with two heads was only one man; and the king consequently rendered judgment in favor of the other six brothers" (comp. "R. E. J." xlv. 305 et seq.). The well-known litigation between the serpent and the man who had rescued it is stated in Midrash Tanḥuma (see Buber, "Mebo," p. 157) as having taken place before Solomon, who decreed the serpent's death. Solomon applied his wisdom also to the dissemination of the Law. He built synagogues and houses in which the Torah was studied by himself, by a multitude of scholars, and even by little children. All his wisdom, however, did not make him arrogant; so that when he had to create a leap-year he summoned seven elders, in whose presence he remained silent, considering them more learned than himself (Cant. R. l.c.; Ex. R. xv. 20).

On the other hand, the members of the earlier school of Solomon's critics represent him in the contrary light. According to them, he abrogated the commandments of the Torah by transgressing against the three prohibitions that the king should not multiply horses nor wives nor silver and gold (comp. Deut. xvii. 16-17 with I Kings x. 26-xi. 3). He was likewise proud of his wisdom, and, therefore, relied too much on himself in the case of the two harlots, for which he was blamed by a bat ḳol. Judah b. Ila'i even declared that, had he been present when Solomon pronounced the sentence, he would have put a rope round Solomon's neck. His wisdom itself is depreciated. Simeon b. Yoḥai said that Solomon would better have been occupied in cleaning sewers, in which case he would have been free of reproach. His Ecclesiastes has, according to one opinion, no sacred character, because "it is only Solomon's wisdom" (R. H. 21b; Meg. 7a; Ex. R. vi. 1; Eccl. R. x. 17; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxxii. 1; see Bible Canon). His Realm.

On account of his modest request for wisdom only, Solomon was rewarded with riches and an unprecedentedly glorious reign (comp. I Kings iii. 13, v. 1 et seq.). His realm is described by the Rabbis as having extended, before his fall (see below), over the upper world inhabited by the angels and over the whole of the terrestrial globe with all its inhabitants,including all the beasts, fowls, and reptiles, as well as the demons and spirits. His reign was then so glorious that the moon never decreased, and good prevailed over evil. His control over the demons, spirits, and animals augmented his splendor, the demons bringing him precious stones, besides water from distant countries to irrigate his exotic plants. The beasts and fowls of their own accord entered the kitchen of Solomon's palace, so that they might be used as food for him. Extravagant meals for him (comp. I Kings iv. 22-23) were prepared daily by each of his thousand wives, with the thought that perhaps the king would feast on that day in her house (Meg. 11b; Sanh. 20b; B. M. 86b; Gen. R. xxxiv. 17; Cant. R. l.c.; Eccl. R. ii. 5; Targ. Sheni l.c.). Solomon's Eagle.

More frequently it was the eagle that executed Solomon's orders. When David died Solomon ordered the eagles to protect with their wings his father's body until its burial (Ruth R. i. 17). Solomon was accustomed to ride through the air on a large eagle which brought him in a single day to Tadmor in the wilderness (Eccl. R. ii. 25; comp. II Chron. viii. 4). This legend has been greatly developed by the cabalists as follows: "Solomon used to sail through the air on a throne of light placed on an eagle, which brought him near the heavenly yeshibah as well as to the dark mountains behind which the fallen angels 'Uzza and 'Azzael were chained. The eagle would rest on the chains; and Solomon, by means of a ring on which God's name was engraved, would compel the two angels to reveal every mystery he desired to know." According to another cabalistic legend, Solomon ordered a demon to convey down to the seven compartments of hell Hiram, King of Tyre, who on his return revealed to Solomon all that he (Hiram) had seen in the nether world (Zohar ii. 112b-113a, iv. 233a, b; Naphtali b. Jacob Elhanan, "'Emeḳ ha-Melek," pp. 5d, 112c, 147a; Jellinek, l.c. ii. 86). Solomon's Carpet.

With reference to Solomon's dominion over all the creatures of the world, including spirits, several stories are current, the best known of which is that of Solomon and the ant (Jellinek, l.c. v. 22 et seq.). It is narrated as follows: "When God appointed Solomon king over every created thing, He gave him a large carpet sixty miles long and sixty miles wide, made of green silk interwoven with pure gold, and ornamented with figured decorations. Surrounded by his four princes, Asaph b. Berechiah, prince of men, Ramirat, prince of the demons, a lion, prince of beasts, and an eagle, prince of birds, when Solomon sat upon the carpet he was caught up by the wind, and sailed through the air so quickly that he breakfasted at Damascus and supped in Media. One day Solomon was filled with pride at his own greatness and wisdom; and as a punishment therefor the wind shook the carpet, throwing down 40,000 men. Solomon chided the wind for the mischief it had done; but the latter rejoined that the king would do well to turn toward God and cease to be proud; whereupon Solomon felt greatly ashamed.

"On another day while sailing over a valley where there were many swarms of ants, Solomon heard one ant say to the others, 'Enter your houses; otherwise Solomon's legions will destroy you.' The king asked why she spoke thus, and she answered that she was afraid if the ants looked at Solomon's legions they might be turned from their duty of praising God, which would be disastrous to them. She added that, being the queen of the ants, she had in that capacity given them the order to retire. Solomon desired to ask her a question; but she told him that it was not becoming for the interrogator to be above and the interrogated below. Solomon thereupon brought her up out of the valley; but she then said it was not fitting that he should sit on a throne while she remained on the ground. Solomon now placed her upon his hand, and asked her whether there was any one in the world greater than he. The ant replied that she was much greater; otherwise God would not have sent him there to place her upon his hand. The king, greatly angered, threw her down, saying, 'Dost thou know who I am? I am Solomon, the son of David!' She answered: 'I know that thou art created of a corrupted drop [comp. Ab. iii. 1]; therefore thou oughtest not to be proud.' Solomon was filled with shame, and fell on his face.

"Flying further, Solomon noticed a magnificent palace to which there appeared to be no entrance. He ordered the demons to climb to the roof and see if they could discover any living being within the building. The demons found there only an eagle, which they took before Solomon. Being asked whether it knew of an entrance to the palace, the eagle said that it was 700 years old, but that it had never seen such an entrance. An elder brother of the eagle, 900 years old, was then found, but it also did not know the entrance. The eldest brother of these two birds, which was 1,300 years old, then declared it had been informed by its father that the door was on the west side, but that it had become hidden by sand drifted by the wind. Having discovered the entrance, Solomon found many inscriptions on the doors. In the interior of the palace was an idol having in its mouth a silver tablet which bore the following inscription in Greek: 'I, Shaddad, the son of 'Ad, reigned over a million cities, rode on a million horses, had under me a million vassals, and slew a million warriors, yet I could not resist the angel of death.'" Solomon's Temple.

The most important of Solomon's acts was his building of the Temple, in which he was assisted by angels and demons. Indeed, the edifice was throughout miraculously constructed, the large, heavy stones rising to and settling in their respective places of themselves (Ex. R. lii. 3; Cant. R. l.c.). The general opinion of the Rabbis is that Solomon hewed the stones by means of the Shamir, a worm whose mere touch cleft rocks. According to Midrash Tehillim (in Yalḳ., I Kings, 182), the shamir was brought from paradise by the eagle; but most of the rabbis state that Solomon was informed of the worm's haunts through the chief of the demons, who was captured by Benaiah, Solomon's chief minister (see Asmodeus). The chief of the demons, Ashmedai or Asmodeus, told Solomon that theshamir had been entrusted by the prince of the sea to the mountain cock alone (the Hebrew equivalent in Lev. xi. 19 and Deut. xiv. 18 is rendered by A. V. "lapwing" and by R.V. "hoopoe"), and that the cock had sworn to guard it well. Solomon's men searched for the nest of the bird and, having found it, covered it with glass. The bird returned, and, seeing the entrance to its nest closed by what it supposed to be a glass door, brought the shamir for the purpose of breaking the glass. Just then a shout was raised; and the bird, being frightened, dropped the shamir, which the men carried off to the king (Giṭ. 68b).

Solomon, in his prophetic capacity, realized that the Temple would be destroyed by the Babylonians, and therefore he caused an underground receptacle to be built in which the Ark was afterward hidden (Abravanel on I Kings vi. 19). For each of the ten candlesticks made by Solomon (I Kings vii. 49; II Chron. iv. 7) he used 1,000 talents of gold, which, being passed 1,000 times through the furnace, became reduced to one talent. There is a difference of opinion among the Rabbis as to whether Solomon's candlesticks were lit or only the one made by Moses. A similar difference exists with regard to Solomon's ten tables, five of which were on one side and five on the other side of the table made by Moses (Men. 29a, 99b). Solomon planted in the Temple different kinds of golden trees which bore fruit in their proper seasons. When the wind blew over them the fruit fell to the ground. Later, when the heathen entered the Temple to destroy it, these trees withered; but they will flourish again on the advent of the Messiah (Yoma 21b).

Even with regard to his noble act in building the Temple, however, Solomon did not escape the severe criticisms of the Tannaim. The construction of such a magnificent edifice, they said, filled Solomon with pride; consequently when he wished to introduce the Ark of the Covenant into the Sanctuary, the gates shrank to such an extent that it could not be brought in. Solomon then recited twenty-four hymns, but without avail. He then sang: "Lift up your heads, O ye gates; . . . and the King of glory shall come in" (Ps. xxiv. 7). The gates, thinking that Solomon applied to himself the term "King of glory," were about to fall on his head, when they asked him, "Who is this King of glory?" Solomon answered: "The Lord strong and mighty," etc. (ib. verse 8). He then prayed: "O Lord God, turn not away the face of thine anointed, remember the mercies of David thy servant" (II Chron. vi. 42); and the Ark was admitted (Shab. 30a; Num. R. xiv. 10; comp. Ex. R. viii. 1 and Tan., Wa'era, 6, where this haggadah is differently stated in the spirit of the Amoraim). Solomon's Marriage.

The Tannaim lay particular stress on Solomon's criminal act in marrying the daughter of Pharaoh, which they declare took place on the night when the Temple was completed. This assertion is at variance with Seder 'Olam R. xv., where it is held that Solomon married her when he began to build the Temple, that is, in the fourth year of his reign (comp. I Kings vi. 1). The particular love which he manifested for her (comp. ib. xi. 1) was rather a depraved passion; and she, more than all his other foreign wives, caused him to sin. He had drunk no wine during the seven years of the construction of the Temple; but on the night of its completion he celebrated his wedding with so much revelry that its sound mingled before God with that of the Israelites who celebrated the completion of the sacred edifice, and God at that time thought of destroying with the Temple the whole city of Jerusalem. Pharaoh's daughter brought Solomon 1,000 different kinds of musical instruments, explaining to him that each of them was used in the worship of a special idol. She hung over his bed a canopy embroidered with gems which shone like stars; so that every time he intended to rise, he, on looking at the gems, thought it was still night. He continued to sleep, with the keys of the Temple under his pillow; and the priests therefore were unable to offer the morning sacrifice. They informed his mother, Bath-sheba, who roused the king when four hours of the day had flown. She then reprimanded him for his conduct; and verses 1-9 of Prov. xxxi. are considered by the Rabbis as having been pronounced by Bath-sheba on that occasion. The destructive effect on the Temple of Solomon's marriage to Pharaoh's daughter is further expressed in the following allegory: "When Solomon wedded Pharaoh's daughter, Michael [another version has Gabriel] drove a rod into the bed of the sea; and the slime gathering around it formed an island on which, later, Rome [the enemy of Jerusalem] was built." R. Jose, however, declares that Solomon's sole intention in this marriage was to convert the daughter of Pharaoh to Judaism, bringing her thus under the wings of the Shekinah (Sifre, Deut. 52; Yer. 'Ab. Zarah i. 39c; Shab. 56b; Yer. Sanh. ii. 6; Sanh. 21b; Lev. R. xii. 4; Num. R. x. 8). Solomon's Throne.

Solomon's throne is described at length in Targum Sheni (l.c.) and in two later midrashim published by Jellinek ("B. H." ii. 83-85, v. 33-39), the second also by J. Perles (in "Monatsschrift," xxi. 122 et seq.). According to Targum Sheni, which is compiled from three different sources, there were on the steps of the throne twelve golden lions (comp. Solomon, Biblical, Data) and twelve golden eagles so placed that each lion faced an eagle. Another account says that there were seventy-two lions and the same number of eagles. Further it is stated that there were six steps to the throne (comp. ib.), on which animals, all of gold, were arranged in the following order: on the first step a lion opposite an ox; on the second, a wolf opposite a sheep; on the third, a tiger opposite a camel; on the fourth, an eagle opposite a peacock, on the fifth, a cat opposite a cock; on the sixth, a sparrow-hawk opposite a dove. On the top of the throne was a dove holding a sparrow-hawk in its claws, symbolizing the dominion of Israel over the Gentiles. There was also on the top of the throne a golden candlestick, on the seven branches of the one side of which were engraved the names of the seven patriarchs Adam, Noah, Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Job, and on the seven of the other the names of Levi, Kohath, Amram, Moses, Aaron, Eldad, Medad, and, in addition, Hur (another version has Haggai). Above the candlesticks was a golden jar filled with olive-oiland beneath it a golden basin which supplied the jar with oil and on which the names of Nadab, Abihu, and Eli and his two sons were engraved. Over the throne, twenty-four vines were fixed to cast a shadow on the king's head. By a mechanical contrivance the throne followed Solomon wherever he wished to go.

The description given in the two midrashim mentioned above differs somewhat from the foregoing. Referring to the words "Then Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord" (I Chron. xxix. 23), the second midrash remarks that Solomon's throne, like that of God, was furnished with the four figures representing a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle, with cherubim and wheels (comp. Ezek. i. 5 et seq.). While the first midrash agrees to a greater extent with Targum Sheni, the second one substitutes for the order in which the pairs of animals were arranged the following: a sheep and a wolf; a deer and a bear; a roebuck and an elephant; a buffalo and a griffin; a man and a demon; a mountain-cock and an eagle; a dove and a sparrow-hawk—the clean beasts and fowls being to the right and the unclean ones to the left of the throne. The Mechanism of the Throne.

Solomon's progress to his throne is similarly described in Targum Sheni and in the two midrashim. According to the former work, when the king reached the first step, the ox, by means of some sort of mechanism, stretched forth its leg, on which Solomon leaned, a similar action taking place in the case of the animals on each of the six steps. From the sixth step the eagles raised the king and placed him in his seat, near which a golden serpent lay coiled. When the king was seated the large eagle placed the crown on his head, the serpent uncoiled itself, and the lions and eagles moved upward to form a shade over him. The dove then descended, took the scroll of the Law from the Ark, and placed it on Solomon's knees. When the king sat, surrounded by the Sanhedrin, to judge the people, the wheels began to turn, and the beasts and fowls began to utter their respective cries, which frightened those who had intended to bear false testimony. Moreover, while Solomon was ascending the throne, the lions scattered all kinds of fragrant spices. In the second midrash it is said: "When Solomon wished to sit on his throne, the ox took him gently on its horns and handed him over to the lion, which in turn delivered him to the sheep, and so on until the seat was reached. Then the demon placed him on the seat, which was of gold studded with precious stones, and put under his feet a foot-stool of sapphire which he had brought from heaven [comp. Ex. xxiv. 10]. The six steps also were studded with precious stones and with crystal; and there were besides arches from which palm-trees arose high over the throne to make a shadow for the king's head." Both midrashim state that when Solomon was seated a silver serpent turned a wheel which caused the eagles to spread their wings over the king's head. Then one lion placed the crown on his head, while another placed the golden scepter in his hand. It is explained in the first midrash that six steps were constructed because Solomon foresaw that six kings would sit on the throne, namely, Solomon, Rehoboam, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, and Josiah. After Solomon's death King Shishak, when taking away the treasures of the Temple (comp. I Kings xiv. 26), carried off the throne, which remained in Egypt till Sennacherib conquered that country. After Sennacherib's fall Hezekiah gained possession of it. When Josiah was slain by Pharaoh Necho the latter took it away; but, not knowing the proper use of it, he was struck by one of the lions and became lame. Nebuchadnezzar, into whose possession the throne subsequently came, shared a similar fate. The throne then passed to the Persians, with whom it remained till it came into the possession of Ahasuerus, who, however, could not sit upon it (see also Num. R. xii. 21; Midr. Abba Gorion to Esth. i. 2). His Hippodrome.

The glory of so great a king as Solomon would have been incomplete, in the eyes of the later rabbis, had he not had, like the Roman emperors, a magnificent circus or hippodrome; and a description of his arena is given in the second of the two mid-rashim mentioned above. According to R. Ze'era, the circus was in use one day in every month, under the successive superintendence of each of the twelve commissaries who had to provide for the king's household (comp. I Kings iv. 7 et seq.). In the thirteenth month of an embolismic year, for which there was a special commissary (see Rashi on I Kings iv. 19), there were no horse-races, but races were run by 10,000 young men of the tribe of Gad (or of Naphtali, according to another opinion), "the calves of whose legs were removed, rendering the runners so swift that no horse could compete with them." The hippodrome was three parasangs long and three parasangs wide, and in the middle of it were two posts surmounted by cages in which all kinds of beasts and fowls were confined. Around these posts the horses had to run eight times. As to the day of the month on which the races took place—whether the last day, the first, the second, or the third—different opinions are expressed. Those favoring the last, first, and second days are supported by the fact that on those days Solomon used to flood the cisterns—on the last day of the month for the scholars and their pupils, for the priests and the Levites; on the first day for the Israelites who lived in Jerusalem; and on the second day of the month for those who lived outside that city; the water which flowed from paradise was poured into the cisterns through the mouths of two golden lions, which, besides, exhaled a very fragrant odor.

There were four companies of charioteers, each containing 4,000 men divided into smaller groups; these were placed on separate platforms arranged one above the other. Facing each company were two doors of olive-wood in which different kinds of precious stones were set, and which were decorated with gold and with all kinds of carved figures. The spectators also were divided into four groups: (1) the king with his household, the scholars, the priests, and the Levites, dressed in blue; (2) the people of Jerusalem, dressed in white; (3) the people who lived outside Jerusalem, dressed in red; and (4) the Gentiles who from distant countries brought presents to Solomon, and who were dressed in green.These four colors symbolized the four seasons of the year—autumn, winter, spring, and summer (comp. Perles, l.c. notes). Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.

The meeting of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba is narrated in Targum Sheni as follows: "Solomon, when merry from wine, used to assemble before him all the kings, his vassals, and at the same time ordered all the other living creatures of the world to dance before them. One day, the king, observing that the mountain-cock or hoopoe was absent, ordered that the bird be summoned forthwith. When it arrived it declared that it had for three months been flying hither and thither seeking to discover some country not yet subjected to Solomon, and had at length found a land in the East, exceedingly rich in gold, silver, and plants, whose capital was called "Kitor" and whose ruler was a woman, known as 'the Queen of Saba [Sheba].' The bird suggested that it should fly to the queen and bring her to Solomon. The king approved this proposal; and Solomon, accordingly, caused a letter to be tied to the hoopoe's wing, which the bird delivered to the queen toward the evening as she was going out to make her devotions to the sun. Having read the letter, which was couched in somewhat severe terms, she immediately convoked a council of her ministers. Then she freighted several vessels with all kinds of treasures, and selected 6,000 boys and girls, all of the same age, stature, and dress, and sent them with a letter to Solomon, acknowledging her submission to him and promising to appear before him within three years from that date. . . . On being informed of her arrival, Solomon sent his chief minister, Benaiah, to meet her, and then seated himself in a glass pavillon. The queen, thinking that the king was sitting in water, lifted her dress, which caused Solomon to smile."

It is stated in I Kings x. 1 that the queen came to propound riddles to Solomon: the text of these is given by the Rabbis. A Yemenite manuscript entitled "Midrash ha-Ḥefeẓ" (published by S. Schechter in "Folk-Lore," 1890, pp. 353 et seq.) gives nineteen riddles, most of which are found scattered through the Talmud and the Midrash and which the author of the "Midrash ha-Ḥefeẓ" attributes to the Queen of Saba (Sheba). The first four riddles are also given in Midrash Mishle i. 1, where their transmission is attributed to R. Ishmael. See Sheba, Queen of. Solomon Loses His Kingship.

The Rabbis who denounce Solomon interpret I Kings x. 13 as meaning that Solomon had criminal intercourse with the Queen of Sheba, the offspring of which was Nebuchadnezzar, who destroyed the Temple (comp. Rashi ad loc.). Solomon's champions, on the other hand, deny the whole story of the Queen of Sheba and of the riddles, and interpret the words "Malkat Sheba" as meaning "the Kingdom of Sheba"; that is to say, the kingdom of Sheba offered its submission to Solomon (B. B. 15b). According to the same rabbis, the sin ascribed to Solomon in I Kings xi. 7 et seq. is only figurative: it is not meant that Solomon fell into idolatry, but that he was guilty of failing to restrain his wives from idolatrous practises (Shab. 56b). Still, the legend prevalent in rabbinical literature is that Solomon lost his royalty, riches, and even his reason on account of his sins. This legend is based on the words "I, Ḳohelet, was king over Israel in Jerusalem " (Eccl. i. 12, Hebr.), which show that when he uttered them he was no longer king. He gradually fell from the highest glory into the deepest misery. At first, Solomon reigned over the inhabitants of the upper world as well as over those of the lower; then only over the inhabitants of the earth; later over Israel only; then he retained only his bed and his stick; and finally his stick alone was left to him (Sanh. 20b). Solomon and Asmodeus.

The Rabbis do not agree, however, as to whether Solomon died in poverty or returned to his throne. He "saw three worlds," which, according to one opinion; means that he was successively a private person, a king, and again a private man. According to a contrary opinion; he was king, private person, and again king (Sanh. l.c.; Giṭ. 68b; Eccl. R. i. 12). Solomon's ejection from the throne is stated in Ruth R. ii. 14 as having occurred because of an angel who assumed his likeness and usurped his dignity. Solomon meanwhile went begging from house to house protesting that he was the king. One day a woman put before him a dish of ground beans and beat his head with a stick, saying, "Solomon sits on his throne, and yet thou claimest to be the king." Giṭṭin (l.c.) attributes the loss of the throne to Asmodeus, who, after his capture by Benaiah, remained a prisoner with Solomon. One day the king asked Asmodeus wherein consisted the demons' superiority over men; and Asmodeus replied that he would demonstrate it if Solomon would remove his chains and give him the magic ring. Solomon agreed; whereupon Asmodeus swallowed the king (or the ring, according to another version), then stood up with one wing touching heaven and the other extending to the earth, spat Solomon to a distance of 400 miles, and finally seated himself on the throne. Solomon's persistent declaration that he was the king at length attracted the attention of the Sanhedrin. That body, discovering that it was not the real Solomon who occupied the throne, placed Solomon thereon and gave him another ring and chain on which the Holy Name was written. On seeing these Asmodeus flew away (see Asmodeus, and the parallel sources there cited). Nevertheless Solomon remained in constant fear; and he accordingly surrounded his bed with sixty armed warriors (comp. Cant. iii. 7). This legend is narrated in "'Emeḳ ha-Melek" (pp. 14d-15a; republished by Jellinek, l.c. ii. 86-87) as follows: "Asmodeus threw the magic ring into the sea, where it was swallowed by a fish. Then he threw the king a distance of 400 miles. Solomon spent three years in exile as a punishment for transgressing the three prohibitive commandments [see above]. He wandered from city to city till he arrived at Mashkemam, the capital of the Ammonites. One day, while standing in a street of that city, he was observed by the king's cook, who took him by force to the royal kitchen and compelled him to do menial work. A few days later Solomon, alleging that he was an expert in cookery, obtained the cook's permission to prepare a new dish.The king of the Ammonites was so pleased with it that he dismissed his cook and appointed Solomon in his place. A little later, Naamah, the king's daughter, fell in love with Solomon. Her family, supposing him to be simply a cook, expressed strong disapproval of the girl's behavior; but she persisted in her wish to marry Solomon, and when she had done so the king resolved to kill them both. Accordingly at his orders one of his attendants took them to the desert and left them there that they might die of hunger. Solomon and his wife, however, escaped starvation; for they did not remain in the desert. They ultimately reached a maritime city, where they bought a fish for food. In it they found a ring on which was engraved the Holy Name and which was immediately recognized by Solomon as his own ring. He then returned to Jerusalem, drove Asmodeus away, and reoccupied his throne." It may be noticed that this story also is at variance with I Kings xiv. 21, where it appears that Solomon had married Naamah in David's lifetime. According to Midrash al-Yithallel (Jellinek, l.c. vi. 106 et seq.), God sent Asmodeus to depose Solomon, as a punishment for the king's sin. Agreeing with Giṭ. l.c. as to the means by which the fraud of Asmodeus was exposed, the narrative continues as follows (Midr. al-Yithallel, l.c.): "Benaiah sent for Solomon, and asked him how his deposition had happened. Solomon replied that when sitting one day in his palace a storm had hurled him to a great distance and that since then he had been deprived of his reason. Benaiah then asked him for a sign, and he said: 'At the time of my coronation my father placed one of my hands in thine and the other in that of Nathan the prophet; then my mother kissed my father's head.' These facts having been ascertained to be true, Benaiah directed the Sanhedrin to write the Holy Name on pieces of parchment and to wear them on their breasts and to appear with them before the king. Benaiah, who accompanied them, took his sword and with it struck Asmodeus. Indeed, he would have killed the latter had not a bat ḳol cried: 'Touch him not: he only executed my commands.'" His Final Fate.

The disagreement among the Rabbis with regard to the personality of Solomon extends also to his future life ("'olam ha-ba"). According to Rab, the members of the Great Synagogue purposed including Solomon among those denied a share in the future life, when the image of David appeared, imploring them not to do so. The vision, however, was not heeded; nor was a fire from heaven, which licked the seats on which they sat, regarded until a bat ḳol forbade them to do as they had purposed (Sanh. 104b; Yer. Sanh. x. 2; Cant. R. i. 1). On the other hand, Solomon is considered to resemble his father in that all his sins were forgiven by God (Cant. R. l.c.). Moreover, David is said to have left a son worthy of him (B. B. 116a). When R. Eliezer was asked for his opinion of Solomon's future life, he gave his pupils an evasive answer, showing that he had formed no opinion concerning it (Tosef., Yeb. iii. 4; Yoma 66b; comp. Tos. ad loc.).

The Rabbis attribute to Solomon the following "taḳḳanot": 'erubin (see 'Erub); washing of hands; the recitation of the passage beginning "We-'al ha-bayit ha-gadol" and, together with David, of that beginning "U-bene Yerushalayim," both of which occur in the benediction recited after a meal (Ber. 48b; Shab. 14b; 'Er. 21b). Bibliography:

Allg. Zeit. des Jud. 1890, pp.445 et seq.; Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, i. 350 et seq., ii. 440 et seq.; R. Färber, König Salomon in der Tradition, Vienna, 1902; M. Grünbaum, Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Sprach- und Sagenkunde, pp. 22 et seq., 167 et seq., Berlin, 1901; idem, Neue Beiträge zur Semitischen Sagenkunde, pp. 190 et seq., ib. 1893; E. Hoffmann, Salamon Király Legendája, Budapest, 1890; Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. xviii. 38, 57.

—In Arabic Literature:

Solomon is the subject of a large number of traditions and legends in Arabic literature, in which he completely overshadows in importance his father, David. Solomon is spoken of as the messenger of God ("rasul Allah"), and is in a way a prototype of Mohammed. Hence the importance assigned to his relations with the Queen of Sheba, the submission of whose country is taken to mean the submission of Arabia. The letter addressed to her, summoning her to accept Islam, begins with the same formula ("Bi-ism Allah al-Raḥman al-Raḥim") as that used in the documents issued by Mohammed. The name Solomon is given to all great kings, and it is related that there were a number of Solomons, or universal kings, who lived before the creation of Adam (D'Herbelot, in "Bibliothèque Orientale," v. 369). Miraculous Power.

Solomon is represented as having authority over spirits, animals, wind, and water, all of which obeyed his orders by virtue of a magic ring set with the four jewels given him by the angels that had power over these four realms. A similar ring is mentioned in stories of the "Arabian Nights." The power inherent in the ring is shown by the following story: It was Solomon's custom to take off the ring when he was about to wash, and to give it to one of his wives, Amina, to hold. On one occasion, when the ring was in Amina's keeping, the rebellious spirit Sakhr took on Solomon's form and obtained the ring. He then seated himself on the throne and ruled for forty days, during which time the real king wandered about the country, poor and forlorn. On the fortieth day Sakhr dropped the ring into the sea; there it was swallowed by a fish, which was caught by a poor fisherman and given to Solomon for his supper. Solomon cut open the fish, found the ring, and returned to power. His forty days' exile had been sent in punishment for the idolatry practised in his house for forty days, although unknown to him, by one of his wives (Koran, sura xxxviii. 33-34; Baiḍawi, ii. 187; Ṭabri, "Annales," ed. De Goeje, i. 592 et seq.). As a Judge.

Solomon's superiority to David is shown in his judgments. While still a child he renders decisions reversing those previously given by his father, as in the famous case, related in the Old Testament, of the two women claiming the one child. In the Arabic tradition a wolf has carried away the child of one of the women, both of whom claim a surviving child. David decides in favor of the elder woman, but Solomon starts to divide the child with a knife, whereupon the younger woman protests andreceives the child (Bokhari, "Recueil des Traditions Mahometanes," ii. 364, Leyden, 1864). So in the decision regarding the sheep which has devastated a field (sura xxi. 78, 79; Baiḍawi, i. 621; Ṭabari, l.c. i. 573), and in the judgment concerning the treasure discovered in a field after it has been sold, and which is claimed by both buyer and seller (Weil, "Biblical Legends of the Mussulmans," p. 192), Solomon's opinion is held to be superior to David's. When the judges of the realm objected to having one so young interfere in their counsels, David proposed that Solomon be examined publicly before a tribunal of lawyers. This was done, whereupon Solomon not only answered all questions as soon as they were put, but confounded his judges by asking them questions which they could not answer (Weil, l.c. pp. 193-196). As a Warrior.

In Arabic tradition, unlike the Biblical and later Jewish, Solomon is a great warrior. Various warlike expeditions of his are mentioned, and it was the daughter of the conquered King of Sidon who introduced idolatry into his house. His love for horses led him to forget at one time the afternoon prayer (sura xxxviii. 30-31): he had become so much interested in inspecting a thousand horses drawn up before him that the time for prayer passed unnoticed; in repentance therefor he killed the horses. On another occasion he boasted that seventy wives would bear him seventy sons, every one of whom would be a warrior. Unfortunately he forgot to add "if God will," in consequence of which he had only one son, who was misshapen and unfit to be a soldier (Bokhari, l.c. ii. 364; Baiḍawi, ii. 187). Queen of Sheba.

Solomon's interview with the Queen of Sheba and the events leading up to it are narrated in great detail, as befitting their importance in the history of Islam. Solomon in a dream is advised by Abraham (according to some, after the building of the Temple) to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca. After completing this he proceeds to Yemen, being carried by the winds through the air on a green silk carpet, upon which are assembled men, beasts, and devils, while birds fly overhead in close ranks, so as to form a canopy. On the journey Solomon notices the absence of the hoopoe, or lapwing (Arabic "hudhud"), and threatens it with dire punishment. When the bird returns it appeases the king's anger by reporting the wonderful things it has beheld, telling of Queen Bilkis, her marvelous history and beauty, and of her kingdom. Solomon at once despatches the bird with a letter to Bilkis, bidding her embrace the faith or prepare to be conquered by his hosts. She devises various plans to test his reputed knowledge, but finally, being satisfied that he is all that is claimed for him and more, submits herself with her kingdom to Solomon. An account of the splendor of the reception accorded Bilkis by Solomon and of the puzzles and riddles which she propounded and he solved may be found in sura xxvii. 15-45 and the commentaries on that passage (Baiḍawi and Zamakhshari), in Ṭabari, i. 576-586, and elsewhere. For other stories concerning Solomon, his dealings with the spirit Sakhr, his building of the Temple, the stone which cut stone without noise, and a comparison of Solomon with Jemshid (comp. Grünbaum), see the works mentioned in the bibliography below. Death of Solomon.

Solomon died at the age of fifty-three, having reigned forty years. As the building of the Temple was not finished at his death and he was afraid that the jinn would not continue to work thereon if he were not there to command them, the angel of death took his soul while he was leaning upon his staff, praying. His body remained in that position a year, until the jinn had finished the Temple, when a worm that had been gnawing at the staff caused it to crumble to pieces; Solomon's body fell, and the jinn discovered that he was dead. It is said that Solomon collected the books of magic that were scattered throughout his realm, and locked them in a box, which he put under his throne to prevent their being used. After his death the jinn, so as to make people believe that Solomon had been a sorcerer, declared that these books had been used by him; many believed the statement to be true, but the accusation was a malicious falsehood. Bibliography:

Bokhari, Recueil des Traditions Mahometanes, ed. Krehl, Leyden, 1864; commentaries on the Koran (Baidawi and Zamakhshari); D'Herbelot, in Bibliothèque Orientale, v. 367-375; M. Grünbaum, Neue Beiträge zur Semitischen Sagenkunde, pp. 189-240, Leyden, 1893 (cites Arabic authors); Hughes, Dictionary of Islam; Koran, suras xxi. 81, 82; xxvii. 15-45; xxxiv. 11-13; xxxviii. 29-30; Ṭabari, Annales, ed. De Goeje, i. 572-597 (see also Index); Weil, Biblical Legends of the Mussulmans, pp. 200-248.

Murder of Joab and Shimei. —Critical View:

The Biblical data concerning the character and deeds of Solomon are not of uniform historical value. As authentic beyond question must pass the account of his elevation to the throne (II Sam. xii. 24; I Kings i. 5 et seq.); the violent removal of Adonijah, the rightful heir, as well as of his supporters (ib. i. 6; ii. 13 et seq., 28); and the murder of Joab and Shimei (ib. ii. 36 et seq.). That in resorting to these measures Solomon merely executed his father's injunction is an afterthought (ib. ii. 5 et seq.) interpolated to cleanse Solomon's memory from the stigma. This is apparent through comparison with the more trustworthy accounts of the manner in which Solomon's agents were rewarded (Benaiah, ib. ii. 35, iv. 4; Zadok, ib. iv. 4; Nathan's sons, ib. iv. 5). That Solomon showed political sagacity is authenticated by the narratives, resting on good foundations, concerning his alliances by treaty or marriage with neighboring dynasties, the erection of fortresses, and the organization of his army after Egyptian models (see Eduard Meyer, "Gesch. des Alterthums," i., § 319); and under him the process of absorbing the non-Hebrew aboriginal population was carried to a certain culmination which contributed not a little toward making his reign a peaceful one (I Kings ix. 20). Similarly the story of his extensive building operations (ib. vi. 1, ix. 11) and that of the redistricting of the empire for taxing purposes reflect actual conditions. The Building of the Temple.

A critical sifting of the sources leaves the picture of a petty Asiatic despot, remarkable, perhaps, only for a love of luxury and for polygamous inclinations. Solomon certainly could not hinder Edom's independence under Hadad (I Kings xi. 14 et seq.)—anevent which could not have taken place at the beginning of his reign; otherwise the Hebrew king could not have sailed from Ezion-geber. The rise of Damascus (ib. xi. 23 et seq.) was another fatal check to his foreign policy. His naval excursions were planned not so much with a view to promoting commerce as with an eye to securing the appointments regarded as indispensable for the proper equipment of the court of an Oriental despot (ib. x. 22, 28 et seq.; II Chron. i. 16 et seq.). Nor was the building of the Temple an act of particular devotion to Yhwh, as the facts show that Solomon did not scruple to erect sanctuaries to other deities (I Kings xi. 4 et seq.). These edifices contributed to the splendor of the capital, and were a source of revenue to the court; but Solomon's administration of the country, by its disregard of the old tribal units and its unequal assessment of taxes, rearoused the slumbering jealousy and discontent of the northern section, and did more than anything else to disrupt David's empire. In the Deuteronomic Historiography.

Later, when the Temple had actually become the religious center of the Judean kingdom, its builder, Solomon, was naturally credited with the religious convictions of the age. The prayer at the dedication (ib. viii. 14 et seq.) reflects the Deuteronomic prophetic point of view. The young Solomon is represented in this Deuteronomic historiography as one of the wisest of men (e.g., in the narratives of his dream and of his judgment), far famed for his wealth, which was the reward for his craving for wisdom, but still more renowned for his wonderful sagacity, his proverbs and sayings, so that the Queen of Sheba could not resist the desire to pay him a visit. According to this historiography, only after old age had robbed him of his mental powers did Solomon fall a victim to the blandishments of the alien women in his harem, and thus was held accountable for the empire's decline (ib. xi. 1 et seq.).

Deut. xvii. 14 gives a more accurate account of the conditions under Solomon. Later, the Chronicler removes every reproach from Solomon. He does not mention Adonijah's assassination, the rebellion of Hadad and Rezon, or Solomon's idolatry and polygamy. In keeping with the tendency to connect some great man with certain literary compositions—e.g., Moses with the Law, David with the Psalms—Solo mon now passes for the author par excellence of gnomic sayings—of the Proverbs and even of other "Wisdom" books, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, and Psalms (Ps. lxxii., cxxvii.; comp. the Psalms of Solomon). Later rabbinical and Mohammedan lore continues along similar lines to establish Solomon as a veritable wonder of wisdom, learning, power, and Splendor (comp. Stade, "Geschichte des Volkes Israel," i. 310 et seq.). —Apocryphal Works:

Solomon, having been the wise king par excellence, was regarded later as the author of various works treating of all the sciences and particularly of magic. The legend of Solomon and Asmodeus (see Solomon in Rabbinical Literature) was current as early as the time of Josephus, who states ("Ant." viii. 2, § 5) that God enabled Solomon to acquire skill to expel demons and that he left collections of incantations and directions as to the use of exorcisms (comp. Origen, "Epistola ad Mattheam," xxvi. 63; Nicetas Choniates, "Annales," p. 95). Other writings of Solomon are quoted by Eusebius ("Præparatio Evangelica," ix. 31), Suidas (s.v. Ἐζεκιας), and Michael Glyeas ("Annales," ii. 183), while Maimonides ("Yad," Ḳiddush ha-Ḥodesh, xvii., and elsewhere) ascribes to Solomon works on mathematics, and Shem-Ṭob Falaquera (in "Sefer ha-Ma'alot") attributes to him works on physics and theology. Arabic Works.

The chief source of the pseudo-Solomonic works is Arabic literature, in which connection the legend that Solomon was the inventor of the Arabic and Syriac scripts is of interest. It is, indeed, supposed by the Arabs that Solomon wrote orginally in Arabic various scientific works. Abraham Jagel in the fourth part of his "Bet Ya'ar ha-Lebanon" (quoted in "Kerem Ḥemed," ii. 41 et seq.) says that Solomon wrote his scientific works in another language than Hebrew so that they might be understood by the foreign kings who came to hear his wisdom (comp. I Kings v. 14). Besides two works of Solomon quoted in the Zohar (see below), Johanan Allemanno enumerates in "Sha'ar ha-Ḥesheḳ," the introduction to his "Ḥesheḳ Shelomoh," thirty works of Solomon taken chiefly from the writings of Abu Aflaḥ al-Sarakosti and Apollonius of Tyana. The Arabic work of the former on palm-trees, the title of which was probably "Kitab al-Nakhlah," was translated (in the fourteenth century ?) into Hebrew under the title "Sefer ha-Tamar" or "Sefer ha Temarim." The chief authority in this work is Solomon; and the author, besides, quotes twenty aphorisms ("ma'amarim") of that king, each of which, with the exception of the first, refers to a special work. There is, however, a difference, with regard to the titles of a few works, between the "Sefer ha-Temarim" and the "Sha'ar ha Ḥesheḳ" as well as between the two manuscripts of the latter work. Several other works ascribed to Solomon are enumerated by Fabricius in his "Codex Pseudepigraphus Veteris Testamenti," i. 1014 et seq. Hebrew Works.

The following is a list of the pseudo-Solomonic works, beginning with those which are better known: (1) "Sifra di-Shelomoh Malka," or "The Book of King Solomon," quoted in the Zohar (i. 76b et passim, iii. 10b et passim). As this work is once (iii. 193b) referred to as "Sifra de-Ḥokmeta di-Shelomoh Malka," i.e., "The Book of Wisdom of King Solomon," it would seem that the Wisdom of Solomon is meant (comp. Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." iii. 1033). (2) "Sifra de-Ashmedai," a work quoted in the Zohar under various titles signifying respectively "The Book of Asmodeus, Which He Gave to King Solomon" (Zohar iii. 194b), "The Book of Asmodeus the King (ib. 77a), "The Magic Book of Asmodeus" (ib. iii. 43a), "The Magic Book Which Asmodeus Taught King Solomon" (ib. ii. 128a), and, finally, "The Book Which Asmodeus Left for King Solomon" (ib. iii. 19a). This work is supposed to be the book of magic containing formulas for subjugating demons and the authorship of which is so often ascribed to Solomon; it may be identical with the"Kitab al-Uhud," mentioned by D'Herbelot in his "Bibliothèque Orientale" (comp. Wolf l.c. iii. 1035). (3)"Sefer ha-Refu'ot," on medicaments. This work, which is referred to by Abu Aflah in his citation of the fourteenth of Solomon's aphorisms, is known from other sources also; thus Naḥmanides, also, in the introduction to his commentary on the Pentateuch mentions the "Sefer ha-Refu'ot" written by Solomon. Abraham Jagel (l.c.) relates that in his time there came to Rome, from the King of Armenia to Pope Clement VIII., an envoy who disparaged the European physicians, declaring that in his own country they used medical works left to them by Solomon which were more nearly complete and more systematic than the European works. Jagel thinks it is quite possible that the Armenians might possess medical works of Solomon inasmuch as they have always remained in their own country, while the Jews, being driven from one country to another, would be likely to lose them. It is very likely that this is the book of medicine which Hezekiah concealed (see Hezekiah in Rabbinical Literature). The "Claviculæ Salomonis."

Closely connected with the last-mentioned work is (4) "Sefer Raziel," as at the end of the description of the book of medicine transmitted by the angel Raziel to Noah (Jellinek, "B. H." iii. 160; see Noah in Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature) it is said: "To Solomon was revealed the book of secrets ["Sefer ha-Razim"] by means of which he ruled over demons and everything in the world" (see Raziel, Book of). It seems that the authority who ascribed the "Book of Raziel" to Solomon confounded "Sefer Raziel" and "Sefer-ha-Razim." (5) "Mafteaḥ Shelomoh," containing incantations, and mentioned by Gedaliah ibn Yaḥya ("Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah, p. 80a, Amsterdam, 1697) as extant in Hebrew. This work exists in various translations (Latin, French, Italian, and German), and consists mainly of two parts: the first containing secrets useful for every kind of divination; the second, different kinds of pentacles. The title in the Latin and German translations is "Claviculæ Salomonis," extended in the German translation of 1626 to "Claviculæ Salomonis et Theosophia Pneumatica." In the Latin translation is a long introduction in the form of a dialogue between Solomon and his son Rehoboam in which the title of the work is cited as "Secretum Secretorum" (Secret of Secrets). "But," Solomon says, "I named it also Cla vicula,' because, like a key which opens a treasure, so this work introduces thee into the magical arts." The introduction says further that when the Babylonian philosophers decided to renew Solomon's tomb, they found therein this work, enclosed in an ivory case; but that none of them could understand it, they being unworthy to possess it. Then one of them, the Greek Zoe, proposed that they should fast and pray to God for intelligence. Zoe alone, however, carried out this proposal; and an angel revealed to him the mysteries of the book. Works Indorsed by the Sages.

The following four works are mentioned by Allemanno as quoted by Apollonius: (6) "Beḥirat ha-Middot," on the choice of attributes, perhaps identical with the "Sefer ha-Beḥirot" quoted by Abu Aflaḥ. (7) "Ha-Mar'ot ha-Elyonot" (The Upper Mirrors). (8) "Yemli'ush" (?). (9) "Melakah Elohit," or "The Divine Work." All these four works are supposed to have been written by Solomon at the angels dictation. Steinschneider thinks that the "Melakah Elohit" was composed by Apollonius himself, and that it may be identical with the work cited by Allemanno in another passage of the "Sha'ar ha-Ḥesheḳ"as "Meleket Muskelet." According to Sylvestre de Sacy (in "Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits Arabes," iv. 119), the full Arabic title of this work is "Sirr al-Khaliḳah wa-Ṣana'at al-Ṭabi'ah" (The Secret of Creation and the Work of Nature). It is therefore identical with a work which is ascribed to Solomon and the Hebrew title of which is "Sod ha-Ṭib'im," mentioned in Jacob Provençal's responsum published in the "Dibre Ḥakamim" (Metz, 1849) of Eliezer Ashkenazi. (10)"Sefer ha-Miẓpon," a work on alchemy. The other works quoted by Abu Aflaḥ are: (11) "Sefer ha-Nisyonot," on experiments; (12)"Sefer-ha-Ziḳnah," on old age; (13) "Sefer ha-Meshalim," on parables; (14) "Sefer ha-Shelemut," on perfection; (15) "Sefer ha-Ma'ala lim," or "The Book of Works", (16) "Sefer ha-Yiḥud," on unity; (17) "Sefer ha-Derishah," on research; (18) "Sefer Ḳeri'at ha-Shemirah," on the observance of certain customs; (19) "Sefer ha-Raẓon," on the will; (20) "Sefer Gillui ha-Shaḳrut," on the detection of falsehood; (21) "Sefer ha-Yashar"; (22) "Sefer-ha-Baḳḳashah," on supplication, missing in Allemanno's list; (23) "Sefer ha-Emunah," on faith; (24) "Sefer ha-Beḥirot" (comp. No. 6); (25) "Sefer ha-Nebu'ah," on prophecy, not mentioned by Steinschneider; (26) "Sefer Shemirut ha-Zeruz," on promptness; (27) "Sefer Kittot ha-Ḥakamim," on the various sects of wise men; (28) "Sefer-ha-Takliyot," on the end of all things. Allemanno calls attention to three works of Solomon particularly recommended by sages, one of which is the "Sefer Raziel" (see No. 4) and the other two are (29) "Meleket Mushkelet" (comp. No. 9), and (30) "Sefer ha-Almadil." This title, probably from the Arabic "al-mudhil" (= "the secret revealer"), figures in the Latin manuscript No. 765 of the Leipsic Library ("Catalogo Kühtzii," No. 11) as "Almodal de Duodecim Choris Angelorum in Aquis Supra-Cœlestibus." Wolf (l.c. i. 111) calls the work "Almandel," deriving it from the Arabic "al-mandal" (= "a circle"), that is to say, the circle described by magicians on the ground and in the center of which they sit when in voking demons. The Leipsic catalogue enumerates the following works by Solomon: (31) Speculum Salomonis" (in German), on metallurgy (comp. No. 7); (32) "Preparatio Speculi Salomonis Insignis," also in German; (33) "Semiphoras" (), that is to say, the Tetragrammaton, a treatise in German on the unutterable name of God; (34) "Septem Sigilla Planetarum"; (35) "Anelli Negromantici dal Salomone" (in Italian), on necromancy; (36) "Verum Chaldaicum Vinculum," also with the German title "Wahrhafte Zubereitung des so Genanten Cinguli Salomonis oder Salomons Schlange"; (37) "Beschwerungen der Olympischen Geister"(38) "Salomonis Trismosini," called in the Leyden catalogue (p. 367) "Criszmosin," and described as a treatise on colors; Wolf (l.c. iv. 983), however, describes it as a cabalistic work.

Albertus Magnus in his "Speculum Astrologicum" (quoted by Fabricius, l.c. p. 1051) mentions the following four works of Solomon's: (39) "Liber Quatuor-Annulorum" (40) "De Novem Candariis [Candelariis ?]"; (41) "De Tribus Figuris Spirituum"; "De Sigillis ad Dæmoniacos." Trithemius (in Fabricius, l.c. p. 1052) mentions: (42) "Lamené" (?), perhaps identical with No. 8; (43) "Liber Pentaculorum," probably identical with No. 5; (44) "De Officiis Spirituum"; (45) "De Umbris Idearum"; (46) "Hygromantia ad Filium Roboam"; (47) Τὼν Σολομωνακῶν Εϊδησις, mentioned by Fabricius (l.c. pp. 1046, 1056) from other sources; (48) "Somnia Salomonis" (Venice, 1516); and (49) "Liber de Lapide, Philosophico" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1625).

See also Psalms of Solomon; Solomon, Testament of; and Wisdom of Solomon. Bibliography:

Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p.191, No. 640; Fabricius, Codex Pseudepigraphicus, i. 1014 et seq., Hamburg and Leipsic, 1718; I. S. Reggio, in Kerem Hemed, ii. 41 et seq.; Steinschneider, in Ha-Karmel, vi. 116, 125; idem, in Cat. Bodl. cols. 2289-2303; Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. iii., No. 1967; iv., No. 1967; Winer, B. R. s.v. Salomoh.

Tambahan data tentang Tapak Raja Sulaiman / Salomo di Simalungun dan Legenda Marga Damanik Gambar Tapak Raja Sulaiman Di Simalungun, rajah ini dianggap kesaktian, tangkal dari perbuatan jahat. Juga dibuku Jalannya hukum adat Simalungun : gorga tapak Raja Suleman, habonaran do bona / disusun oleh Jahutar Damanik. silahkan klik link dibawah ini : http://s524.photobucket.com/user/omtatok/media/Tapakrajasulaiman.jp...http://archive.kaskus.co.id/thread/1223113/60http://books.google.co.id/books/about/Jalannya_hukum_adat_Simalungu...http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001289574http://damanik.org/info/98-tentang-kami/149-legenda-marga-damanik.html

LEGENDA MARGA DAMANIK

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Damanik adalah satu marga di antara Marga Nan Empat pada suku Simalungun. Sebutan Damanik muncul dari suatu perkembangan bahasa antara golongan masyarakat pada zaman permulaan. Dimaksudkan sebagai nama pengenal dari salah satu seorang anggota rombongan (mission) yang tiba berlabuh dan berkemah di Batubara di daerah Kabupaten Asahan sekarang.

Yang digelari Damanik dalam legenda adalah seorang Parbapaan artinya seorang yang dituakan, tempat bertanya hal-hal yang diperlukan tentang sesuatu dalam ilmu yang terkandung pada alam semesta, dilihat dari Parhalaan, mempunyai ilmu pengobatan dan sebagainya, pada zaman itu disebut: Datu (dukun). Karenanya oknumya dianggap manusia yang mengetahui rahasia-rahasia alam semesta.

Sebagai Datu sering terlihat dalam pakaian jubah yang ditaburi manik-manik (permata) pada waktu memanjatkan mantera dalam upacara kepercayaan yang dianut pada masa itu. Bila dipertautkan dengan zaman kejadiaannya, dengan suatu masa manurut pra-sejarah kira-kira 800-600 sM (baca pra-sejarah). Pada zamannya Kerajaan Sulaiman di Asia Muka, pakaian jubah para Imam, sama bentuk dan perlengkapannya sebagai yang dipakai Datu dimaksud. Bila demikian halnya tentu sang Datu menganut suatu keyakinan di samping ilmu-ilmu yang lain yang telah diuraikan diatas. Keyakinan mana jelas dalam masa pra-sejarah (1000 sM) berupa suatu ajaran yang berasal dari Nabi Musa terkenal dengan ajaran Dasa Sila (sepuluh perintah Allah) yang menganggap bahwa manusia sama adanya di hadapan Allah.

Dari ilmu yang dimiliki serta ajaran yang dibawa oknum tersebut disebut Datu dan dalam istilah ajaran Agama sekarang disamakan dengan Imam atau dalam satu operasi (mission) dianggap sebagai Suhu. Demikianlah kemungkinan-kemungkinan sehingga Datu tersebut akhirnya disebut dalam cerita Damanik singkatan dari Datupar Manik-manik menjadi Damanik (Datu = Da; Manik-bergabung dalam istilah nama pengenal= Damanik). Dalam karirnya diakui menjadi Parbapaan Damanik digunakan para keturunannya menjadi Marga. Konon dari antara generasi penerus, terbitlah berita; seorang Raja dan Puangbolon (permaisuri) melahirkan seorang anak dengan anugerah Tuhan, memiliki satu-satunya mata, terletak di kening di antara dua bayangan mata pada tempat biasa, sedangkan yang dapat melihat terang menyala (bening bercahaya) hanya satu-satunya mata, disebut “Parmata manunggal”.

Aneh dan ajaib menurut selera, apa yang tak akan terjadi Tuhanlah yang punya kuasa, tidak usah dibawa malu oleh keluarga. Pemberian Tuhan harus diterima dengan lapang dada, inilah namanya Hikayat Legenda Damanik marganya. Legenda serupa juga dimiliki marga Daulay di Tapanuli Selatan. Mulanya tersebar berita aneh dan ajaib menusia terlahir di dunia orang tua bingung. Datu-datu memanjatkan mantera, timbul duga menurut selera ;ihat tanda (Parhalaan) dapat petunjuk jangan sampai salah menduga.

Menurut cerita anjuran Datu Ulpukan (ramalan) si anak akan membawa bencana atas Kerajaan Ayahandanya karena itu sebaiknya si anak dibuang untuk mencegah timbulnya bencana kemudian. Tetapi sang Ayah dan Ibunda bertekad memelihara sampai remaja. Pada masa remajanya banyak peristiwa aneh terjadi atas dirinya. Bila ayam atau binatang peliharaan lainnya terkena pukulan si anak, pada ketika itu ayam pun mati, dan bila dia menjaga padi maka tidak ada burung yang berani mendekat. Dan banyak lagi peristiwa lain yang mengganggu perasaan masyarakat, akhirnya Sang Raja dan Ibunda mengizinkn si anak pergi mengembara untuk menuntut ilmu. Bekal untuk perjalanan dikasih seekor kerbau dan bahan lainnya. Menurut cerita selama pengembaraan kerbau bawaannya diganti dengan lembu, diganti dengan kuda dan seterusnya diganti dengan kambing-kambing diganti dengan ayam namanya Manuk jagur warna kelabu berbulu ikal (jagur). Ayam Jagur inilah dalam legenda selanjutnya ayam ini saktitetap menang di medan laga. Merantau dan mengembara itulah kerjanya dari Huta ke Huta, menerobos hutan menyeberangi sungai (bah) berbuat baik menolak bala, lama kelamaan dikenalseorang yang arief dan bijaksana. Datu Bolon Mandraguna disebut dalam cerita, keadaan mata jadi bahan bicara, disebut ia dalam kata Datu Parmata Manunggal. Masyarakat mengenalnya dalam cerita, sesuai dengan pandangan orang yang pernah melihatnya. Di tiap tempat yang dikunjunginya, masing-masing menyebut gelaran sebagai nama pengenalnya.

Di satu tempat disebut Datu Parmata Manunggal, di lain kampong menyebut Raja Manualang, di egeri sana mengatakan Datu Parmata Tunggal dan dikampung anu menggelari Datu Partiga-tiga Sihapunjung.. Namun demikian banyaknya gelaran terdapat unsur Tunggal atau satu dalam makna sebagai penunjuk orangnya hanya satu.

Di satu pihak ada cerita Datu Parmata Manunggal diangkat menjadi panglima kerajaan Nagur oleh Ayahandanya dengan jabatan panglima perang yang bermarkas di Bandar Meriah dengan wilayah pantai Timur Selat Malaka bagian Asahan dan Batubara sekitarnya. Armada pasukannya digempur kerajaan Singosari oleh kuasanya Panglima Indrawarman dari kerajaan Jambi. Pasukan panglima Nagur digempur habis-habisan di benteng pertahanan Bukit Kuba dekat kota perdagangan Simalungun, lokasi itu terkenal sekarang dengan Kramat – Kubah perdagangan tem[at dimana Beruk dan Monyet hidup berkeliaran berdampingan dengan manusia pengunjung sambil bersenda gurau; Sang Panglima hilang raib di benteng pertahanan di Bukit kubah dan pasukannya menjelma menjadi Beruk dan Monyet penghuni Bukit Kubah yang dikenal keramat itu.

Berkaitan dengan raibnya Sang Panglima munculnya keyakinan yang menimbukan kepercayaan masyarakat bahwa Sang Panglima dianggap menjelma menjadi keramat (=Sinumbah), tetapi cerita lain mengungkapkan bahwa Sang Panglima muncul di Negeri Uluan dengan nama samaran Raja Manualang, bersama tinggal dengan kenalannya Raja Mangatur Manurung dari Sionggang Negeri Uluan, akhirnya mengembala hingga Datu Bolon Parmata Manunggal tiadak pernah berdiam di suatu tempat, melanglang buana, memberikan pertolongan kepada yang susah, turun tangan menjauhkan bala.

Mengembara sambil kerja sebagai Pandai Besi itulah bakatnya, hasil kerja ditukarkan untuk belanja.

Punya kegemaran sebagai rekreasi hidupnya, melagakan ayam sakti miliknya, warna kelabu berbulu ikal, asal dilepas tetap menang di Medan laga.

Lawan menduga ayam Laga (Manuk Jagur) sakti mandra gun a sukar dicari jadi tandingannya. Waqnti-wanti bagi keluarga, pantang dibunuh warna serupa harus dipelihara pembawa Tuah.

Terbetik berita Datu Parmata Manunggal terlihat di lereng sampai ke puncak gunung. Oleh pengambil kayu dan rotan di hutan pegunungan sewaktu-waktu terlintas dalam pandangan, seseorang muncul mengepit seekor Ayam disebut Manuk-manuk (dua kepala) di hutan pegunungan. Berita segera tersiar banyak sudah yang mempersaksikan, sebagai petunjuk lokasi apa yang diceritakan, pegunungan tersebut dinamai Gunung Simanuk-manuk (terletak sisebelah Timur dari gunung Bukit Barisan) berpinggiran pantai pada Laut Tawar (sekaran dinamai Danau Toba).

Bahasa Belanda “Tobameer” (1860) yang dimaksudkan Tao Toba sebelum tahun 1860 ialah Danau sekitar Balige.

Datu Parmata Manunggal tiba di puncak gunung Dolog Sijambak Bahir (Gunung merangkul langit) 2245 m dari permukaan laut.

Lepas pandang arah pantai, terbentang suatu Lautan pantai dalam wilayah negeri Sipolha.

Dari puncak menyusuri lereng gunung tiba di suatu kampung Lumban Tidang, orang bersujud sembah, aneh manusia ajaib muncul di depan mata, rasa takjub mempengaruhi jiwa, Raja Huta turut menghadap tunduk pada junjungan manusia sakti.

Pendek cerita Tuhan junjungan jangan sampai berlalu,dicarikan jodoh Putri Raja cantik dan ayu Bou Napuan (si dara manja) putri tunggal Raja Mangatur Manurung dari negeri Uluan di Sionggang/ Sijambur, diambil ibu-suri (Puang Bolon) Kerajaan Sipolha.

Jiwa pengembara kambuh lagi, sedang Permaisuri (puang Bolon) boratan rumah (berbadan dua), untuk kedua kali, ditinggal pergi mendaki gunung Dolog Sijambak Bahir.

Dari puncak gunung lepas pandang ke ufuk Timur terhampar Hutan padang belantara nun jauh suntuk pandangan mata, kaki dilangkahkan menyerobos hutan belantara sangat angker (Harangan Simalingga), tiba di suatu delta (pulo Holang), membuat perkemahan sambil bekerja sebagai pandai besi (sekarang disebut Pamatang Siattar).

Tumbak, parang hasil karya, dipertukarkan untuk belanja, alat-alat besi beredar sudah, Raja Huta merasa curiga, harus diusir jangan sampai berkuasa.

Raja Jumorlang sebagai penguasa harus bertindak dengan segera. Perintah pada Jagoroha (Panglima) orang asing tangkap bawak segera. Parangan Panglima bergegas dengan pasukan berkuda, gendrang perang berbunyi, pasukan bergerak menuju tempat sembunyi orang Sakti. Panglima (Jagoroha) melirik kekanan dan kekiri, kumis dilintangkan memperhatikan situasi.

Orang Sakti tegak di depan diluar dugaan, tanpa sadar Jagoroha bersujud mohon Paduka sudi berkunjung kerumah Bolon (Istana Raja). Sang Datu menyuruh pergi, Panglima kembali sembari ngeri manusia sakti tidak peduli.

Raja marah, ayo…. segera pergi harus dibunuh pengganggu negeri, demikianlah hikayat terjadi perang tanding antara Raja vs Manusia sakti, sanggur dibuka, pedang berbunyi, jumpa imbang Raja ingin segera mengakhiri, pasang ilmu jogi, kebatinan mengimbangi Raja nekad melagakan diri akhirnya mangkat di ujung tumbaknya sendiri. Perajurit melarikan diri. Jagorohan memberanikan diri mohon mayat Raja dibawak pergi ibu suri berkabung tujuh hari berkurungdiri duka cita melanda Negeri.

Janda muda (ibu suri) pasrah demi keselamatan negeri, sesal dihati melawan manusia sakti.

Panglima siutus menjemput Pandai Basi beliau menyatakan turut berduka cita atas apa yang terjadi, sangat menyesal tidak dapat turut pergi, perkenankanlah hamba sebagai Pandai Besi.

Utusan kembali sambil menyesali diri, apa akal bahaya akan melanda negeri, tekad dibulatkan kiranya Ibunda janda turut menjemput manusia sakti.

Datu Parmata Manunggal dengan rasa pedih bersedia berbakti demi rakyat negeri. Hati terpikat Ibunda Raja juita dikawinkan resmi. Manusia sakti membentuk kerajaan yang dinamai sasuai dengan keadaan tempat ia berkemah di daratan Pulo Holang sebagai pertanda sejarah kemenangan di arena pertarungan dinamai Siattar, lalu dinobatkan sebagai Ra-ja Siattar atas mupakat Harajan ex Kerajaan Jumorlang.

Rja Siattar pada Kerajaan Siattar kemudian diketahui namanya Raja Namartuah marga Damanik.

Dalam paduan Legenda ternyata Raja Jumorlang adalah keturunan dari nenek yang bermargakan Damanik yang serupa marga keturunan dari Raja Namartuah dari marga Damanik.

Sebelum kejadian pertarungan antara dua yang bersaudara ini diketahiu oleh masyarakat bahwa penguasa daerah seanteronya adalah wilayah Kerajaan Jumorlang kemudian berganti menjadi Kerajaan Siattar. Menurut Legenda dan fakta hidup dari peradapan kedua-duanya juga adalah keturunan dari raja Nagur nenek yang bermarga Damanik.

Lintasan Legenda

Dari fakta sejarah menurut peradapan Simalungun dapat disimpulkan bahwa orang yang berketepatan sebagai Raja di wilayah masing-masing ternyata berasal dari satu keturunan Nenek moyang yang tiba di Batubara. Namun julukan Damanik (kependekan dari Datu parmanik-manik = Damanik) nama julukan tersebut menjadi marga bagi generasi. Pada satu generasi yang sama muncul 3 (tiga) orang bersaudara berketepatan sama-sama Raja di wilayah masing-masing, terdiri dari :

Raja Namartuah (Raja Siattar) dari jenis Marga Damanik Bariba anak keturunan Marahsilu (Raja Nagur yang terakhir). Raja Jumorlang (Kerajaan Jumorlang) dari jenis Marga Damanik (Bah Bolag) anak dari sorotilu (Kerajaan Manakasian). Timoraja Damanik Nagur, sanak keluarga dari Raja-raja Nagur terdahulu.

Dari 3 (tiga) jenis anak keturunan marga Damanik dalam peradaban untuk mengetahui dari antaranya siapa yang tertua, yang tengah dan yang bungsu, tidak terlihat lagi sebagai tanda-tanda pertalian dalam kekeluargaan tarombou. Tetapi dari sudut hubungan persaudaraan satu sama lain masih terdapat satu ketentuan dalam sebutan sebagai berikut : Damanik Bariba terhadap Damanik Bah Bolag, sering disebut Ompung (pengertian opung dalam istilah ini bukan seperti cucu terhadap nenek tetapi satu istilah menghormati kedudukan (=pasangapkon bahasa Simalungun). Terhadap Damanik Nagur disebut abang kepada yang tertua atau Bapak, timbal-balik artinya Damanik Nagur juga demikian halnya terhadap Damanik Bariba. Damanik Bah Bolag dan Damanik Nagur terhadap Damanik Bariba dipanggil Tuan tatapi Damanik Nagur juga dapat menyebut Abang kepada yang sebaya atau Bapak kepada yang tertua, umumnya dipanggilkan Tuan.

Jenis marga Damanik Bariba terdiri dari kelahiran 2(dua) orang Ibu dengan satu Bapak bernama Raja na – Martuah isteri pertama Puang Bolon si Bou Napuan di pematang Sipolha memperanakkan Raja Uluan Damanik dalam tingkatan kelahiran yang tertua (Tuan Kaha). Isteri kedua ialah janda almarhum Raja Jumorlang, Bou Saragih Silappuyang Puang Bolon di Pematang Siattar memperanakkan Raja Namarangis Damanik dalam tingkatan kelahiran anggini par tubuh (adik dalam tingkat kelahiran).

Dalam tarombo sering disebut Damanik Bariba yang berkediaman di Pamatang Sipolha Kaha ni partubuh, anggini harajaan. “Damanik Bariba” yang berkediaman di Pamatang Siantar menjadi pewaris mahkota kerajaan siattar. Dari perkawinan Puang Bolon Bou Saragih dari Raja Jumorlang memperanakkan seorang laki-laki, dibawak serta dalam perkawinan kedua kepada Raja Namartuah (Raja Siattar) dikenal, sesuai dengan jabatannya disebut Bah Bolag, nama Ariurung gelar Oppu Barita.

Hubungan pertalian antara Damanik di Pamatang Sipolha kepada Bah bolag, panggilan Ompung sebagai penghormatan, sebaliknya Damanik Bah Bolak kepada Damanik Bariba dari pamatang Sipolha panggilannya abang atau Ompung (dipanggil abang karena satu Ibu lain Bapak dan Ompung adalah panggilan penghormatan = pasangaphon).

Damanik Bariba dan Damanik Bah Bolag terhadap Damanik Nagur, kalau sebaya dipanggil Abang, yang tertua dipanggil Bapak (Apa), sebaliknya Damanik Nagur kepada Damanik Bariba dipanggilkan Tuan dan Damanik Bah Bolag dipanggil Abang kalau sebaya, yang lebih tua dipanggil Bapak.

Menurut Legenda keturunan damanik Nenek moyang yang pertama disebut Bariba suatu pertanda dating dari seberang lautan (=bariba). Dari antara ketiga anak keturunan generasi penerus, salah seorang tetap memakai marga yang pertama, sedangkan dua orang anak lainnya yang sama-sama munculpada masa yang bersmaan (sama derajat kelahirannya) memakai marga Damanik Bah Bolag sesuai dari jabatan yang dipangkunya yaitu anak keturunan dari Raja Jumorlang Damanik, sedangkan Damanik Nagur menyatakan dirinya anak keturunan generasi penerus dari keluarga Raja-raja Nagur yang pernah berkuasa ebagai Raja Nagur abtara tahun 500 – 1290 M.

Generasi penerus dari marga Damanik dalam tarombo diketahui menurut panggilan masing-masing menurut tempat, nama julukan dalam kemargaan diuraikan sebagai berikut :

DAMANIK :

1. Damanik Bariba anak keturunan Raja Namartuah Raja Siattar Pertama

2. Damanik Nagur (Bah Bolag) anak keturunan Raja Jumorlang yang menjadi anak tiri dari Raja Namartuah Damanik Bariba.

3. Damanik Nagur anak keturunan dari rangka keluarga Raja-raja Nagur terdahulu.

Damanik Bariba:

1. Anak keturunan Raja Uluan, Pamatang Sipolha di negeri Sijambur – Ajibata dan sebagainya. 1. Anak keturunan Raja Namaringis Raja Siattar di Pematang Siantar, Marihat,

2. Anak keturunan Partuanon Pamatang Bandar

3. Anak keturunan Partuanon Pamatang Sidamanik

4. Anak keturunan Parbapaan di Batubara (Damanik- Batubara) Dolog Malele, Bangun, Naga Huta, dan seterusnya.

5. Anak keturunan Parbapaan di Pulau Raja Damanik – Simargolong).

Damanik Bah Bolag:

Anak keturunan Raja Jumorlang diberi nama Ariurung Oppu Barita jabatan Bah Bolag (penguasa lautan) menjadi marga Damanik (Bah Bolag) berada di sekitar Pamatang Siantar.

Damanik Nagur :

Anak keturunan Damanik Nagur, Damanik Usang, Damanik Sola, Damanik Rappogos, Damanik Melayu, Damanik Bayu, Damanik Sarasa, Damanik Rih d.l.l.

Jenis Marga Damanik Nagur tersebut diatas pada umumnya berada di Pamatang Raya/Raya Kahean dan sekitarnya.

Demikianlah sebagai dasar pertalian hubungan Marga Damanik dari sejak semula sampai sekarang tetap hidup dalam peradapan Kebudayaan Simalungun pada umumnya, sebagai legenda marga Damanik pada khususnya.

Mengenai kedudukan dalam tingkatan kelahiran masih dapat jelas ialah kerangka keluarga Damanik Bariba, sedangkan bagi Damanik Nagur dan Damanik Bah Bolag masih memerlukan waktu untuk mengumpulkan bahan sebagai fakta peradapan yang sangat berguna bagi generasi penerus.

Kaitan legenda dalam Sejarah

Puanglima Parmata Tunggal adalah anak tunggal dari Raja Nagur yang terakhir menjadi Puanglima Kerajaan Nagur membantu Ayahandanya pada tahun 1295 M memimpin armada angkatan Laut terkenal dengan Kapal Perahu yang disebut “Lassaran” berhadapan dengan pasukan Panglima Kerajaan Singosari di Perairan Batubara Asahan. Armada Sang Puanglima Parmata Tunggal mengalami gempuran dari perahu-perahu besar (Jung) milik Kerajaan Singosari atas Pimpinan Panglima Indrawarman dari Kerajaan Jambi, hingga hancur. Puanglima dan pasukannya mengundurkan diri dari daerah pertempuran Sang Puanglima Parmata Tunggal bertahan di Kuba (Perdagangan).

Sang Puanglima hilang raib di Bukit Kuba akhirnya menghilang dari pandangan musuh – Sang Puanglima berhasil menyelamatkan diri melintasi hutan Asahan tembus ke Negeri Uluan Sionggung.

Beliau menyamar dengan nama Raja Manualang dikenal sebagai manusia sakti. Dari Uluan meneruskan pengembaraannya tiba di Negeri Sipolha. Akhirnya berhasil menjadi pimpinan Negeri dengan nama Kerajaan Sipolha, dikenal dengan nama Datu Parmata Mamunjung. Kemudian pergi mengembara dan berhasil menduduki Kerajaan Siattar dalam legenda “Partodas ni Raja Jumorlang” dengan nama Raja Namartuah gelar Puanglima Parmata Tunggal, alias Raja Manualang, alias Datu Parmata Mamunjung, alias Datu Parmata Manunggal, alias Datu Partiga-tiga Sihapunjung.


En mi nuevo libro LA SORPRENDENTE GENEALOGÍA DE MIS TATARABUELOS, encontrarán a este y muchos otros de sus ancestros con un resumen biográfico de cada uno. El libro está disponible en: amazon.com barnesandnoble.com palibrio.com. Les será de mucha utilidad y diversión. Ramón Rionda

In my new book LA SORPRENDENTE GENEALOGÍA DE MIS TATARABUELOS, you will find this and many other of your ancestors, with a biography summary of each of them. The book is now available at: amazon.com barnesandnoble.com palibrio.com. Check it up, it’s worth it. Ramón Rionda


Redundant, recently duplicated profile with no added information. Should not have been created in the first place! Better be eliminated!!!

Sours: https://www.geni.com/people/King-Solomon/6000000000961704236

Solomon

King of the United Kingdom of Israel and a son of David

Not to be confused with Salomon.

For other uses, see Solomon (disambiguation).

"King Solomon" redirects here. For the Ghanaian football team, see King Solomon F.C.

Solomon (; Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה‎, Šəlōmō),[a] also called Jedidiah (Hebrew יְדִידְיָהּ‎ Yəḏīḏəyāh), was, according to the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament,[3] a fabulously wealthy and wise king of the United Kingdom of Israel who succeeded his father, David.[4] The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are about 970–931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as king of the United Monarchy, which broke apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone.[5]

According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 Jewish prophets.[6] In the Quran, he is considered to be a major Islamic prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him as Sulaiman ibn Dawud (Arabic: سُلَيْمَان بْن دَاوُوْد‎, lit. 'Solomon, son of David').

The Hebrew Bible identifies Solomon as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem,[4] beginning in the fourth year of his reign using the vast wealth he and his father had accumulated; he dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel.[7] Solomon is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country.

He is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus,[8] and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field".[9] In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.[10]

Biblical account[edit]

The life of Solomon is primarily described in 2 Samuel, 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles. His two names mean "peaceful" and "friend of God", both considered "predictive of the character of his reign".[11]

Chronology[edit]

The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are derived from biblical chronology and are set from about 970 to 931 BCE.[12] Regarding the Davidic dynasty, to which King Solomon belongs, its chronology can be checked against datable Babylonian and Assyrian records at a few points, and these correspondences have allowed archaeologists to date its kings in a modern framework.[citation needed][dubious – discuss] According to the most widely used chronology, based on that by Old Testament professor Edwin R. Thiele, the death of Solomon and the division of his kingdom would have occurred in the spring of 931 BCE.

Childhood[edit]

Solomon was born in Jerusalem,[14] the second born child of David and his wife Bathsheba, widow of Uriah the Hittite. The first child (unnamed in that account), a son conceived adulterously during Uriah's lifetime, had died as a punishment on account of the death of Uriah by David's order. Solomon had three named full brothers born to Bathsheba: Nathan, Shammua, and Shobab,[15] besides six known older half-brothers born of as many mothers.[16]

The biblical narrative shows that Solomon served as a peace offering between God and David, due to his adulterous relationship with Bathsheba. In an effort to hide this sin, for example, he sent the woman's husband to battle, in the subsequently realised hope that he would be killed there. After he died, David was finally able to marry his wife. As punishment, the first child, who was conceived during the adulterous relationship, died.[17] Solomon was born after David was forgiven. It is this reason why his name, which means peace, was chosen. Some historians cited that Nathan the Prophet brought up Solomon as his father was busy governing the realm.[18] This could also be attributed to the notion that the prophet held great influence over David because he knew of his adultery, which was considered a grievous offense under the Mosaic Law.[19]

Succession and administration[edit]

According to the First Book of Kings, when David was old, "he could not get warm".[20] "So they sought a beautiful young woman throughout all the territory of Israel, and found Abishag the Shunamite, and brought her to the king. The young woman was very beautiful, and she was of service to the king and attended to him, but the king knew her not."[20]

While David was in this state, court factions were maneuvering for power. David's heir apparent, Adonijah, acted to have himself declared king, but was outmaneuvered by Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan, who convinced David to proclaim Solomon king according to his earlier promise (not recorded elsewhere in the biblical narrative),[21] despite Solomon's being younger than his brothers.

Solomon, as instructed by David, began his reign with an extensive purge, including his father's chief general, Joab, among others, and further consolidated his position by appointing friends throughout the administration, including in religious positions as well as in civic and military posts.[22] It is said that Solomon ascended to the throne when he was only about fifteen.[23]

Solomon greatly expanded his military strength, especially the cavalry and chariot arms. He founded numerous colonies, some of which doubled as trading posts and military outposts.

Trade relationships were a focus of his administration. In particular he continued his father's very profitable relationship with the Phoenician king Hiram I of Tyre (see 'wealth' below); they sent out joint expeditions to the lands of Tarshish and Ophir to engage in the trade of luxury products, importing gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, apes and peacocks. Solomon is considered the most wealthy of the Israelite kings named in the Bible.

Wisdom[edit]

Solomon was the biblical king most famous for his wisdom. In 1 Kings he sacrificed to God, and God later appeared to him in a dream,[24] asking what Solomon wanted from God. Solomon asked for wisdom. Pleased, God personally answered Solomon's prayer, promising him great wisdom because he did not ask for self-serving rewards like long life or the death of his enemies.

The Judgment of Solomon, painting on ceramic, Castelli, 18th century, Lille Museum of Fine Arts

Perhaps the best known story of his wisdom is the Judgment of Solomon; two women each lay claim to being the mother of the same child. Solomon easily resolved the dispute by commanding the child to be cut in half and shared between the two. One woman promptly renounced her claim, proving that she would rather give the child up than see it killed. Solomon declared the woman who showed compassion to be the true mother, entitled to the whole child.[25]

Solomon was traditionally considered the author of several biblical books, "including not only the collections of Proverbs, but also of Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon and the later apocryphal book the Wisdom of Solomon."

Wealth[edit]

See also: Solomon's Temple

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Israelite monarchy gained its highest splendour and wealth during Solomon's reign of 40 years. In a single year, according to 1 Kings 10:14, Solomon collected tribute amounting to 666 talents (18,125 kilograms) of gold. Solomon is described as surrounding himself with all the luxuries and the grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered. He entered into an alliance with Hiram I, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings.

Construction projects[edit]

Solomon plans the building of the temple
Solomon and the plan for the First Temple. Illustration from a Bible card published by the Providence Lithograph Co.

For some years before his death, David was engaged in collecting materials for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent home for Yahweh and the Ark of the Covenant. Solomon is described as undertaking the construction of the temple, with the help of an architect, also named Hiram, and other materials, sent from King Hiram of Tyre.

After the completion of the temple, Solomon is described in the biblical narrative as erecting many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem. For 13 years, he was engaged in the building of a royal palace on Ophel (a hilly promontory in central Jerusalem). This complex included buildings referred to as:

The House (or Hall) of the Forest of Lebanon[27]
The Hall or Porch of Pillars
The Hall of the Throne or the Hall of Justice

as well as his own residence and a residence for his wife, Pharaoh's daughter.[28]

Solomon's throne is said to have been a spectacle, seeing that it was one of the earliest mechanical devices built by man. Solomon also constructed great works for the purpose of securing a plentiful supply of water for the city, and the Millo (Septuagint, Acra) for the defense of the city. However, excavations of Jerusalem have shown a distinct lack of monumental architecture from the era, and no remains of either the Temple or Solomon's palace have been found.

Solomon is also described as rebuilding cities elsewhere in Israel, creating the port of Ezion-Geber, and constructing Palmyra in the wilderness as a commercial depot and military outpost. Although the location of the port of Ezion-Geber is known, no remains have ever been found. More archaeological success has been achieved with the major cities Solomon is said to have strengthened or rebuilt, for example, Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer.[29] These all have substantial ancient remains, including impressive six-chambered gates, and ashlar palaces; however it is no longer the scholarly consensus that these structures date to the time, according to the Bible, when Solomon ruled.[30]

According to the Bible, during Solomon's reign, Israel enjoyed great commercial prosperity, with extensive traffic being carried on by land with Tyre, Egypt, and Arabia, and by sea with Tarshish, Ophir, and South India.[31]

Wives and concubines[edit]

Artist's depiction of Solomon's court (Ingobertus, c. 880)

According to the biblical account, Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines.[32] The wives were described as foreign princesses, including Pharaoh's daughter[33] and women of Moab, Ammon, Edom, Sidon and of the Hittites. His marriage to Pharaoh's daughter appears to have cemented a political alliance with Egypt, whereas he clung to his other wives and concubines "in love".[34][35]The Message, a biblical paraphrase, says that Solomon was "obsessed with women".[36]

The only wife mentioned by name is Naamah the Ammonite, mother of Solomon's successor, Rehoboam. The biblical narrative notes with disapproval that Solomon permitted his foreign wives to import their national deities, building temples to Ashtoreth and Milcom.[37]

In the branch of literary analysis that examines the Bible, called higher criticism, the story of Solomon falling into idolatry by the influence of Pharaoh's daughter and his other foreign wives is "customarily seen as the handiwork of the 'deuteronomistic historian(s)'", who are held to have written, compiled, or edited texts to legitimize the reforms of Hezekiah's great-grandson, King Josiah who reigned from about 641 to 609 BCE (over 280 years after Solomon's death according to Bible scholars).[38] Scholarly consensus in this field holds that "Solomon's wives/women were introduced in the 'Josianic' (customarily Dtr) edition of Kings as a theological construct to blame the schism [between Judah and the Northern Kingdom of Israel] on his misdeeds".[38]

Relationship with Queen of Sheba[edit]

Main article: Queen of Sheba

See also: Kebra Nagast

The Visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon. Oil on canvas painting by Edward Poynter, 1890.

In a brief, unelaborated, and enigmatic passage, the Hebrew Bible describes how the fame of Solomon's wisdom and wealth spread far and wide, so much so that the queen of Sheba decided that she should meet him. The queen is described as visiting with a number of gifts including gold, spices and precious stones. When Solomon gave her "all her desire, whatsoever she asked", she left satisfied (1 Kings 10:10).

Whether the passage is simply to provide a brief token, foreign witness of Solomon's wealth and wisdom, or whether there is meant to be something more significant to the queen's visit is unknown; nevertheless the visit of the Queen of Sheba has become the subject of numerous stories.

Sheba is typically identified as Saba, a nation once spanning the Red Sea on the coasts of what are now Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia and Yemen, in Arabia Felix; although other sources place it in the area of what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.[39][40] In a Rabbinical account (e.g. Targum Sheni), Solomon was accustomed to ordering the living creatures of the world to dance before him (Rabbinical accounts say that Solomon had been given control over all living things by Yahweh), but one day upon discovering that the mountain-cock or hoopoe (Aramaic name: nagar tura) was absent, he summoned it to him, and the bird told him that it had been searching for somewhere new (see: Colloquy of the Queen of Sheba).

The bird had discovered a land in the east, exceedingly rich in gold, silver, and plants, whose capital was called Kitor and whose ruler was the Queen of Sheba, and the bird, on its own advice, was sent by Solomon to request the queen's immediate attendance at Solomon's court.

An Ethiopian account from the 14th century (Kebra Nagast) maintains that the Queen of Sheba had sexual relations with King Solomon and gave birth by the Mai Bella stream in the province of Hamasien, Eritrea. The Ethiopian tradition has a detailed account of the affair. The child was a son who went on to become Menelik I, King of Axum, and founded a dynasty that would reign as the first Jewish, then Christian Empire of Ethiopia for 2,900+ years (less one usurpation episode, an interval of about 133 years until a legitimate male heir regained the crown) until Haile Selassie was overthrown in 1974. Menelik was said to be a practicing Jew who was given a replica of the Ark of the Covenant by King Solomon; and, moreover, that the original was switched and went to Axum with him and his mother, and is still there, guarded by a single priest charged with caring for the artifact as his life's task.

The claim of such a lineage and of possession of the Ark has been an important source of legitimacy and prestige for the Ethiopian monarchy throughout the many centuries of its existence, and had important and lasting effects on Ethiopian culture as a whole. The Ethiopian government and church deny all requests to view the alleged ark.[b]

Some classical-era Rabbis, attacking Solomon's moral character, have claimed instead that the child was an ancestor of Nebuchadnezzar II, who destroyed Solomon's temple some 300 years later.[41]

Sins and punishment[edit]

Jewish scribes say that Solomon's teacher was Shimei (son of Gera), and while he lived, he prevented Solomon from marrying foreign wives. The Talmud says at Ber. 8a: "For as long as Shimei the son of Gera was alive Solomon did not marry the daughter of Pharaoh" (see also Midrash Tehillim to Ps. 3:1). Solomon's execution of Shimei was his first descent into sin.[11]

According to 1 Kings 11:4 Solomon's "wives turned his heart after other gods", their own national deities, to whom Solomon built temples, thus incurring divine anger and retribution in the form of the division of the kingdom after Solomon's death (1 Kings 11:9–13). 1 Kings 11 describes Solomon's descent into idolatry, particularly his turning after Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom, the abomination of the Ammonites. In Deuteronomy 17:16–17, a king is commanded not to multiply horses or wives, neither greatly multiply to himself gold or silver. Solomon sins in all three of these areas. Solomon collects 666talents of gold each year (1 Kings 10:14), a huge amount of money for a small nation like Israel. Solomon gathers a large number of horses and chariots and even brings in horses from Egypt. Just as Deuteronomy 17 warns, collecting horses and chariots takes Israel back to Egypt. Finally, Solomon marries foreign women, and these women turn Solomon to other gods.

According to 1 Kings 11:30–34 and 1 Kings 11:9–13, it was because of these sins that the Lord punishes Solomon by removing most of the Tribes of Israel from rule by Solomon's house.[42]

And the Lord was angry with Solomon, because his heart had turned away from the Lord, the God of Israel, who had appeared to him twice and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods. But he did not keep what the Lord commanded. Therefore the Lord said to Solomon, "Since this has been your practice and you have not kept my covenant and my statutes that I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom from you and will give it to your servant. Yet for the sake of David your father I will not do it in your days, but I will tear it out of the hand of your son. However, I will not tear away all the kingdom, but I will give one tribe to your son, for the sake of David my servant and for the sake of Jerusalem that I have chosen.

Enemies[edit]

Near the end of his life, Solomon was forced to contend with several enemies, including Hadad of Edom, Rezon of Zobah, and one of his officials named Jeroboam who was from the tribe of Ephraim.

Death, succession of Rehoboam, and kingdom division[edit]

According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon is the last ruler of a united Kingdom of Israel. After a reign of forty years, he dies of natural causes[43] at around 60 years of age. Upon Solomon's death, his son, Rehoboam, succeeds him. However, ten of the Tribes of Israel refuse to accept him as king, splitting the United Monarchy in the northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam, while Rehoboam continues to reign over the much smaller southern Kingdom of Judah. Henceforth the two kingdoms are never again united.

Jewish scripture[edit]

King Solomon is one of the central biblical figures in Jewish heritage who has had lasting religious, national, and political influence. As the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem and as the last ruler of the united Kingdom of Israel before its division into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah, Solomon is associated with the peak "golden age" of the independent Kingdom of Israel. He is considered a source of judicial and religious wisdom.

According to Jewish tradition, King Solomon wrote three books of the Bible:

  • Mishlei (Book of Proverbs). A collection of fables and wisdom of life.
  • Kohelet (Ecclesiastes). A book of contemplation and self-reflection.
  • Shir ha-Shirim (Song of Songs). A collection of erotic verse. The verse has been interpreted both literally (describing a romantic and sexual relationship between a man and a woman) and metaphorically (describing a relationship between God and his people).

The Hebrew word Tehillim appears in the title of two hymns (72 and 127) in the Book of Psalms. This Hebrew word means "to Solomon", but it can also be translated as "by Solomon," thus suggesting to some that Solomon wrote the two psalms.[44][45][46]

Apocryphal or deuterocanonical texts[edit]

Rabbinical tradition attributes the Wisdom of Solomon (included within the Septuagint) to Solomon, although this book was probably written in the 2nd century BCE. In this work, Solomon is portrayed as an astronomer. Other books of wisdom poetry such as the Odes of Solomon and the Psalms of Solomon also bear his name. The Jewish historian Eupolemus, who wrote about 157 BCE, included copies of apocryphal letters exchanged between Solomon and the kings of Egypt and Tyre.

The GnosticApocalypse of Adam, which may date to the 1st or 2nd century, refers to a legend in which Solomon sends out an army of demons to seek a virgin who had fled from him, perhaps the earliest surviving mention of the later common tale that Solomon controlled demons and made them his slaves. This tradition of Solomon's control over demons appears fully elaborated in the early pseudographical work called the Testament of Solomon with its elaborate and grotesque demonology.[47]

Historicity[edit]

See also: David: Historicity, United Monarchy: Historicity, and Jeroboam's Revolt: Historicity

As with most biblical personages in the middle era of Israelite society, the historicity of Solomon is hotly debated. Current consensus states that regardless of whether or not a man named Solomon truly reigned as king over the Judean hills in the 10th century BCE, the Biblical descriptions of his apparent empire's lavishness is almost surely an anachronistic exaggeration.

As for Solomon himself, scholars on both the maximalist and minimalist sides of the spectrum of biblical archeology generally agree that he probably existed. However, a historically accurate picture of the Davidic king is difficult to construct. According to some archaeologists, Solomon could have only been the monarch or chieftain of Judah, and that the northern kingdom was a separate development. Such positions have been criticized by other archaeologists and scholars, who argue that a united monarchy did exist in the 10th century BC, while admitting that the biblical account contains exaggerations.[49][50][51][52][53]

Arguments against biblical description[edit]

Judgment of Solomon. Engraving by Gustave Doré, 19th century.

Historical evidence of King Solomon other than the biblical accounts has been so minimal that some scholars have understood the period of his reign as a 'Dark Age' (Muhly 1998). The first-century Romano-Jewish scholar Josephus in Against Apion, citing Tyrian court records and Menander, gives a specific year during which King Hiram I of Tyre sent materials to Solomon for the construction of the Temple.[54] However, no material evidence indisputably of Solomon's reign has been found. Yigael Yadin's excavations at Hazor, Megiddo, Beit Shean and Gezer uncovered structures that he and others have argued date from Solomon's reign, but others, such as Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman, argue that they should be dated to the Omride period, more than a century after Solomon.[30]

According to Finkelstein and Silberman, authors of The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, at the time of the kingdoms of David and Solomon, Jerusalem was populated by only a few hundred residents or less, which is insufficient for an empire stretching from the Euphrates to Eilath. According to The Bible Unearthed, archaeological evidence suggests that the kingdom of Israel at the time of Solomon was little more than a small city state, and so it is implausible that Solomon received tribute as large as 666 talents of gold per year. Although both Finkelstein and Silberman accept that David and Solomon were real inhabitants of Judah about the 10th century BCE, they claim that the earliest independent reference to the Kingdom of Israel is about 890 BCE, and for Judah about 750 BCE. They suggest that because of religious prejudice, the authors of the Bible suppressed the achievements of the Omrides (whom the Hebrew Bible describes as being polytheist), and instead pushed them back to a supposed golden age of Judaism and monotheists, and devotees of Yahweh. Some Biblical minimalists like Thomas L. Thompson go further, arguing that Jerusalem became a city and capable of being a state capital only in the mid-7th century.[57] Likewise, Finkelstein and others consider the claimed size of Solomon's temple implausible.

Arguments in favour of biblical description[edit]

Solomon's Wealth and Wisdom, as in 1 Kings 3:12–13. Illustration from a Bible card published 1896 by the Providence Lithograph Company.

André Lemaire states in Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple[58] that the principal points of the biblical tradition of Solomon are generally trustworthy, although elsewhere he writes that he could find no substantiating archaeological evidence that supports the Queen of Sheba's visit to king Solomon, saying that the earliest records of trans-Arabian caravan voyages from Tayma and Sheba unto the Middle-Euphrates etc. occurred in the mid-8th century BCE,[59] placing a possible visit from the Queen of Sheba to Jerusalem around this time—some 250 years later than the timeframe traditionally given for king Solomon's reign.[60]Kenneth Kitchen argues that Solomon ruled over a comparatively wealthy "mini-empire", rather than a small city-state, and considers 666 gold talents a modest amount of money. Kitchen calculates that over 30 years, such a kingdom might have accumulated up to 500 tons of gold, which is small compared to other examples, such as the 1,180 tons of gold that Alexander the Great took from Susa. Similarly, Kitchen[62] and others consider the temple of Solomon a reasonable and typically sized structure for the region at the time. Dever states "that we now have direct Bronze and Iron Age parallels for every feature of the 'Solomonic temple' as described in the Hebrew Bible".[63]

Middle way[edit]

Some scholars have charted a middle path between minimalist scholars like Finkelstein, Silberman, and Philip Davies[64] (who believes that "Solomon is a totally invented character")[65] and maximalist scholars like Dever, Lemaire and Kitchen. For instance, the archaeologist Avraham Faust has argued that biblical depictions of Solomon date to later periods and do overstate his wealth, buildings, and kingdom, but that Solomon did have an acropolis and ruled over a polity larger than Jerusalem.[66] In particular, his archaeological research in regions near Jerusalem, like Sharon, finds commerce too great not to be supported by a polity and such regions probably were ruled loosely by Jerusalem.[67][68] Scholars like Lester Grabbe also believe that there must have been a ruler in Jerusalem during this period and that he likely built a temple, although the town was quite small.[69]William G. Dever argues that Solomon only reigned over Israel and did build a temple, but that descriptions of his lavishness and the other conquests are strongly exaggerated.[70]

Archaeology[edit]

General observations[edit]

The archaeological remains that are considered to date from the time of Solomon are notable for the fact that Canaanite material culture appears to have continued unabated; there is a distinct lack of magnificent empire, or cultural development—indeed comparing pottery from areas traditionally assigned to Israel with that of the Philistines points to the latter having been significantly more sophisticated.[citation needed] However, there is a lack of physical evidence of its existence, despite some archaeological work in the area.[30] This is not unexpected because the area was devastated by the Babylonians, then rebuilt and destroyed several times.[62]

Temple Mount in Jerusalem[edit]

Little archaeological excavation has been done around the area known as the Temple Mount, in what is thought to be the foundation of Solomon's Temple, because attempts to do so are met with protests by the Muslim authorities.[71][72]

Precious metals from Tarshish[edit]

The biblical passages that understand Tarshish as a source of King Solomon's great wealth in metals—especially silver, but also gold, tin and iron (Ezekiel 27)—were linked to archaeological evidence from silver-hoards found in Phoenicia in 2013. The metals from Tarshish were reportedly obtained by Solomon in partnership with King Hiram of Phoenician Tyre (Isaiah 23) and the fleets of Tarshish and ships that sailed in their service. The silver hoards provide the first recognized material evidence that agrees with the ancient texts concerning Solomon's kingdom and his wealth (see 'wealth' below).

Possible evidence for the described wealth of Solomon and his kingdom was discovered in ancient silver hoards, which were found in Israel and Phoenicia and recognized for their importance in 2003. The evidence from the hoards shows that the Levant was a center of wealth in precious metals during the reigns of Solomon and Hiram, and matches the texts that say the trade extended from Asia to the Atlantic Ocean.[73]

Biblical criticism: Solomon's religiosity[edit]

From a critical point of view, Solomon's building of a temple for Yahweh should not be considered an act of particular devotion to Yahweh because Solomon is also described as building places of worship for a number of other deities.[41] Some scholars and historians argue that the passages, such as his dedication prayer (1 Kings 8:14–66), that describe Solomon's apparent initial devotion to Yahweh were written much later, after Jerusalem had become the religious centre of the kingdom, replacing locations such as Shiloh and Bethel. Earlier historians maintain that there is evidence that these passages in Kings are derived from official court records at the time of Solomon and from other writings of that time that were incorporated into the canonical books of Kings.[74][75] More recent scholars believe that passages such as these in the Books of Kings were not written by the same authors who wrote the rest of the text, instead probably by the Deuteronomist.[63]

Religious views[edit]

Judaism[edit]

King Solomon sinned by acquiring many foreign wives and horses because he thought he knew the reason for the biblical prohibition and thought it did not apply to him. When King Solomon married the daughter of the Egyptian Pharaoh, a sandbank formed which eventually formed the "great nation of Rome"—the nation that destroyed the Second Temple (Herod's Temple). Solomon gradually lost more and more prestige until he became like a commoner. Some say he regained his status while others say he did not. In the end, however, he is regarded as a righteous king and is especially praised for his diligence in building the Temple.[77] King Josiah was also said to have had the Ark of the Covenant, Aaron's rod, vial of manna and the anointing oil placed within a hidden chamber which had been built by King Solomon[78][79]

The Seder Olam Rabba holds that Solomon's reign was not in 1000 BCE, but rather in the 9th century BCE, during which time he built the First Temple in 832 BCE.[80] However, the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia gives the more common date of "971 to 931 BCE".[11]

Christianity[edit]

Christianity has traditionally accepted the historical existence of Solomon, though some modern Christian scholars have also questioned at least his authorship of those biblical texts ascribed to him. Such disputes tend to divide Christians into traditionalist and modernist camps.

Of the two genealogies of Jesus given in the Gospels, Matthew mentions Solomon, but Luke does not. Some commentators see this as an issue that can be reconciled while others disagree. For instance, it has been suggested that Matthew is using Joseph's genealogy and Luke is using Mary's, but Darrell Bock states that this would be unprecedented, "especially when no other single woman appears in the line". Other suggestions include the use by one of the royal and the other of the natural line, one using the legal line and the other the physical line, or that Joseph was adopted.[81]

Jesus makes reference to Solomon, using him for comparison purposes in his admonition against worrying about your life. This account is recorded in Matthew 6:29 and the parallel passage in Luke 12:27

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Solomon is commemorated as a saint, with the title of "Righteous Prophet and King". His feast day is celebrated on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord).

The staunchly Catholic King Philip II of Spain sought to model himself after King Solomon. Statues of King David and Solomon stand on either side of the entrance to the basilica of El Escorial, Philip's palace, and Solomon is also depicted in a great fresco at the center of El Escorial's library. Philip identified the warrior-king David with his own father Charles V, and himself sought to emulate the thoughtful and logical character which he perceived in Solomon. Moreover, the structure of the Escorial was inspired by that of Solomon's Temple.[82][83]

Islam[edit]

Mausoleum of Solomon, Aqsa Mosque compound, Jerusalem

Main article: Solomon in Islam

In Islamic tradition, Solomon is venerated as a prophet and a messenger of God, as well as a divinely appointed monarch, who ruled over the Kingdom of Israel.[84] Solomon inherited his position from his father as the prophetic King of the Israelites. Unlike in the Bible where Solomon was granted an incomparable realm because God was impressed by his wish to have wisdom,[85] the Quran states that Solomon prayed earnestly to God to grant him a kingdom which would be greater than any realm after him.[86] As in Judaism, Islam recognizes Solomon as the son of King David, who is also considered a prophet and a king but refuses to accuse Solomon of idolatry, claiming instead that an enslaved jinn escaped his captivity and took over his kingdom and posed as Solomon, while others thought indeed that he became a ruthless king.[87]

And they followed what the devils taught during the reign of Solomon. It was not Solomon who disbelieved, but it was the devils who disbelieved. They taught the people witchcraft and what was revealed in Babil (Arabic: بَـابِـل‎, Babylon) to the two angels Harut and Marut. They did not teach anybody until they had said "We are a test, so do not lose faith." But they learned from them the means to cause separation between man and his wife. But they cannot harm anyone except with God's permission. And they learned what would harm them and not benefit them. Yet they knew that whoever deals in it will have no share in the Hereafter. Miserable is what they sold their souls for, if they only knew.[84]

The Quran[88][89][90] ascribes to Solomon a great level of wisdom, knowledge and power. He knew the Mantiq al-tayr (Arabic: مـنـطـق الـطـيـر‎, language of the birds).[89][91] Solomon was also known in Islam to have other supernatural abilities bestowed upon him by God, after a special request by Solomon himself, such as controlling the wind, ruling over the jinn, enslaving demons, and hearing the communication of ants:

"And to Solomon (We made) the wind (obedient): its early morning (stride) was a month's (journey), and its evening (stride) was a month's (journey); and We made a font of molten brass to flow for him; and there were Jinns that worked in front of him, by the leave of his Lord, and if any of them turned aside from Our command, We made him taste of the Penalty of the Blazing Fire."[92] (34: 12) and "At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, one of the ants said: 'O ye ants, get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it.'—So he smiled, amused at her speech; and he said: 'O my Rabb (Arabic: رَبّ‎, Lord)! So order me that I may be grateful for Thy favors, which Thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: and admit me, by Thy Grace, to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants.'" (27: 18–19)

In Medieval traditions, when Islam spread through Persia, Solomon became equated with Jamshid, a great king from Persian legends whom similar attributes are ascribed to.[93]

Baháʼí Faith[edit]

In the Baháʼí Faith, Solomon is regarded as one of the lesser prophets along with David, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, along with others.[94] Baháʼís see Solomon as a prophet who was sent by God to address the issues of his time.[95] Baha'ullah wrote about Solomon in the Hidden Words.[96] He also mentions Solomon in the Tablet of Wisdom, where he is depicted as a contemporary of Pythagoras.[97]

Legends[edit]

One Thousand and One Nights[edit]

A well-known story in the collection One Thousand and One Nights describes a genie who had displeased King Solomon and was punished by being locked in a bottle and thrown into the sea. Since the bottle was sealed with Solomon's seal, the genie was helpless to free himself, until he was freed many centuries later by a fisherman who discovered the bottle.[98] In other stories from the One Thousand and One Nights, protagonists who had to leave their homeland and travel to the unknown places of the world saw signs which proved that Solomon had already been there. Sometimes, protagonists discovered words of Solomon that were intended to help those who were lost and had unluckily reached those forbidden and deserted places.

Angels and magic[edit]

According to the Rabbinical literature, on account of his modest request for wisdom only, Solomon was rewarded with riches and an unprecedented glorious realm, which extended over the upper world inhabited by the angels and over the whole of the terrestrial globe with all its inhabitants, including all the beasts, fowl, and reptiles, as well as the demons and spirits. His control over the demons, spirits, and animals augmented his splendor, the demons bringing him precious stones, besides water from distant countries to irrigate his exotic plants. The beasts and fowl of their own accord entered the kitchen of Solomon's palace, so that they might be used as food for him, and extravagant meals for him were prepared daily by each of his 700 wives and 300 concubines, with the thought that perhaps the king would feast that day in her house.

Seal of Solomon[edit]

A magic ring called the "Seal of Solomon" was supposedly given to Solomon and gave him power over demons or Jinn. The magical symbol said to have been on the Seal of Solomon which made it efficacious is often considered to be the Star of David[citation needed] though this emblem (also known as the Shield of David) is known to have been associated with Judaism only as recently as the 11th century CE while the five pointed star (pentagram) can be found on jars and other artifacts from Jerusalem dating back to at least the 2nd and 4th centuries BCE and is more likely to have been the emblem found on the ring purportedly used by King Solomon to control the Jinn or demons. Asmodeus, king of demons, was one day, according to the classical Rabbis, captured by Benaiah using the ring, and was forced to remain in Solomon's service. In one tale, Asmodeus brought a man with two heads from under the earth to show Solomon; the man, unable to return, married a woman from Jerusalem and had seven sons, six of whom resembled the mother, while one resembled the father in having two heads. After their father's death, the son with two heads claimed two shares of the inheritance, arguing that he was two men; Solomon decided that the son with two heads was only one man. The Seal of Solomon, in some legends known as the Ring of Aandaleeb, was a highly sought after symbol of power. In several legends, different groups or individuals attempted to steal it or attain it in some manner.

Solomon and Asmodeus[edit]

One legend concerning Asmodeus (see: The Story of King Solomon and Ashmedai) goes on to state that Solomon one day asked Asmodeus what could make demons powerful over man, and Asmodeus asked to be freed and given the ring so that he could demonstrate; Solomon agreed but Asmodeus threw the ring into the sea and it was swallowed by a fish. Asmodeus then swallowed the king, stood up fully with one wing touching heaven and the other earth, and spat out Solomon to a distance of 400 miles. The Rabbis claim this was a divine punishment for Solomon's having failed to follow three divine commands, and Solomon was forced to wander from city to city, until he eventually arrived in an Ammonite city where he was forced to work in the king's kitchens. Solomon gained a chance to prepare a meal for the Ammonite king, which the king found so impressive that the previous cook was sacked and Solomon put in his place; the king's daughter, Naamah, subsequently fell in love with Solomon, but the family (thinking Solomon a commoner) disapproved, so the king decided to kill them both by sending them into the desert. Solomon and the king's daughter wandered the desert until they reached a coastal city, where they bought a fish to eat, which just happened to be the one which had swallowed the magic ring. Solomon was then able to regain his throne and expel Asmodeus.[99] The element of a ring thrown into the sea and found back in a fish's belly also appeared in Herodotus' account of Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos (c. 538–522 BCE).

In another familiar version of the legend of the Seal of Solomon, Asmodeus disguises himself. In some myths, he's disguised as King Solomon himself, while in more frequently heard versions he's disguised as a falcon, calling himself Gavyn (Gavinn or Gavin), one of King Solomon's trusted friends. The concealed Asmodeus tells travelers who have ventured up to King Solomon's grand lofty palace that the Seal of Solomon was thrown into the sea. He then convinces them to plunge in and attempt to retrieve it, for if they do they would take the throne as king.

Artifacts[edit]

Other magical items attributed to Solomon are his key and his Table. The latter was said to be held in Toledo, Spain during Visigoth rule and was part of the loot taken by Tarik ibn Ziyad during the Umayyad Conquest of Iberia, according to Ibn Abd-el-Hakem's History of the Conquest of Spain. The former appears in the title of the Lesser Key of Solomon, a grimoire whose framing story is Solomon capturing demons using his ring, and forcing them to explain themselves to him. In The Book of Deadly Names, purportedly translated from Arabic manuscripts found hidden in a building in Spain, the "King of the Jinn" Fiqitush brings 72 Jinn before King Solomon to confess their corruptions and places of residence. Fiqitush tells King Solomon the recipes for curing such corruptions as each evil Jinn confesses.

Angels[edit]

Angels also helped Solomon in building the Temple, though not by choice. The edifice was, according to rabbinical legend, miraculously constructed throughout, the large heavy stones rising and settling in their respective places of themselves. The general opinion of the Rabbis is that Solomon hewed the stones by means of a shamir, a mythical worm whose mere touch cleft rocks. According to Midrash Tehillim, the shamir was brought from paradise by Solomon's eagle; but most of the rabbis state that Solomon was informed of the worm's haunts by Asmodeus. The shamir had been entrusted by the prince of the sea to the mountain rooster alone, and the rooster had sworn to guard it well, but Solomon's men found the bird's nest, and covered it with glass. When the bird returned, it used the shamir to break the glass, whereupon the men scared the bird, causing it to drop the worm, which the men could then bring to Solomon.

In the Kabbalah[edit]

Early adherents of the Kabbalah portray Solomon as having sailed through the air on a throne of light placed on an eagle, which brought him near the heavenly gates as well as to the dark mountains behind which the fallen angels Uzza and Azzazel were chained; the eagle would rest on the chains, and Solomon, using the magic ring, would compel the two angels to reveal every mystery he desired to know.

The palace without entrance[edit]

According to one legend, while traveling magically, Solomon noticed a magnificent palace to which there appeared to be no entrance. He ordered the demons to climb to the roof and see if they could discover any living being within the building but they found only an eagle, which said that it was 700 years old, but that it had never seen an entrance. An elder brother of the eagle, 900 years old, was then found, but it also did not know the entrance. The eldest brother of these two birds, which was 1,300 years old, then declared it had been informed by its father that the door was on the west side, but that it had become hidden by sand drifted by the wind. Having discovered the entrance, Solomon found an idol inside that had in its mouth a silver tablet saying in Greek (a language not thought by modern scholars to have existed 1000 years before the time of Solomon) that the statue was of Shaddad, the son of 'Ad, and that it had reigned over a million cities, rode on a million horses, had under it a million vassals and slew a million warriors, yet it could not resist the angel of death.[11]

Throne[edit]

Main article: Throne of Solomon

Solomon at his throne, painting by Andreas Brugger, 1777

Solomon's throne is described at length in Targum Sheni, which is compiled from three different sources, and in two later Midrash. According to these, there were on the steps of the throne twelve golden lions, each facing a golden eagle. There were six steps to the throne, on which animals, all of gold, were arranged in the following order: on the first step a lion opposite an ox; on the second, a wolf opposite a sheep; on the third, a tiger opposite a camel; on the fourth, an eagle opposite a peacock, on the fifth, a cat opposite a cock; on the sixth, a sparrow-hawk opposite a dove. On the top of the throne was a dove holding a sparrow-hawk in its claws, symbolizing the dominion of Israel over the Gentiles. The first midrash claims that six steps were constructed because Solomon foresaw that six kings would sit on the throne, namely, Solomon, Rehoboam, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, and Josiah. There was also on the top of the throne a golden candelabrum, on the seven branches of the one side of which were engraved the names of the seven patriarchs Adam, Noah, Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Job, and on the seven of the other the names of Levi, Kohath, Amram, Moses, Aaron, Eldad, Medad, and, in addition, Hur (another version has Haggai). Above the candelabrum was a golden jar filled with olive oil and beneath it a golden basin which supplied the jar with oil and on which the names of Nadab, Abihu, and Eli and his two sons were engraved. Over the throne, twenty-four vines were fixed to cast a shadow on the king's head.[11]

By a mechanical contrivance the throne followed Solomon wherever he wished to go. Supposedly, due to another mechanical trick, when the king reached the first step, the ox stretched forth its leg, on which Solomon leaned, a similar action taking place in the case of the animals on each of the six steps. From the sixth step the eagles raised the king and placed him in his seat, near which a golden serpent lay coiled. When the king was seated the large eagle placed the crown on his head, the serpent uncoiled itself, and the lions and eagles moved upward to form a shade over him. The dove then descended, took the scroll of the Law from the Ark, and placed it on Solomon's knees. When the king sat, surrounded by the Sanhedrin, to judge the people, the wheels began to turn, and the beasts and fowls began to utter their respective cries, which frightened those who had intended to bear false testimony. Moreover, while Solomon was ascending the throne, the lions scattered various fragrant spices. After Solomon's death, Pharaoh Shishak, when taking away the treasures of the Temple (I Kings xiv. 26), carried off the throne, which remained in Egypt until Sennacherib conquered that country. After Sennacherib's fall Hezekiah gained possession of it, but when Josiah was slain by Pharaoh Necho, the latter took it away. However, according to rabbinical accounts, Necho did not know how the mechanism worked and so accidentally struck himself with one of the lions causing him to become lame; Nebuchadnezzar, into whose possession the throne subsequently came, shared a similar fate. The throne then passed to the Persians, whose king Darius was the first to sit successfully on Solomon's throne after his death; subsequently the throne came into the possession of the Greeks and Ahasuerus.[11]

Freemasonry[edit]

Masonic rituals refer to King Solomon and the building of his Temple.[100]Masonic Temples, where a Masonic Lodge meets, are an allegorical reference to King Solomon's Temple.[101]

Places[edit]

The Solomon Islands, a country and archipelago in Melanesia, were named for King Solomon by the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña, who became the first European to see the islands in 1568.[102][103]

In literature, art, and music[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • In H. Rider Haggard's King Solomon's Mines (1885) the protagonists discover multiple settings said to have belonged to or to have been built at the request of King Solomon, such as 'Solomon's Great Road' and the mines themselves. Also, the two mountains which form the entrance to Kukuana Land (where the mines are located in the novel) are referred to as 'Sheba's Breasts' which could be an allusion to the Queen of Sheba, with whom King Solomon had a relationship, or Solomon's mother, who was named Bathsheba. When in the mines, the characters also contemplate what must have occurred to prevent King Solomon from returning to retrieve the massive amounts of diamonds, gold and ivory tusks that were found buried in his great 'Treasure Chamber'.
  • In The Divine Comedy, the spirit of Solomon appears to Dante Alighieri in the Heaven of the Sun with other exemplars of inspired wisdom.
  • In Friedrich Dürrenmatt's Die Physiker, the physicist Möbius claims that Solomon appears to him and dictates the "theory of all possible inventions" (based on Unified Field Theory).
  • Solomon appears in Kipling's Just So Stories.
  • In Neal Stephenson's three-volume The Baroque Cycle, 17th-century alchemists like Isaac Newton believe that Solomon created a kind of "heavier" gold with mystical properties and that it was cached in the Solomon Islands where it was accidentally discovered by the crew of a wayward Spanish galleon. In the third volume of The Baroque Cycle, The System of the World, a mysterious member of the entourage of Czar Peter I of Russia, named "Solomon Kohan" appears in early 18th-century London. The czar, traveling incognito to purchase English-made ships for his navy, explains that he added him to his court after the Sack of Azov, where Kohan had been a guest of the Pasha. Solomon Kohan is later revealed as one of the extremely long-lived "Wise," such as Enoch Root, and compares a courtyard full of inventors' workstations to "an operation I used to have in Jerusalem a long time ago", denominating either facility as "a temple". Stephenson's sequel to Reamde, 2019's Fall; or, Dodge in Hell was also a surprise sequel to the Baroque Cycle novels and Cryptonomicon. In the mid- to late-21st century span of Fall, Solomon Kohan has joined the faculty of Princeton University, going by Solly Pesador, and is described by a student as "one of those guys who had been around forever and played roles in tech companies going at least as far back as Hewlett-Packard" and as an "old-school tech geek turned neuro-hacker."
  • In Bartimaeus: The Ring of Solomon, both King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba are featured prominently.
  • Solomon, King of Urushalim, is a significant character in The Shadow Prince,[104] the first novel of Philip Armstrong's epic historical fantasy, The Chronicles of Tupiluliuma. His Ring is an Atalantaën Relic, by which is he able to command daemons. He uses it to summon a daemon army, thereafter called the Cohort of Free Daemons, to oppose the forces of the Chaos God, Sutekh, thus allowing the young Hittite musician, Lisarwa, to repair the Veil that separates the physical world from the dangerous wild energies of the Netherworld, using another of the relics, the Harp of Daud, once owned by his father (King David). Solomon's son, Rehoboam also appears in a minor capacity.
  • In the Japanese manga series Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic, Solomon was a powerful magician who united all of the world under his peaceful rule. However, when this world was destroyed by a calamity, he created the world Magi is set in and saved mankind by sending them there. A special power originated from him, the "Wisdom of Solomon", allows the main character Aladdin to talk directly with the soul of a person, alive or dead.
  • In Makai Ouji: Devils and Realist, Solomon is a friend of Lucifer and is the "Elector"—the one who can choose the interim ruler over Hell as its emperor rests to regain his strength and had powers over demons known as his seventy-two pillars. He's also known as the one who can control Hell or Heaven with the power of his ring.
  • Chapter 14 of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ends with Huck and Jim debating over how wise Solomon really was.
  • In Francis Bacon's Essay 'Of Revenge', Solomon is paraphrased: "And Solomon, I am sure, saith, It is the glory of a man, to pass by an offence."
  • In DC Comics, Solomon is one of the Immortal Elders of the hero Captain Marvel.
  • In a subject called in art the Idolatry of Solomon, the foreign wives are depicted as leading Solomon away from Yahweh toward idolatry because they worshiped gods other than Yahweh (1 Kings 11:1–3). This forms part of the Power of Women topos in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, showing the dangers women posed to even the most virtuous men.[105]
  • Naamah, a princess of Ammon, (part of present-day Jordan) who arrives in Jerusalem at age fourteen to marry King Solomon and tells of their life together, is the narrator of Aryeh Lev Stollman's novel published by Aryeh Nir/Modan (Tel Aviv) in Hebrew translation under the title Divrei Y'mai Naamah (דברי ימי נעמה).

Film[edit]

Music[edit]

  • Giacomo Carissimi, The Judgment of Solomon for three chorus, two violins and organ
  • Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Judicium Salomnis, H 422, Oratorio for soloists, chorus, orchestra, and continuo 1702
  • Sébastien de Brossard, Solomon's fall, cantata
  • Handel composed an oratorio entitled Solomon in 1748. The story follows the basic biblical plot.[108]
  • Ernest Bloch composed a Hebraic Rhapsody for cello and orchestra entitled Schelomo, based on King Solomon.
  • Kate Bush wrote a song called "Song of Solomon" in 1993 for her album The Red Shoes.
  • Toivo Tulev composed a piece for choir, soloists and chamber orchestra entitled Songs in 2005. The text is taken directly from the Song of Songs in its English, Spanish and Latin translations.
  • Derrick Harriott has a rocksteady song titled Solomon (later covered by Junior Murvin), in which he warns a woman that he is wiser than Solomon in the ways of women.
  • Jamaican dancehall rapper Sean Paul mentions King Solomon in his 2005 hit song We Be Burnin. Specifically Sean Paul references the legend that marijuana was found on the grave of King Solomon.
  • The New Pornographers included a song entitled "One Kind of Solomon" on their 2019 album In the Morse Code of Brake Lights.
  • Cassandra Wilson performs the self-penned 'Solomon Sang' on her 1995 Blue Note album, New Moon Daughter.
  • Grateful Dead have a song called "King Solomon's Marbles" on their 1975 album, Blues for Allah.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"In Our Time With Melvyn Bragg: King Solomon". UK: BBC Radio 4. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
  2. ^Holy Bible. 1 Kings 11:1–3.CS1 maint: location (link)
  3. ^Book of Kings: 1  Kings 1–11; Books of Chronicles: 1 Chronicles 28–29, 2 Chronicles 1–9
  4. ^ abBarton, George A. (1906). "Temple of Solomon". Jewish Encyclopedia. pp. 98–101. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
  5. ^Stefon, Matt. "Solomon king of Israel". britannica.com. Britannica.
  6. ^Rashi, to Megillah, 14a
  7. ^1 Kings 5:3; 8:20
  8. ^Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31
  9. ^Matthew 6:28–29; Luke 12:27
  10. ^"Archaeology, Culture, and other Religions". FMC terra santa. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
  11. ^ abcdefPublic Domain Hirsch, Emil G.; Price, Ira Maurice; Bacher, Wilhelm; Seligsohn, M.; Montgomery, Mary W.; toy, Crawford Howell (1901–1906). "Solomon". In Singer, Isidore; et al. (eds.). The Jewish Encyclopedia. 11. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 436–448.
  12. ^E. Clarity, 2012, p. 305.
  13. ^1 Chronicles 14:4
  14. ^1 Chronicles 3:5
  15. ^1 Chronicles 3:1–4
  16. ^Vance, Jennifer (2015). Solomon. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN .
  17. ^Golden childhood. The Little People's Own Pleasure—Book of Delight and Instruction. London: Ward, Lock, and Co. 1878. p. 116.
  18. ^Farrel, Pam; Jones, Jean (2017). Discovering Hope in the Psalms: A Creative Bible Study Experience. Eugene: Harvest House Publishers. p. 70. ISBN .
  19. ^ ab"1 Kings 1 (ESV)". BibleGateway.com. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
  20. ^Lumby, J. R., Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on 1 Kings 1, accessed 24 September 2017
  21. ^1 Kings 4:1–19
  22. ^Wiersbe, Warren (2003). The Bible Exposition Commentary, Volume 1. Eastbourne: Cook Communications. pp. 496. ISBN .
  23. ^1 Kings 3:3–15
  24. ^1 Kings 3:16–28
  25. ^1 Kings 10:17 and 2 Chronicles 9:20: "House" in the King James Version and Revised Standard Version, "Hall" in the Jerusalem Bible and Good News Translation
  26. ^1 Kings 7:1–8
  27. ^1 Kings 9:15
  28. ^ abcFinkelstein & Silberman 2001, pp. 186–195 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFFinkelsteinSilberman2001 (help)
  29. ^Bhaktivejanyana, Swami (2013-01-23). Ithihaasa : the mystery of his story is my story of history. Bloomington, IN. ISBN . OCLC 826444777.
  30. ^1 Kings 11:3; not in the 2 Chronicles account
  31. ^See also 1 Kings 3:1
  32. ^1 Kings 11:2–3: NKJV
  33. ^"1 Kings 12—2 Kings 25", Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Fortress Press, pp. 281–304, 2018, doi:10.2307/j.ctt1w6tbx5.24, ISBN 
  34. ^1 Kings 11:1: The Message
  35. ^1 Kings 11:5–9: NKJV
  36. ^ ab"Loving too well: The negative portrayal of Solomon and the composition of the Kings history". Retrieved on Jan. 17, 2007
  37. ^Stuart Munro-Hay, The Quest for the Ark of the Covenant: The True History of the Tablets of Moses.
  38. ^Donald N. Levine, Wax and Gold: Tradition and Innovation in Ethiopia Culture (Chicago: University Press, 1972).
  39. ^ abPublic Domain Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
  40. ^"NIV 1 Kings 11 (Solomon's Wives)". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
  41. ^"The Kingdom of Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
  42. ^Gottlieb, Isaac (2010). "Mashal Le-Melekh: The Search for Solomon". Hebrew Studies. 51 – via Gale Literature Resource Center.
  43. ^Dahood, Mitchell (1968). Psalms II, 51-100: Introduction, Translation, and Notes. New York: Doubleday. pp. 179–180. ISBN .
  44. ^The Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday. 1964. p. 47.
  45. ^"Solomon, Testament of". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
  46. ^Lipschits, Oded (2014). "The history of Israel in the biblical period". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi (eds.). The Jewish Study Bible (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN .
  47. ^Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Stories. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN .
  48. ^Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC, Band 1. New York: Routledge. p. 438. ISBN .
  49. ^Wright, Jacob L. (July 2014). "David, King of Judah (not Israel)". The Bible and Interpretation. Archived from the original on 2021-03-01.
  50. ^"Kings of Controversy". Magazine. 2010-12-01. Retrieved 2021-03-16.
  51. ^Against Apion i:17, 18.
  52. ^Thompson, Thomas L., 1999, The Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past, Jonathan Cape, London, ISBN 978-0-224-03977-2 p. 207
  53. ^Shanks, Hershel, Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, p. 113
  54. ^See: Lemaire, South Arabia. In André Lemaire's own words: "The first mention of Sheba in Neo-Assyrian texts is to be dated mid-8th century BCE with the story of a caravan of 200 camels coming from Tayma and Sheba to Hindanu (Middle-Euphrates) (Cavigneaux–Ismaïl 1990: 339–357; Frame 1995: 300; Younger 2003: 279–282; Holladay 2006: 319–321)."
  55. ^André Lemaire, The Queen of Sheba and the Trade Between South Arabia and Judah, pub. in Bayn ʻEver LaʻArav: Contacts between Arabic Literature and Jewish Literature in the Middle Ages and Modern Times, volume 6; A Collection of Studies Dedicated to Prof. Yosef Tobi on the Occasion of his Retirement, ed. Ali A. Hussein and Ayelet Oettinger (Haifa: University of Haifa Press, 2013), xi–xxxiv
  56. ^ abKitchen 2003, p. 123
  57. ^ abDever 2001, p. 145
  58. ^Davies, Philip R. 1992. In Search of 'Ancient Israel': A Study in Biblical Origins. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, T and T Clark.
  59. ^"David and Solomon". www.bibleodyssey.org. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  60. ^Faust, Avraham. 2012. The Archaeology of Israelite Society in Iron Age II. Translated by Ruth Ludlum. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.
  61. ^Faust, Avraham. 2007. "The Sharon and the Yarkon Basin in the Tenth Century BCE: Ecology, Settlement Patterns and Political Involvement". Israel Exploration Journal:65–82.
  62. ^Faust, Avraham. 2017. "Jebus, the City of David, and Jerusalem: Jerusalem from the Iron I to the Neo-Babylonian Period [in Hebrew]." In Jerusalem: From its Beginning to the Ottoman Conquest, edited by Avraham Faust, J. Schwartz and E. Baruch, 35–72. Ramat Gan: Ingeborg Renner Center for Jerusalem Studies.
  63. ^Grabbe, Lester L. 2016. 1 & 2 Kings: An Introduction and Study Guide: History and Story in Ancient Israel: Bloomsbury Publishing.
  64. ^Dever, William G. (2020-08-18). Has Archaeology Buried the Bible?. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN .
  65. ^"Temple Mount: Excavation Controversy". Sacred destinations. Archived from the original on 2009-06-21. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
  66. ^Jacqueline Schaalje. "Special: The Temple Mount in Jerusalem". Jewish Magazine. Archived from the original on 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2018-04-07.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  67. ^Thompson, Christine; Skaggs, Sheldon (2013). "King Solomon's Silver? Southern Phoenician Hacksilber Hoards and the Location of Tarshish". Internet Archaeology (35). doi:10.11141/ia.35.6.
  68. ^Harrison, RK (1969), Introduction to the Old Testament, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, pp. 722–724
  69. ^Archer, GL (1964), A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, Chicago: Moody Press, pp. 276–277
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon
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We helped Loose Women and X Factor star Stacey Solomon unlock detail-rich stories from her past.

Stacey Solomon's family history is a tale of two halves. We've discovered Jewish refugees, military heroes and more while researching the TV sweetheart's family tree.

Start a 14-day free trial

Stacey Chanelle Clare Solomon was born in 1989 in Dagenham, Essex. Her parents were David Neal Solomon, a photographer, and Fiona Nash, a nurse.

Stacey's paternal lineage has uncovered Jewish roots. Her grandfather, Ezekiel Solomon, died when his son David was only 10 years old, leaving grandmother Matilda to raise 3 boys alone. Matilda Gedlovitch was born in 1926 in Stepney. Her parents Israel and Miriam (née Rosenberg) came to Britain around 1905 from Poland. Israel and Miriam are Stacey’s paternal great-grandparents.

Below is a snippet from Stacey's family tree. Select it to view the rest of it.

Stacey's great uncle by marriage, bookkeeper Emil Stryker, was born deaf into a Jewish family in Germany. The rise of Nazism forced Emil into hiding in 1939. He was expelled to Poland and later returned to Germany, his health badly damaged. Luckily, Emil escaped again, first from a German hospital and later from Germany itself, finally settling in England where he married Matilda’s sister, Jane. Emil Stryker is noted as the organiser of the first British deaf tennis tournament

Family heroes

Stacey Solomon's maternal family is full of military ancestors. Her great-grandfather Frederick George Nash was born in Hereford in 1889. His parents were Alexander Nash (born 1844) and Patience Smy (born 1853). Stacey's great-great-grandfather Alexander joined the Scots Guards regiment in 1863 aged 19. We found intriguing descriptions of him in his military record: 5 foot 9, of ‘moderate muscular development’, with a fresh complexion, hazel eyes and a birthmark on his left cheek.

As he was ‘regular, good and temperate,’ he received bonuses for good conduct and was promoted to Corporal in 1869. In 1871, Alexander was caught breaking out of barracks and was demoted, but climbed his way back up, making Colour Sergeant by 1882. Despite being demoted again for being caught drunk on duty, and transferred to the Shropshire Regiment, he made Colour Sergeant again by 1891.

Alexander's wife, Patience died in 1891 aged just 39, leaving him to bring up their 7 children on his own. Even more fascinating is Alexander's father, Samuel Nash, who had a decorated military career of his own. Born in 1795 in Upton St Leonard, Gloucestershire, he was a professional soldier who fought at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He joined the 13th Regiment of Light Dragoons in 1813 while war with France was well underway.

The 13th was a cavalry regiment, so Samuel would have learned how to fight both on the ground and on horseback. At the Battle of Waterloo, Samuel was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Shapland Boyse. During the battle, Samuel and his comrades made repeated charges against the French lines and completely routed a square of French infantry. Samuel survived the battle and returned to England.

In 1819, he sailed to India to help keep the frontiers of the British Empire secure. While there, the regiment experienced relative peace, apart from the Bangalore Mutiny in 1832. In 1839 the regiment marched against Kurnool during a Muslim uprising. Samuel returned to England in 1840 and left the army. His discharge papers cite his good conduct and a disability.

We wonder how these fascinating finds will affect Stacey and how she sees herself and her relatives. Are there family traits today that she can now trace back to her ancestors? Perhaps one of her newly-found family members will inspire her next career move? Tell us what you think on Facebook, Instagram or Twitter using #WhereWillYourPastYou?

Download our app

©2021 Findmypast

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Sours: https://www.findmypast.co.uk/blog/discoveries/stacey-solomon
The Solomon Family Tree

SOLOMON Genealogy

This SOLOMON index was pre-built so it loads quickly. Click here for live data and advanced tools for collaboration, genetic genealogy, surname projects, etc.

Ann (Solomon) Fuge bef 01 Jan 1793 St Enoder, Cornwall ENGLAND - Dec 1872 managed by Teresa Henderson last edited 18 Oct 2021

Joseph Solomon 26 Jul 1844 Sydney, NSW - May 1897 managed by Angela Wootton

Catherine (Solomon) Barnett 01 Jan 1847 Dapto, New South Wales, Australia - 10 Apr 1896

Lewis Henry Solomon 01 Nov 1848 Sydney, NSW, Australia - 25 Dec 1867

Henry Solomon 18 Sep 1840 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia - 21 Dec 1900

Ellen (Solomon) Lipstine 20 Jul 1842 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia - 27 Mar 1894

Myer Solomon 03 Jan 1837 - 07 Sep 1906

Sarah (Solomon) Myers 03 Feb 1836 - 26 Jan 1890

William John Solomon abt 12 May 1875 Ontario managed by Erin Breen last edited 16 Oct 2021

Allyne Ferrell (Solomon) Moore 14 Jun 1892 Love, DeSoto, Mississippi, United States - 01 Aug 1959 managed by Chere Lee last edited 14 Oct 2021

Maxine Solomon 07 Oct 1943 Norris, Latimer, Oklahoma, United States - 19 Nov 1943 managed by Lita Christopher

Lena Solomon 24 Feb 1925 Red Oak, Latimer, Oklahoma, United States - 21 May 1937

Jane A. (Solomon) Crouch abt 1835 Alexandria, District of Columbia, United States - 12 Mar 1882 managed by John Crouch last edited 12 Oct 2021

Emmanuel Solomon1800 London, England - 03 Oct 1873 photo managed by Lucinda Catchlove last edited 11 Oct 2021

Jessica Solomon abt 1740 - aft 1761 managed by Alison Cleary

Elizabeth Harman (Solomon) West abt 1761 Great Houghton, Northamptonshire, England - 17 Mar 1816 managed by Anneshka Brown

Altha Lee (Solomon) White 28 May 1924 Waldron, Scott, Arkansas, United States - 10 Oct 2010 managed by Michael White last edited 10 Oct 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Cynthia Morgan last edited 9 Oct 2021

Unlisted Solomon

Mary Regina (Solomon) Nault 07 May 1899 Killarney, Manitoulin, Ontario, Canada - aft 1960 managed by Teresa Theodore last edited 8 Oct 2021

Georgann (Solomon) Wootten 1857 Coffee, Georgia, United States - 1880 managed by Mickey Riley last edited 7 Oct 2021

Oris (Solomon) Wooten 15 Dec 1925 - 22 Feb 2002

Terry SolomonPrivacy Level: Private with Public Biography and Family Tree (Yellow) managed by Terry Solomon last edited 6 Oct 2021 Active member145

Unlisted Solomon managed by JodiLyn Abrams

Unlisted Solomon

Ephraim Henry Solomon abt 1870 Greater London, England - 13 Nov 1952 managed by Julie Collins

Noel Raymond (Solomon) Sutherland 06 Feb 1946 Carbethon, Malvern, Victoria, Australia - 08 Jun 1982

Ronald Stuart (Solomon) Sutherland 11 Jan 1929 Carlton, Victoria, Australia - 15 Feb 1986

Caroline Jane (Solomon) Myers abt 1824 - 13 Aug 1914 managed by Julie Collins last edited 5 Oct 2021

Donald Eugene Solomon Sr. 18 May 1947 - 30 Apr 2007

Elizabeth (Solomon) Burnett abt 1745 - aft 1770 managed by Carole Taylor last edited 2 Oct 2021

Jenney (Solomon) Short bef 05 Feb 1770 Dartmouth St Petrox, Devon, England - 1857 last edited 1 Oct 2021

Deborah Ann (Solomon) Stein abt 1955 - abt 1994 managed by Bertina Standridge last edited 30 Sep 2021

Mary Ann (Solomon) Floyd 24 Mar 1856 Arkansas, United States - 21 Jul 1934 managed by Ron Floyd last edited 28 Sep 2021

Unlisted Solomonphoto managed by Lindsay Foot

Lizzie Omega (Solomon) Trussell 05 Nov 1885 - 01 Nov 1974 managed by Rebecca Peterson last edited 26 Sep 2021

John W Solomon Jr 24 Jul 1884 Jones County, Georgia - 19 Feb 1935 managed by Emma MacBeath last edited 23 Sep 2021

Ed Solomon1960s Privacy Level: Private with Public Biography and Family Tree (Yellow)photo managed by Notables Project WikiTree last edited 22 Sep 2021

Unlisted Solomon

Jennie (Solomon) Strug 20 Aug 1908 New Orleans, Orleans, Louisiana, United States - 30 Nov 1977 last edited 21 Sep 2021

Homer Solomon 01 May 1934 Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States - 17 Dec 2010

Homer Solomon abt 15 May 1911 Georgia, United States - 25 May 1992 last edited 20 Sep 2021

Emanuel Henry Solomon abt 1866 - 1924

Ira Levi Solomon abt 11 Nov 1927 Missouri, United States - abt 21 Nov 2002 managed by Anonymous Hooks

Peggy Gail (Solomon) Moore23 Dec 1946 Alapaha, Berrien, Georgia, United States - 05 Dec 1984 photo managed by Mary Handy last edited 19 Sep 2021

Marion (Solomon) Polchies Feb 1907 Kingsclear 6, York, New Brunswick, Canada - 23 Nov 1926 managed by Aaron Gullison last edited 18 Sep 2021

Abel Gabriel Solomon 10 Feb 1870 Kingsclear 6, York, New Brunswick, Canada - Mar 1950

King SolomonPrivacy Level: Private with Public Biography and Family Tree (Yellow) managed by King Solomon last edited 16 Sep 2021 Active member2

Alexander Solomon 1850 Birmingham, West Midlands, England, United Kingdom last edited 14 Sep 2021

Asher Solomon 1858 Birmingham, West Midlands, England, United Kingdom

Samuel Solomon 1856 Birmingham, West Midlands, England, United Kingdom

Robbie Naomi (Solomon) Spencer 30 Nov 1926 Lynchburg, Moore, Tennessee, United States - 25 Feb 2016 managed by Terri McGhee last edited 13 Sep 2021

Bart Solomon Mar 1845 North Carolina, United States last edited 9 Sep 2021

Hanna (Solomon) Greenvald abt 1870 - 11 Aug 1920 managed by A Plan last edited 5 Sep 2021

Joseph Solomon abt 1840 Germany - aft 1920

Samuel Isaac Solomon 1828 Kurnik, Schrimm, Posen, Prussia, Germany - 10 Aug 1920 managed by Judith Stokes

John Henry Solomon15 Sep 1905 Franklin, Tennessee, United States - 23 Feb 1982 photo managed by Terri McGhee last edited 2 Sep 2021

Christine Olyetia (Solomon) Painter 03 Dec 1924 Lynchburg, Moore, Tennessee, United States - 15 Apr 2018 last edited 1 Sep 2021

Joel Wolfe Solomon abt 1805 St Martin in the Fields, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom - 30 May 1863 managed by Susan Stopford

John Solomon bef 1747 Gillingham, Kent, England managed by Julie Weller last edited 31 Aug 2021

Joseph Marion Solomon 31 Mar 1867 Love, DeSoto, Mississippi, United States - 30 Dec 1930 managed by Chere Lee last edited 28 Aug 2021

Augustus Marion Solomon 1829 Lincoln Co., TN - 21 Aug 1896 managed by Larry Kingsley

C. Anna (Solomon) Mosby 20 Oct 1859 DeSoto, Mississippi, United States - 14 Sep 1933 managed by Kathryn Ayers

Francis Solomon 18 Aug 1902 - 19 Aug 1902 last edited 25 Aug 2021

Howard Augustus Solomon 20 Jul 1865 West Freehold, Monmouth, New Jersey, United States - 16 Oct 1951 managed by Wing Mayer

Bennett Solomon abt 1773 North Carolina managed by Admin WikiTree last edited 24 Aug 2021

Luke Solomon abt 1774 North Carolina - abt 1846

Goodwin Solomon abt 1770 North Carolina

Suky Solomon 22 Feb 1750 Albemarle Parish, Surry, Colony of Virginia

Isham Solomon 06 Oct 1741 Albemarle Parish, Surry, Colony of Virginia

Judith Solomon 02 Sep 1737 Albemarle Parish, Surry, Colony of Virginia

Marion (Solomon) Betts 17 Dec 1902 Queensland, Australia - 28 Sep 1991 managed by Julie Parkinson

Mary (Solomon) Jessup 03 May 1767 Chatham, Kent, England - 10 Aug 1844 managed by Julie Weller last edited 23 Aug 2021

Elizabeth (Solomon) Judd 1776 Franklin, North Carolina - 1857 managed by John Britton Boney last edited 22 Aug 2021

Winnifred (Solomon) Owens abt 1730 Franklin, North Carolina - abt 1831 managed by Brenda Wright

William Bennett Solomon 22 Dec 1738 Albemarle, Surry Co., VA. - 09 Dec 1814 managed by Richard Lewis last edited 21 Aug 2021

William Solomon 1717 Albemarle Parish, Surry, Virginia - 1796

Jane (Solomon) Lewis 1789 Franklin, North Carolina, United States - 1860 managed by Admin WikiTree last edited 20 Aug 2021

Sally Solomon abt 1783 Franklin, North Carolina, United States

William Bennett Solomon Jr 09 Jul 1785 Franklin, North Carolina, United States - 30 Jun 1845

Jordan Solomon 1781 Franklin, North Carolina, United States

Dica (Solomon) Hall abt 1780 Franklin, North Carolina, United States

Samuel Solomon abt 1869 Russia managed by Lisa Talbott

Unlisted Solomon managed by Teresa Tew last edited 19 Aug 2021

Julia (Solomon) Lawrence abt 1800 St Martin in the Fields, Westminster, Middlesex, England - 25 Jul 1876 managed by Susan Stopford last edited 18 Aug 2021

Nathaniel Solomon 1735 Margate, Kent, England - 1793 managed by Steve Winterton last edited 16 Aug 2021

Almira (Solomon) Waldby abt 1837 Pennsylvania, United States - abt 1887 last edited 15 Aug 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Rick Heiser last edited 14 Aug 2021

Thomas Edward Solomon 27 Jul 1927 Warrenton, Warren, North Carolina, United States - 24 Jan 1996

Haywood Solomon 1916 North Carolina, United States last edited 13 Aug 2021

William Thomas Solomon 1914 North Carolina, United States

Lewis Solomon 18 Dec 1896 North Carolina, United States - 04 May 1977

Samuel Frederick Solomon 28 Aug 1892 North Carolina, United States - Sep 1971

King David Solomon 21 Aug 1898 North Carolina, United States - 28 Nov 1988

Paul Lawrence Solomon 21 Feb 1921 North Carolina, United States - 14 Apr 2008 managed by Kate Schmidt

Joseph Solomon 30 Aug 1910 North Carolina, United States - 08 Jul 1972

Maria Marion (Solomon) Zaporzan abt 1891 Galicia, Austria - 28 Jun 1979 managed by Brian Delaney

Mary (Solomon) Epstein abt 1857 Russian Empire - aft 1910 last edited 12 Aug 2021

Eve (Solomon) Fisher 05 Jan 1846 - 10 Apr 1884 managed by Ethan Shulman last edited 11 Aug 2021

Adeline (Solomon) Bell abt Apr 1841 Kentucky, United States - 10 Sep 1909 managed by Keith Stromberg

Richard Solomon abt 1788 St Columb, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom - 28 Jun 1862 managed by S Holm last edited 8 Aug 2021

Philip Solomon abt 1799 Aldgate, Rutland, England - abt 1886 managed by Treena Hunter last edited 6 Aug 2021

Vaiben Solomon abt 1802 London, England, United Kingdom - 21 Jun 1860 managed by Lucinda Catchlove last edited 4 Aug 2021

Thomas Solomon abt 1783 St Columb Major, Cornwall, England - 1861 managed by John Atkinson

Pamela Anne (Solomon) Nickerson 27 Feb 1803 Baltimore, Maryland, United States - 10 Apr 1880 managed by Lee Butler last edited 3 Aug 2021

John Solomon bef 13 Mar 1826 Mawgan in Pydar, Cornwall, England managed by Irene Marlborough last edited 31 Jul 2021

Fanny (Solomon) Joseph 1815 Poland - Jul 1856 managed by Jeff Bronks last edited 30 Jul 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Rick Heiser last edited 29 Jul 2021

James Ross Solomon 01 Feb 1947 Harris, Texas, United States - 02 Feb 1947 managed by Christine Fuller

James Ross Solomon 25 Dec 1924 Houston, Harris, Texas, United States - 18 Sep 1993

James Ross Solomon 07 Jan 1898 Belton, Bell, Texas, United States - 01 Mar 1943

Dottie Elizabeth Solomon 08 Jan 1923 Texas, United States - 24 Feb 1923

Rachel Solomon 12 Nov 1835 - aft 1876 managed by Treena Hunter last edited 28 Jul 2021

Dorothy Pearl (Solomon) Garner abt 06 Oct 1909 - abt 31 Aug 1998 managed by Gavan Dunn last edited 27 Jul 2021

Sam Ellis Solomon 27 Mar 1879 Kentucky, United States - 18 Feb 1960 last edited 26 Jul 2021

William Thomas Solomon 11 Jul 1849 Trigg, Kentucky, United States - 30 Jan 1892

Lois Christina (Solomon) Raby 24 Feb 1911 Hancock, Plymouth, Iowa, United States - 18 Oct 1993 managed by Gary Burgess last edited 24 Jul 2021

Elizabeth (Solomon) Sage 31 Jul 1838 - 21 Feb 1857

Marlin Dee Solomon 16 Dec 1928 Fulton, Itawamba, Mississippi, USA - 15 Dec 1957 last edited 23 Jul 2021

Charles Solomon 1832 London, Middlesex, England - 15 Nov 1915

Rosetta (Solomon) Cohen 1831 England - 27 Nov 1907

Maurice Solomon abt 1828 London, England, United Kingdom - 03 Sep 1873

Hannah (Solomon) Keesing 1828 London, Middlesex, England - 13 Dec 1918

Emma (Solomon) Reuben abt 1823 Bath, Somerset, England - 22 Jun 1899 managed by J Cherry

Elizabeth (Solomon) Zadock 1822 Bath, Somerset, England - 16 Oct 1854

Julia (Solomon) Levy 01 Feb 1826 Bath, Somerset, England - 05 Sep 1914

Alexander David Solomon 1855 London, England - 1940

David Solomon abt 1900 England, United Kingdom last edited 22 Jul 2021

Gustie Solomon 1883 United States

Albert F Solomon abt 1850 Michigan, United States

Unlisted Solomon managed by Peter Raath last edited 20 Jul 2021

Unlisted Solomonphoto
Unlisted Solomonphoto
Unlisted Solomonphoto
Unlisted Solomonphoto
Unlisted Solomonphoto

Esther (Solomon) Levy 1823 England, United Kingdom

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

Elizabeth Solomon last edited 16 Jul 2021

Elizabeth Solomon 1864 Ffestiniog, Merionethshire, Wales, United Kingdom - 1865 managed by Steve Bartlett last edited 15 Jul 2021

Griffith Solomon abt 1833 Llandegai, Caernarfonshire, Wales, United Kingdom

Unlisted Solomon managed by Alex Douglas

Nicolas Louis Auguste Solomon abt 1776 Grignan, Drôme, Rhône-Alpes, France last edited 14 Jul 2021

Louis Joseph Solomon abt 1735 France - abt 1802

Thomas Jefferson Solomon 18 Aug 1867 Madison, Indiana, USA - 13 Dec 1937

Sampson Solomon 10 Feb 1801 North Carolina, USA - 01 Oct 1857

Leveter Johnson Solomon 22 Nov 1770 Surry, North Carolina - 1840

John Solomon 1750 Virginia

Lewis O. Solomon 1676 Colan, Cornwall, England - 20 Jul 1743

Giles Solomon 01 Jan 1610 Buxted, Sussex, England - 27 Aug 1676

Francis M Solomon 1841 Clinton, Ohio, USA - 1877

Bartholomew Solomon abt 03 Feb 1571 Worth, Sussex, England - abt 30 Dec 1628

Adele Beatrice (Solomon) Zepnick 04 Aug 1918 Bronx, New York, United States - 08 Dec 2003 last edited 13 Jul 2021

Irving Israel Solomon07 Mar 1911 Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States - 14 Jan 1993 photo last edited 12 Jul 2021

Russell Warren Leslie Solomon 10 Feb 1905 Detroit, Wayne, Michigan, United States - 26 Mar 1975 managed by Megan Ryno

Drusilla Jane (Solomon) Wills 02 Jul 1801 Franklin County, North Carolina, USA - 24 Aug 1876

Elizabeth Mary Solomon 1904 Melbourne - 1982 managed by John McAnally last edited 6 Jul 2021

Sophie Solomon abt 1850 managed by Eric Miller last edited 3 Jul 2021

Esther (Solomon) Fleishman 26 Nov 1902 - 12 Apr 1945 managed by Josef Sachs last edited 1 Jul 2021

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon managed by Rick Heiser

Wyatt Hester Solomon 24 Aug 1916 Childress, Childress Co., TX - 15 Jul 1976 managed by Larry Kingsley

John Nelson Solomon 19 Jan 1946 Childress, Childress County, Texas - 28 Feb 1946

Joseph Dale Solomon 16 May 1951 Wellington, Collingsworth County, Texas - 19 Aug 2010

William Herbert Solomon 04 Sep 1909 Georgia, United States - 31 Aug 1990 last edited 28 Jun 2021

William John Solomon 1866 - 28 Feb 1920 managed by Tristan Burtenshaw last edited 27 Jun 2021

Thomas Solomon 1824 England - 1899 last edited 26 Jun 2021

Edward Solomon abt 1775 Margate, Kent, England - 10 May 1855 managed by Steve Winterton last edited 21 Jun 2021

Elizabeth Lenie Solomon 1775 Margate, Kent, England

William Solomon Oct 1877 Mutford, Suffolk, England, United Kingdom - 25 Dec 1916 managed by Michael Rhodes last edited 19 Jun 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Laurie Hughes last edited 18 Jun 2021

Antoine Solomon abt 1836 France - aft 1880 managed by Seth Potthast

Hershel Alter Solomon 04 Jul 1904 Lespeci, Romania

Ann (Solomon) Burdue bef 1689 managed by K Raymoure

Susannah (Solomon) Williams 26 May 1729 Kenwyn, Cornwall, England - 10 Feb 1812 managed by Robert Edward Fletcher last edited 17 Jun 2021

Nancy E (Solomon) Stephens abt 1846 Overton, Tennessee, United States - 10 Oct 1913 managed by Lita Christopher last edited 16 Jun 2021

Mary (Solomon) Walker abt 1806 England managed by John Sigh last edited 15 Jun 2021

Lewis Gideon Solomonabt 1789 Canterbury, Kent, England - 10 Feb 1868 photo managed by Brad Cunningham last edited 14 Jun 2021

James Herman (Solomon) Reese 01 Oct 1901 New York City, New York, United States - 13 Jul 1994 managed by Bryce Jorgensen last edited 13 Jun 2021

Cecil J. Solomon abt May 1900 New York, United States last edited 9 Jun 2021

Wilhelm Solomon 16 Nov 1871 Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States - 09 Nov 1948

Unlisted Solomon managed by K. Bloom

Arminda Jane (Solomon) Parker 28 Sep 1875 Wolf'S Crossing, Llano, Texas, United States - 19 May 1972

David Lee Solomon 25 Dec 1852 Telfair, Georgia, United States - 10 Feb 1938

Ann (Solomon) Pratt 1816 - 1880 managed by Greg Scannell last edited 8 Jun 2021

Elizabeth Jacoba (Solomon) de Villiers Cape Town, Cape Colony - 07 Feb 1909 managed by Desireé Schekierka last edited 7 Jun 2021

Pennie (Solomon) Hilliard Apr 1878 Georgia, United States - 13 May 1972 last edited 6 Jun 2021

Benjamin Solomon abt 1770 - 02 Mar 1844 managed by Lee Butler last edited 5 Jun 2021

Ivy Pearl (Solomon) Hinds 1916 Perth, Western Australia, Australia - 05 Jun 1976 managed by Myles Hannan

Frederick Haywood Solomon Sr. 23 Apr 1895 Key West, Monroe, Florida, United States - 1951 last edited 3 Jun 2021

Lewis Solomon 1720 Surry County, Virginia Colony

James Solomon 31 Jul 1741 Albemarle Parish, Surry County, Virginia Colony managed by Southern Pioneers Project WikiTree

Joseph William Solomon 18 May 1878 Belvidere, Franklin, Tennessee, United States - 27 Mar 1947 managed by Terri McGhee last edited 31 May 2021

George J. Solomon 18 May 1922 Lawrence, Essex, Massachusetts, United States - 05 Sep 2013 managed by Janice Throp last edited 29 May 2021

Judah Yehuda Leib Solomon abt 1771 Sheerness, Kent, England - 18 Feb 1856 managed by Marian Hearn last edited 23 May 2021

Phillip P J Solomon 1910 New South Wales, Australia managed by Bill Reynolds last edited 20 May 2021

Thomas Solomon abt 1760 St Columb Major, Cornwall, England - abt 28 Dec 1790 managed by S Holm

Unlisted Solomon managed by Marjorie Reeves last edited 19 May 2021

Sheldon Charles Solomon abt 1918 The Bronx, New York City, New York, United States - abt 2010

Glen James (Solomon) Sutherland 1923 Carlton, Victoria, Australia - 1988

Samuel Thomas Solomon abt 1722 St Columb Major, Cornwall, England - abt 1799 managed by John Atkinson last edited 14 May 2021

Susan (Solomon) Passmore abt 1824 St Stephen, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom managed by S Holm last edited 12 May 2021

Ulysses Sidney Solomon 13 Dec 1876 Raleigh, Wake, North Carolina, United States - 13 Dec 1949 managed by Anonymous Langdale

Unlisted Solomon managed by Trudy Kinney

Cyril P Solomon 1922 - 2011 managed by Tammy Hinkle last edited 10 May 2021

Matilda (Solomon) Nichols bef 1895 last edited 9 May 2021

Joseph Solomon abt 1824 - 17 Jun 1888

Giles Solomon 01 Jan 1607 Buxted, Sussex, England - 27 Aug 1676 managed by Roger Churm last edited 8 May 2021

Stephen Solomon abt 1653 Buxted, Sussex, England - 01 Jan 1702 managed by Lucinda Catchlove

Margaret (Solomon) Coleman 1825 New South Wales - 1851 managed by Gillian Thomas last edited 5 May 2021

Mamie M. (Solomon) Welch Sep 1857 North Carolina - aft 1910 managed by Linda Peterson last edited 4 May 2021

William John Solomon 1888 Hotham West, Victoria, Australia - 24 Jul 1935 last edited 30 Apr 2021

Sarah S Solomon 15 Dec 1894 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - 24 Jul 1917

Louis Solomon 1886 Victoria, Australia - 15 Jun 1886

Unlisted Solomon managed by Suz Broussard

Erwin Seymour Solomon 05 Feb 1918 Virginia, United States - 11 Jun 1986 last edited 29 Apr 2021

Michael Hiner Solomon 18 Oct 1952 Virginia, United States - 03 Aug 2006

Isabella Morley (Solomon) Hoyland abt 1864 Launceston, Tasmania, Australia - 1908 last edited 27 Apr 2021

Gottfried Solomon 03 Jul 1827 Luxembourg, Luxembourg - 07 Jun 1894 last edited 26 Apr 2021

Peyton Woodson Solomon 09 Oct 1878 Coldwater, Tate, Mississippi, United States - 21 Jun 1938

Eva Hope (Solomon) Gyles 1880 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - 25 Dec 1964 last edited 25 Apr 2021

John W Solomon abt 1825 Grainger, Tennessee, United States - abt 1878 managed by Lonnie Jones last edited 24 Apr 2021

Theresa (Solomon) Mandell abt 1901 New York, United States

Godfrey Alexander Solomon 17 May 1882 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - 1949

Harry V. Solomon 13 Jul 1897 Almena Township, Van Buren, Michigan, United States - 27 Aug 1963 last edited 23 Apr 2021

Harold John Solomon18 Jul 1893 Key West FL - 13 Mar 1954 photo managed by Glenda Solomon last edited 19 Apr 2021

Lloid Chestly Solomon 08 Nov 1919 - 03 Nov 1994

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

Cinderella Crocker (Solomon) Heartwell 20 Apr 1832 Georgia, United States - 04 Apr 1866 managed by S Weber last edited 12 Apr 2021

Rose B. (Solomon) Moore abt 14 Jan 1890 Romania - 1945

Phillip Solomon abt 1860 - bef 1930

Max Solomon abt 1870 Romania - abt 24 Jun 1911 managed by Damon Raphael last edited 9 Apr 2021

Ann (Solomon) Tippett bef 1788 St Columb Minor, Cornwall, England managed by Sally Douglas last edited 6 Apr 2021

Charles Solomon abt 1853 Ontario - 01 Oct 1916 last edited 5 Apr 2021

I. Solomon abt 1906 - 13 Jul 1942 managed by Frederik Willem Johannes Britz last edited 2 Apr 2021

Laurie Solomon - 07 Oct 1941

William John Solomon 01 Feb 1854 Bendigo, Victoria, Australia - 20 May 1932 managed by Alex Douglas last edited 31 Mar 2021

Anna (Solomon) Margolis abt Apr 1870 Ohio, United States - 09 Dec 1931 last edited 30 Mar 2021

Elizabeth Solomon 1825 managed by P. Henwood last edited 28 Mar 2021

Melvin Charles Solomon 01 Jun 1897 Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah - 26 Apr 1989 managed by Hans Nielsen last edited 27 Mar 2021

Jean Solomon 29 Jun 1912 Hotham West, Victoria, Australia - 17 Jul 1912 last edited 26 Mar 2021

Mary Polly (Solomon) Owen 19 Dec 1774 North Carolina - abt 1860 managed by Brenda Wright last edited 23 Mar 2021

Julius Solomon 1878 Amherst, Victoria, Australia - 08 Jul 1933 managed by Judith Stokes

Moss Samuel Solomon 1861 Adelaide, South Australia, Australia - 16 Jul 1934 managed by Graeme Freeland

Samuel Moss Solomon 1835 - 1921 managed by Lucinda Catchlove last edited 22 Mar 2021

Hannah (Solomon) Cohen 1801 London, Middlesex, England - 01 Sep 1849

Moss Samuel Solomon abt 1862 managed by Graeme Freeland

Annie Coats (Solomon) Herbison abt 1880 - abt 1965 managed by Anne Herbison

Harry Ross Hope (Solomon) Sutherland 25 Dec 1919 Carlton, Victoria, Australia - 21 Apr 2013 last edited 20 Mar 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Geo Ford last edited 19 Mar 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Rick Adler last edited 16 Mar 2021

Ephraim Dalton Solomon 06 Sep 1877 Mulmur, Ontario, Canada managed by Erin Breen

Lion Henry Solomon 19 Dec 1809 Sheerness, Kent, England - 01 May 1884 managed by Coral Horton last edited 14 Mar 2021

Roy George Solomon 12 Sep 1906 Cleveland, Ohio, USA - 12 Jul 1994 managed by Rick Heiser

Dorothy Solomon managed by Gavin Leicester last edited 13 Mar 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Josh Richard last edited 12 Mar 2021

Vaiben Louis Solomon13 May 1853 Weymouth Street, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia - 20 Oct 1908 photo managed by Lucinda Catchlove last edited 11 Mar 2021

Mable Evelyn Solomon 28 Feb 1912 Marshalltown, Iowa - 20 Feb 1978

Henry H. Solomon 1888 South Dakota, United States managed by Clark Stephens last edited 10 Mar 2021

Caroline Solomon abt 1865 St. Giles, Middlesex, England managed by Ellen Maggs

Elizabeth (Solomon) Easterbrook 1855 St Blazey, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom managed by Frances McCarthy last edited 9 Mar 2021

Minnie Ruth (Solomon) Owens 27 Apr 1915 Macon, Bibb, Georgia, United States - 27 Jun 2001 last edited 7 Mar 2021

Ellen Solomon 1872 Port Chalmers, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand. managed by John Manning last edited 6 Mar 2021

Victoria (Solomon) Mc Clelland 07 Sep 1855 Georgia, United States - 08 Nov 1937 last edited 5 Mar 2021

Martha (Solomon) Willson 17 Jan 1847 Ontario, Canada - 22 Mar 1934 last edited 3 Mar 2021

Mary Rebecca Solomon abt 1825 Twiggs, Georgia, United States - abt 1858 managed by Joel Johnson

Unlisted Solomon managed by Laurie Hughes last edited 2 Mar 2021

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

Forrest Elmore Solomon 06 Jan 1920 Elkton, Douglas, Oregon, United States - 17 Feb 1991

Jerald Marvin Solomon 15 Oct 1939 Eugene, Lane, Oregon, United States - 10 Jun 2005

Unlisted Solomon

Charles Solomon 1892 Carlton, Victoria, Australia - 30 Apr 1893

Mary R Solomon managed by Richard Bassin last edited 1 Mar 2021

Mary Jane Solomon abt 1880 Ontario managed by Erin Breen

Ephriam Solomon managed by Staci Golladay

Carl Solomon Germany, Denmark managed by Cindy Martin

Unlisted Solomon managed by Peter Taub last edited 28 Feb 2021

James Nelson Solomon 1881 Fall River, Mass - abt 1976 managed by Audrey Irvine

Jerome Lester Solomon 26 Jan 1922 Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States - 11 Feb 1993 last edited 26 Feb 2021

Ada (Solomon) Hendy 20 Oct 1876 managed by Anon Anon

Ardeth Nazek (Solomon) Dandy abt 17 Jun 1930 - abt 24 Dec 2000 managed by Ibrahim Dawud

Lydia Solomon 1876 managed by Joe Crowder last edited 25 Feb 2021

Alvin Solomon abt 1798 North Carolina, United States managed by Lita Christopher

Chesley Cole Solomon 1826 Kentucky, United States

Rose (Solomon) Addlestone abt 1875 Russia - 09 Dec 1954 managed by Ben Addlestone

Ruth Solomon 05 Aug 1921 Brooklyn, New York, USA - 15 Jan 1987 managed by Damon Raphael last edited 23 Feb 2021

Mildred Solomon 20 Aug 1919 Brooklyn, New York, USA - aft 2008 last edited 22 Feb 2021

Chester Charles Solomon 01 Sep 1904 Cleveland, Ohio, USA - 25 Jun 1981 managed by Rick Heiser last edited 21 Feb 2021

Louis Solomon 25 Oct 1905 Russia - 18 Dec 1970 managed by Melissa Sand

Ted Moore (Solomon) Hopes 12 Aug 1931 Cleveland, Cuyahoga, Ohio, United States - 11 Jan 2014

Rebecca (Solomon) Frizzell 07 Nov 1825 Seneca, Ohio, United States - 16 Mar 1881 managed by Linda Leslie last edited 20 Feb 2021

William Shelton Solomon II 21 Dec 1821 Baltimore, Maryland, United States - abt Sep 1863 managed by Peter Roberts last edited 19 Feb 2021

Katherine (Solomon) Saylor 1739 Sniders Creek, Mecklenburg, North Carolina, managed by Darryl Saylor

Charles Emmit Solomon 1719 Sniders Creek, Mecklenburg, North Carolina, Colonial America - 1789

Mary (Solomon) Kirkland 17 Feb 1845 Broxton, Coffee, Georgia, United States - 04 Apr 1889 managed by D Natale last edited 18 Feb 2021

William Shelton Solomon 12 May 1855 Key West, Monroe County, Florida - 13 Aug 1939 managed by Ann Carmel last edited 17 Feb 2021

Joseph A Solomon abt 1860 - abt 1920 managed by Audrey Irvine last edited 15 Feb 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Rick Adler

James (Solomon) Nelson abt 1907 New Hampshire, United States - abt 1980 managed by Audrey Irvine last edited 14 Feb 2021

Arthur Solomon abt 1921 Moultonborough, Carroll, New Hampshire, United States - abt 1990

Nickles Daniel Solomon 1820 England managed by J Anonymous

William C Solomon 13 Oct 1866 Jackson, Tennessee, United States - 16 Nov 1941 last edited 13 Feb 2021

Vera Catherine Anna Solomon 1909 Carlton, Victoria, Australia

David Roland Hope Solomon 1917 Hotham West, Victoria, Australia

Leslie Fisher Hope (Solomon) Sutherland 24 Sep 1914 Hotham, Victoria, Australia - 10 Apr 2001

Stuart Solomon 21 Apr 1932 - 2012 managed by Bob Stein last edited 12 Feb 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Brian Penske last edited 10 Feb 2021

Caroline Wilalmiena (Solomon) Du Toit bef 1915 - bef 1987 managed by Hannes Wepener last edited 8 Feb 2021

Robert Farmer Solomon 02 Apr 1916 Rhea, Tennessee, United States - 08 Feb 1985 managed by James Real last edited 7 Feb 2021

Godfrey William Clarence Solomon 1910 Hotham West, Victoria, Australia last edited 6 Feb 2021

William Solomon abt 1770 managed by Della Nash last edited 5 Feb 2021

Anna Solomon abt 1813 ,,Kentucky - aft 1870

Unlisted Solomon managed by Jan Mieny last edited 3 Feb 2021

Janice Ann (Solomon) Mansfield 15 Mar 1939 - 08 Oct 2007

Joseph Solomon 1885 Beït ed Dîne, Mount Lebanon, Lebanon - abt 1965

Kenneth Alan Solomon Sr 29 Apr 1926 Lansing, Ingham, Michigan, United States - 23 Sep 1995

Unlisted Solomon

Elizabeth (Solomon) Heilman 16 May 1853 Jennings County, Indiana, USA - 26 Jun 1941 managed by Michael Heilman last edited 1 Feb 2021

Steve Solomon 17 May 1911 Keenan, Venango Township, Butler, Pennsylvania, United States - May 1975 managed by Frank Stanley last edited 30 Jan 2021

Lydia (Solomon) Cohen abt 1851 Birmingham, West Midlands, England, United Kingdom managed by Elaine Mattsen last edited 29 Jan 2021

Susannah (Solomon) Davis 1842 Isle of Grain, Kent, England, United Kingdom - 28 Mar 1918 managed by Dee Baker last edited 26 Jan 2021

Jane Solomon 1861 Sydney NSW Australia - 1939 managed by Rod Kennedy

Ashley Forest Solomon 30 Jun 1915 Timpson, Shelby, Texas, United States - 01 Mar 1979 managed by E. Logan last edited 25 Jan 2021

Tommy Wayne Solomon 15 Jul 1953 Lufkin, Angelina, Texas, United States - 01 Oct 1991

Jerry Lynn Solomon 05 Mar 1946 Lufkin, Angelina, Texas, United States - 08 Dec 1993

Edna Velma (Solomon) Ogletree 25 Jun 1908 Timpson, Shelby, Texas, United States - 18 Feb 1990

Unnamed Infant Solomon 11 Sep 1910 Timpson, Shelby, Texas, United States - 11 Sep 1910

Ashley Alfred Solomon 09 Sep 1874 Shelby, Texas, United States - 07 Jan 1957

Lillian Leota (Solomon) Hay 02 Nov 1903 Timpson, Shelby, Texas, United States - 10 Apr 1962

Leonora (Solomon) Aubert 1725 Nederlands Ceylon managed by Marc Whitaker

Elizabeth Green (Solomon) Whiteside 26 Jan 1901 Carthage, Panola, Texas, United States - 27 Jan 1974 managed by E. Logan

Maina Solomon abt 30 Nov 1897 Panola, Texas, United States - bef 1900

Archibald King Solomon 05 May 1899 Carthage, Panola, Texas, United States - 06 Nov 1966

Mildred Cecile (Solomon) Hardage 18 Dec 1895 Carthage, Panola, Texas, United States - 08 Jun 1959 last edited 24 Jan 2021

Adela Isabella (Solomon) Boas 09 Jan 1878 - 29 Mar 1965 managed by Steve Clarke last edited 21 Jan 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Thomas Redmond last edited 16 Jan 2021

Unlisted Solomon managed by Rick Adler last edited 15 Jan 2021

Elizabeth (Solomon) George 1782 Parish of St Columb Minor, Cornwall, England - 1847

Margaret Christine Solomon 13 Sep 1921 Holdenville, Hughes, Oklahoma - 13 Jun 2011 managed by Kimberly Carroll last edited 10 Jan 2021

Mary (Solomon) Pill 1831 Truro St Mary, Cornwall, England - 1913 last edited 7 Jan 2021

William Aaron Solomon abt 1917 last edited 6 Jan 2021

Sarah Aseneth (Solomon) Barclay 03 May 1868 Durham, Bucks, Pennsylvania, United States - 05 Jun 1935 managed by Larry Kingsley last edited 5 Jan 2021

Eunice Olive (Solomon) Sington abt 1887 Toxteth, Liverpool, Lancashire, England - abt 1961 managed by Cathy Shaw last edited 4 Jan 2021

William Solomon bef 30 Oct 1763 Truro, Cornwall, , England - 30 Jul 1847 managed by Dave Bendt

Ann (Solomon) Jose bef 21 Apr 1771 Kenwyn, Cornwall, England - Dec 1840 managed by Martin Hobbs-Watson

Henry Solomon 20 Mar 1797 Truro St Mary, Cornwall, England - 1879

Joseph Solomon abt 01 Jan 1895 managed by Peter Taub

Samuel Solomon 23 Feb 1863 - 02 Oct 1918 managed by Angela Wootton

Gloria Solomon last edited 3 Jan 2021

Lona Mae (Solomon) Duckworth 01 Jul 1914 Ozark, Missouri, United States - 03 Jul 1985 managed by Anthony Young last edited 30 Dec 2020

Unlisted Solomon

Viola Marie (Solomon) Duff 18 Jul 1941 Douglas, Missouri, United States - 12 Dec 1981 managed by Anthony Young last edited 28 Dec 2020

John Solomon 06 May 1912 McClurg, Taney, Missouri, United States00 - 16 Apr 1982

James A. Solomon abt 1832 Ware, Georgia, United States - 07 Dec 1862 last edited 26 Dec 2020

Rosella Solomon Jun 1875 Pittsburgh, Allegheny, Pennsylvania, United States - 28 Jun 1963 managed by Tracy Barfield

Miriam (Solomon) Wilson abt 01 Jan 1918 Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United States - abt 01 Jan 1986 managed by Hal Wilson last edited 22 Dec 2020

Patience (Solomon) Capen abt 1705 - 25 Mar 1804 last edited 18 Dec 2020

Tillman Hogan Solomon abt 1854 Moniteau, Missouri - abt 1890 managed by Bob Painter

Edward Ely Solomon 09 Jun 1882 - 27 Jan 1963

Maggie Cordelia (Solomon) Painter 29 Jul 1889 - 01 Apr 1969

Joy Leita (Solomon) Anthony 24 Dec 1926 Flint, Genesee, Michigan, United States - 09 Jan 2005 managed by Darren Kellett last edited 17 Dec 2020

Mabel Christina (Solomon) Laing abt 1887 managed by Frederik Willem Johannes Britz

George M Solomon 1852 Tennessee, United States - abt 1925 managed by Joe Crowder

James Millard Solomon 08 Dec 1887 Meg, Franklin, Arkansas, United States - 15 Jun 1971 managed by Lita Christopher

Loris Isador Solomon 01 Jan 1906 Talbot, Victoria, Australia - 13 Jun 1959 managed by Judith Stokes last edited 16 Dec 2020

Julia (Solomon) Bernstein 21 Jan 1835 Kurnik, Schrimm, Posen, Prussia, Germany - 14 Jun 1928

Isidore Solomon abt 1825 Kurnik, Schrimm, Posen, Prussia, Germany - 13 Jan 1902

Solomon Marcus Solomon 08 Jan 1858 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - 09 Mar 1941 last edited 15 Dec 2020

Benjamin Solomon 1895 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - 1896

Lewis Samson Solomon 1899 - 1985

Stella Solomon 1903 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - 1982

Ada (Solomon) Suswein 1892 Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia - 1978 last edited 14 Dec 2020

Miriam Maud (Solomon) Chodowski 1887 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - 20 Aug 1967

Martha Fort Solomon 1836 Macon, Bibb, Georgia, United States - 07 Nov 1898 managed by Neil Hartwell last edited 13 Dec 2020

Elizabeth Solomon abt 1686 managed by Cynthia Curtis last edited 10 Dec 2020

Richard Henry Solomon22 Jun 1930 Lynchburg, Moore, Tennessee, United States - 14 Jul 2015 photo managed by Terri McGhee last edited 8 Dec 2020

Olivia Almarine Solomon 06 Mar 1869 Ross Township, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States - 10 Jan 1876 managed by Linda Leslie last edited 7 Dec 2020

Elva Eleonora Solomon abt 1867 Ross Township, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States - 11 Jan 1876

Anna Elisabeth Solomon abt 05 Dec 1830 Perry Township, Wood, Ohio, United States - 13 Jun 1877

Franz Paul Solomon 04 May 1815 Milford Township, Somerset, Pennsylvania, United States - 13 Feb 1875

Paul Solomon abt 1781 Sussex, New Jersey, United States - abt 1839

Fannie Elizabeth (Solomon) Burgin 1842 North Carolina, United States - 1903 managed by Ronnie Halford last edited 6 Dec 2020

Clarice Lorna Solomon 22 May 1908 Truro, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom - 04 Jun 1978 managed by M. Wood

Miriam (Solomon) Nellis abt 1897 Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut, United States - 08 Jun 1950 managed by Kenneth Nellis last edited 4 Dec 2020

Unlisted Solomon managed by Laurie Hughes last edited 26 Nov 2020

Sussana (Solomon) West 1740 London, England managed by Athol Bloomer

Harriet (Solomon) Alexander managed by Daniel Gideon Krasnegor

Rachel (Solomon) Dempsey abt 1765 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - abt 1849 managed by John Roberts last edited 23 Nov 2020

Thomas Frederick Solomon12 Dec 1929 New Castle, Henry County, Indiana, USA - 30 Aug 1966 photo managed by Kenneth Shelton last edited 21 Nov 2020

Terry Lee (Solomon) Starrett 04 Feb 1957 New Castle, Henry County, Indiana, USA - 16 Apr 2019 last edited 20 Nov 2020

Katora (Solomon) Lawler abt 1901 Otorohanga, New Zealand - abt 1975 managed by Ann Lawler last edited 19 Nov 2020

David Harris Solomon 07 Mar 1923 Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts, United States - 09 Jul 2013 last edited 16 Nov 2020

Titus Frank Solomon 1890 - 1954 managed by David Clingham last edited 14 Nov 2020

Jephtha Solomon 1850

Unlisted Solomon

Sarah (Solomon) Hakin abt 1700 managed by Alex Cornish

Louisa (Solomon) Allan bef 28 Sep 1851 Roche, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom - aft 1911 managed by Kaye Mansfield last edited 11 Nov 2020

Sylvia (Solomon) Drossman 26 Feb 1935 Bronx, Bronx, New York, United States - 12 Jul 1972 managed by Hannah Drossman last edited 10 Nov 2020

Sarah Ann (Solomon) Holt 27 May 1812 Carlton Colville, Suffolk, England, United Kingdom - bef 12 Apr 1887 managed by Heather Lawn last edited 9 Nov 2020

Charles Solomon bef 26 Aug 1781 Carlton Colville, Suffolk, England - bef 04 Jan 1867

Eliezer Solomon bef 1780 - aft 1807 managed by Susan Stopford

Joseph Lloyd Solomon Sr. 05 Jun 1894 Mississippi, United States - 14 Dec 1933 managed by Chere Lee last edited 4 Nov 2020

Emma (Solomon) Embrey 05 Oct 1879 Mississippi, United States - 15 Dec 1948

Solomon Solomon 13 Dec 1873 Victoria, Australia - 10 Aug 1950 managed by Judith Stokes last edited 3 Nov 2020

Audrey Solomon 1925 - 1979

Lola (Solomon) White 1930 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - 30 Mar 1999

Alice Hannah (Solomon) Letwin 1896 Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia - 20 Mar 1983 managed by Judith Stokes last edited 31 Oct 2020

Benjamin Solomon aft 1850 - aft 1890 managed by Phil Kellerman

Isaac Solomon

Henrietta (Solomon) Isaacson 30 Oct 1909 - 20 May 1989

Isadore Jack Solomon abt 1911 - abt 1984

Miriam (Solomon) Martel 18 Aug 1913 - 01 Aug 2000 last edited 30 Oct 2020

Sarah (Solomon) Shapira 1877 - 1947 last edited 29 Oct 2020

Samuel Solomon abt 14 Sep 1865 Ulm, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany - abt 11 Nov 1912

Philip Solomon 09 May 1871 Phillips County, Arkansas, USA - 02 Aug 1930

Moses L. Solomon 02 Sep 1836 Germany - 10 Nov 1895

Louis Solomon 22 Apr 1873 Phillips County, Arkansas, USA - 31 Mar 1926

Joseph Levy Solomon 25 May 1869 Helena, Phillips, Arkansas, USA - 24 Aug 1927

Henry Solomon 04 Sep 1883 - 18 Oct 1948

Hannah (Solomon) Rothschild 25 Feb 1911 Phillips County, Arkansas, USA - 04 Apr 1981

Ella (Solomon) Cook 06 Mar 1868 Arkansas, USA - 04 Mar 1922

David Solomon 15 Mar 1875 Phillips County, Arkansas, USA - 10 Nov 1952

David Solomon Jr. 19 Jul 1916 Helena, Phillips, Arkansas, USA - 23 Mar 2017

Isaac Solomon abt 1876 Victoria, Australia - 1946 managed by Judith Stokes last edited 28 Oct 2020

David Robert Solomon 1861 - 1942 last edited 27 Oct 2020

John Solomon abt 06 Feb 1826 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia - abt 27 Feb 1881

Unlisted Solomon managed by Terri McGhee

Katharine (Solomon) Jones Sep 1855 Brownville, Piscataquis, Maine, United States managed by Carrie Portlance last edited 24 Oct 2020

Janie Harris Solomon 20 Mar 1871 Cherokee, Texas, United States - 15 Sep 1973 managed by Barbara Kenney last edited 18 Oct 2020

Devapiriyam Solomon 09 Jul 1943 - 13 Jan 2013 managed by King Solomon

Moses Frederick Solomon 24 Mar 1838 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia last edited 17 Oct 2020

Margaret (Solomon) Hobart abt 1855 Malone, Franklin, New York, United States - aft 26 Aug 1896 managed by Peter Pfister last edited 13 Oct 2020

Ezekiel Solomonabt 1735 Berlin, Germany - abt 1806 photo managed by Bob Ladouceur

Unlisted Solomon managed by Tracy Lynes last edited 7 Oct 2020

Benjamin Edward Solomon abt 1785 Margate, Kent, England - 09 Aug 1877 managed by Toni Andrews last edited 3 Oct 2020

Jonathan Daniel Solomon 1810 Cape Town, Cape Colony - 23 Mar 1830 managed by Crystal Kilian

Unlisted Solomon managed by K. Bloom last edited 29 Sep 2020

James Benjamin Solomon 15 Jan 1873 North Carolina - 23 Jun 1925 managed by Austin Lowery last edited 28 Sep 2020

Lazarus Solomon 1765 Tyrrell County, North Carolina - 20 Apr 1833 managed by Patricia Thomas

Mary (Solomon) Brantley 13 Jan 1795 Georgia, United States - 01 Apr 1859 managed by Bruce Brantley

Melvin Clarence Solomon 18 Aug 1918 Rockingham, Richmond, North Carolina, United States - 14 Aug 1983 managed by Austin Lowery last edited 27 Sep 2020

Cynthia Estoria (Solomon) Fitzgearlds 30 Oct 1887 Savannah, Andrew, Missouri, United States - 25 Nov 1950 last edited 23 Sep 2020

William Madison Solomon 05 Mar 1855 Missouri, United States - 18 Feb 1897

Phillip Solomon 08 Jan 1826 Guilford, North Carolina, United States - 04 Aug 1916

Isadore Solomon abt 10 Jun 1845 Penetanguishene, Simcoe, Ontario, Canada managed by Annette Cada last edited 22 Sep 2020

Ezekiel Solomon abt 1812 Drummond Island, Michigan, United States - abt 09 Mar 1900

Lucie (Solomon) Cada abt 1869

Ruth Solomon abt 1921 Norwich, New London, Connecticut, United States

Lillian Solomon abt 1914 Connecticut, United States

Mildred Solomon abt 1911 Connecticut, United States

Moses Jacob Solomon abt 24 Dec 1880 Russian Empire - 26 Jan 1925

Rebecca (Solomon) Goldstone abt 1839 Birmingham, England - Jan 1883 managed by Laurence Hennessy last edited 17 Sep 2020

Bernadus Thomas Solomon abt 1882 Cape, Cape Province, South Africa - 27 Nov 1919 managed by Theresa Coss last edited 11 Sep 2020

Emma Solomon abt Jun 1858 New York, United States last edited 9 Sep 2020

Carl Elmer Solomon 13 Jun 1899 Windsor, Weld, Colorado, United States - 06 Apr 1982

Gladys Mary Solomon 16 Oct 1905 Louisiana - 06 Jul 1963 managed by Bob Symons last edited 3 Sep 2020

Morgan Solomon 1901 Violet Town, Victoria, Australia - abt 1984 managed by Don Weston last edited 24 Aug 2020

Gary Warren Leslie Solomon 15 Nov 1881 Charlotte, Eaton, Michigan, United States - 25 Jun 1941 managed by Megan Ryno last edited 20 Aug 2020

Nina O. Solomon 20 Sep 1880 Charlotte, Eaton, MI, USA - 16 Oct 1880

Minerva Elizabeth (Solomon) Shingler Nov 1866 Charlotte, Eaton, Michigan, United States - 17 Jan 1927 managed by Linda Leslie

Joshua Monroe Solomon 23 Feb 1823 Milford, Somerset, Pennsylvania, United States - 05 Jul 1909

Clara Estelle Solomon 25 Feb 1869 Charlotte, Eaton, Michigan, United States - 15 Jun 1884

William W. Solomon abt 1861 Charlotte, Eaton, Michigan, United States - 27 Nov 1880

John W. H. Solomon abt Jul 1859 Charlotte, Eaton, Michigan, United States - 26 Dec 1924

Alva Abram Solomon Sep 1854 Fostoria, Seneca, Ohio, United States - 30 Aug 1932 managed by Megan Ryno

Samuel Solomon 24 Feb 1786 Greenwich, Sussex, New Jersey, United States - 18 Nov 1871 managed by Linda Leslie

Charlotte (Solomon) Wiseman 26 Jul 1818 Milford Township, Somerset, Pennsylvania, United States

Henry Solomon Sr. abt 1750 Alexandria Township, Hunterdon, New Jersey - 20 Jun 1833

Ruth Solomon 1905 Denver, Colorado, United States - 1961 managed by Mark Morris last edited 19 Aug 2020

Isadore or Isaac Solomon 1878 Grodno Guberniya, Russian Empire - 1961

Louisa (Solomon) Branwell 1837 St Winnow, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom - 1882 managed by Zoe Cochrane

Unlisted Solomonphoto managed by Carolyn Solomon
Unlisted Solomonphoto

Mary Elizabeth (Solomon) Asbill 1708 Perquimans, North Carolina - abt 1750 managed by Stormy Knight last edited 15 Aug 2020

Unlisted Solomon managed by Admin WikiTree last edited 7 Aug 2020

Unlisted Solomon

Unlisted Solomon

George Henry Solomon 23 Jan 1873 - 06 Jul 1966 managed by Rick Heiser

George Ewing Solomon 11 Feb 1902 Transvaal, South Africa - 09 Mar 1985 managed by Elizabeth Hall

Susannah (Solomon) Lytle 1816 Ohio, United States - 1887 last edited 5 Aug 2020

Martha Ann (Solomon) Anthony 02 Feb 1865 Saline County, Missouri, United States of America - 08 Mar 1938 managed by Alicia Taylor last edited 4 Aug 2020

Leah Alice (Solomon) Joseph 24 Jun 1863 Bermondsey, Surrey, England - 1940 last edited 3 Aug 2020

Alvin Roy Solomon abt 03 Mar 1896 Helena, Phillips, Arkansas, United States - 21 Jul 2001

George Douglas Solomon 01 Jan 1902 Good Hope, McDonough, Illinois, United States - 31 Dec 1963 managed by Edward Trever last edited 2 Aug 2020

Hazel G. Solomon Mar 1899

Edith Solomon Jun 1897 Illinois, United States

Charles D. Solomon Jul 1893

Loie L. Solomon Jan 1889

James Douglas Solomon 16 Apr 1864 Lee Township, Fulton, Illinois, United States - 02 Jan 1923

George Solomon 1839 - 1918

Rollo E. Solomon Aug 1887

William H. Solomon - 10 Jan 1954

Louis Solomon

Louis Solomon abt 1855 Vienna, Austria

Matilda Solomon abt 1856 Vienna, Austria

Joseph Solomon abt 1823 City of London, Middlesex, England - 1902

Isaac Solomon 1866 Southwark, Surrey, England.

Henrietta Solomon 1865 City of London, Middlesex, England

Frederick William Solomon - 22 Apr 1977

David Saul Solomon 1858 Bermondsey, Surrey, England - 1932

Bernard Solomon 1857 Bermondsey, Surrey, England - 19 Oct 1944

Albert Solomon abt 1874 Southwark, Surrey, England.

Adelina Solomon abt 1876 City of London, Middlesex, England

Unlisted Solomon managed by Santana Solomon

Henry Walter Solomon 02 Jul 1894 Harrisburg, Dauphin, Pennsylvania, United States - 20 Mar 1977 managed by Michael Milliken last edited 31 Jul 2020

Victor Newman Solomon abt 22 Jun 1899 Helena, Phillips, Arkansas, United States - abt 08 Mar 1977

Bertram Milton Solomon abt 01 Nov 1894 Helena, Phillips, Arkansas, United States - abt 06 Nov 1963 last edited 29 Jul 2020

Jeanette E (Solomon) Grannell 07 Jun 1885 Helena, Phillips, Arkansas, United States - 21 Mar 1954

Montefiore Solomon abt 21 Oct 1882 Helena, Phillips, Arkansas, United States - abt 15 Feb 1885

Ivan Grant Solomon abt 07 Nov 1890 Helena, Phillips, Arkansas, United States - 03 Dec 1956

Unlisted Solomonphoto managed by Rick Williams last edited 27 Jul 2020
Unlisted Solomonphoto

Godwin Solomon abt Jun 1813 Montgomery, Georgia, United States - 1903

Queene Victoria (Solomon) Williams abt 1885 Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States last edited 24 Jul 2020

Thelma (Solomon) Robertson 1924 Glebe, NSW, Australia managed by Wendy Saunders last edited 23 Jul 2020

Leah (Solomon) Maginness Oct 1815 Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware - abt 12 Sep 1892 managed by Robert Green last edited 21 Jul 2020

Edward Solomon25 Jul 1855 29 Ann Street, Waterloo Road, Lambeth, Surrey, England, United Kingdom - 22 Jan 1895 photo managed by Paul Liming

Angelique (Solomon) Lanigan abt 1824 Drummond Island, Chippewa, Michigan, United States last edited 19 Jul 2020

Charles Henry Solomon abt Dec 1844 Irasburg, Vermont, USA - 10 Jun 1925 managed by Rick Heiser

Charles Edmond Solomon 14 Aug 1869 Bombala, New South Wales, Australia - 30 May 1955

Charles Solomon abt 1831 - 11 Jan 1882 managed by Howard Reynolds

Hannah Elizabeth (Solomon) Stephens 13 Feb 1860 St. Louis, Missouri, United States - 06 Jun 1942 managed by Bill Sims last edited 18 Jul 2020

Levi Solomon 10 Nov 1767 West Freehold, Monmouth, New Jersey - 03 Nov 1848 managed by Wing Mayer last edited 17 Jul 2020

Henrietta Solomon 03 Aug 1811 Freehold Township, Monmouth, New Jersey - 12 Feb 1860

Harriet Solomon 20 Jun 1788 Freehold Township, Monmouth, New Jersey, United States - abt 1848

Hannah Solomon 26 Oct 1792 Freehold Township, Monmouth, New Jersey, United States - 15 Mar 1871

Levi Solomon abt 1788 - bef 1810

Martha Ann (Solomon) Ternan 13 Nov 1944 Havre, Hill, Montana, United States last edited 15 Jul 2020

Mary Marie (Solomon) Kallin 08 Aug 1936 Havre, Hill, Montana, United States - 21 Feb 2002

Pearl (Solomon) Siegel 12 Jun 1908 Cleveland, Cuyahoga, Ohio, United States - 08 Apr 1998 managed by Annette Allen last edited 12 Jul 2020

Unlisted Solomon managed by Sharon Caldwell last edited 7 Jul 2020

Unlisted Solomon

Ernest Heitzman Solomon 1880 Ceres, Cape Colony - 27 Nov 1949

William Walter Solomon Mar 1896 Tennessee, USA managed by Demetrius Burnett

Mary M. Solomon Dec 1897 Tennessee, USA

Nancy Belle Solomon abt Jan 1894 Tennessee, USA

Maggie L. Solomon Apr 1891 Tennessee, USA

Jim Solomon - 1910

Levi Albert Solomon 27 Feb 1883 Brewton, Escambia, Alabama, USA - 22 Dec 1956 managed by Kelley Gingles

Charles Solomon abt 1817 St James, Middlesex, England - 1890 last edited 6 Jul 2020

Bowers Solomon abt 1859 St. Giles, Middlesex, England last edited 5 Jul 2020

Levi Solomon 10 Aug 1820 Freehold, Monmouth, New Jersey, United States - 14 Jun 1893 managed by Wing Mayer last edited 4 Jul 2020

Caroline Blanche (Solomon) Reed, then Horne 14 Sep 1868 West Freehold, Monmouth, New Jersey, United States - 10 Aug 1922

Levella Solomon 05 Apr 1877 West Freehold, Monmouth, New Jersey, United States - 05 May 1888

Rene Anderene Natolia (Solomon) Ward 17 May 1864 West Freehold, Monmouth, New Jersey - 07 Feb 1952

Franklin B. Solomon 01 Nov 1856 West Freehold, Monmouth, New Jersey, United States - 08 May 1939

Unlisted Solomon managed by Bill McCarty

Joseph Solomon 15 May 1780 Sheerness, Kent, England - 19 May 1851 managed by Coral Horton last edited 29 Jun 2020

Edgar Emanuel Solomon 1914 Brighton, Victoria, Australia - 01 Jul 1942 last edited 26 Jun 2020

Gerald Brooks Hunt Solomon14 Aug 1930 Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Florida, United States - 26 Oct 2001 photo managed by Robert Ward last edited 25 Jun 2020

Jacob Solomon abt 1725 managed by Anneshka Brown

Colin Solomon 25 Jun 1892 Jamaica - 21 Aug 1981 managed by Carol Bradley last edited 23 Jun 2020

Sarah Gordon (Solomon) Barton 20 Jun 1846 Tennessee, United States - 11 May 1937 managed by Joseph Wilcox last edited 22 Jun 2020

Samuel Solomon 1822 Tennessee, United States - 18 Oct 1902

Wallace Eugene Solomon 01 Mar 1899 Georgia, USA - 07 Jun 1968 managed by Vincenzo Piazza last edited 19 Jun 2020

Doris Isabell H. (Solomon) Lewis 16 Feb 1893 Wandsworth, London, England, United Kingdom - 1974 managed by Michael Saunders last edited 13 Jun 2020

Emily (Solomon) Benton 23 Jan 1830 - 09 Nov 1911 managed by Troy High

Florence Geraldine Solomon 24 May 1916 Cleveland, Ohio, USA - 02 Mar 1998 managed by Rick Heiser

Edgar Eaton Solomon 02 Feb 1886 managed by Brian Sharland

Maurice Solomon 15 May 1798 Spitalfields, Middlesex, England - 08 Jan 1870 managed by Susan Dickson last edited 12 Jun 2020

Edward Eaton Solomon 11 Jun 1849 managed by Brian Sharland

Unlisted Solomon managed by Gella Solomon-Puertas

Joseph Solomon abt 1890 - abt 1960 managed by Vivian Marshall last edited 6 Jun 2020

Richard Stuart Solomon 18 Oct 1850 Cape Town, South Africa - 10 Nov 1913 managed by Sunny Clark last edited 5 Jun 2020

Dixie L (Solomon) Tinney Jan 1903 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Oklahoma, United States - Apr 1975 last edited 4 Jun 2020

Ernest Louis (Solomon) Simpson Jan 1854 London, England, United Kingdom managed by Ellen Smith last edited 3 Jun 2020

Margaret Alice (Solomon) Harrison 10 May 1884 Magazine, Logan County, Arkansas - 06 Feb 1950 managed by Lita Christopher

Sours: https://www.wikitree.com/genealogy/SOLOMON

Family tree solomons

In the shape of a bell. She decided to use her teeth by gently touching her sensitive skin. Sighing, the girl slid her mouth up and down his penis, with a slow amplitude of certain movements. Ohhhhh, Tammy, Bill groaned, feeling the pressure build up in his balls, and his cock swelled even more.

He tensed in the chair, ready to shoot cum in the mouth and face of this young girl.

The Solomon Family Tree

I had to urgently show her. After a few minutes, I chose a photo in which her face was almost invisible and you can see her pussy and breasts well. The photo was taken before sex - Irma was lying on her back with her legs spread, inviting me to enter her delightful bosom, which she showed, spreading her.

Pussy lips with her thin manicured fingers, her head was turned to the side, her red hair was scattered across the bed. Hands trembling with excitement, I typed in a search engine: Masturbation in a girl's photo, and opened the topmost site.

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Taking off your pants with your fingers. I go down with kisses and kiss your breasts. stopping for a while on your nipples. but I just run my tongue over them.



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