Unreal engine blueprint

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Introduction to Blueprints

The Blueprint Visual Scripting system in Unreal Engine is a complete gameplay scripting system based on the concept of using a node-based interface to create gameplay elements from within Unreal Editor. As with many common scripting languages, it is used to define object-oriented (OO) classes or objects in the engine. As you use UE4, you'll often find that objects defined using Blueprint are colloquially referred to as just "Blueprints."

This system is extremely flexible and powerful as it provides the ability for designers to use virtually the full range of concepts and tools generally only available to programmers. In addition, Blueprint-specific markup available in Unreal Engine's C++ implementation enables programmers to create baseline systems that can be extended by designers.

Please see the Blueprint Overview for more information about Blueprint anatomy and a discussion of how Blueprints relate to UE3's Kismet and UnrealScript.

How Do Blueprints Work?

In their basic form, Blueprints are visually scripted additions to your game. By connecting Nodes, Events, Functions, and Variables with Wires, it is possible to create complex gameplay elements.

Blueprints work by using graphs of Nodes for various purposes - object construction, individual functions, and general gameplay events - that are specific to each instance of the Blueprint in order to implement behavior and other functionality.

Commonly Used Blueprint Types

The most common Blueprint types you will be working with are Level Blueprints and Blueprint Classes.

Level Blueprint

The Level Blueprint fills the same role that Kismet did in Unreal Engine 3, and has the same capabilities. Each level has its own Level Blueprint, and this can reference and manipulate Actors within the level, control cinematics using Matinee Actors, and manage things like level streaming, checkpoints, and other level-related systems. The Level Blueprint can also interact with Blueprint Classes (see the next section for examples of these) placed in the level, such as reading/setting any variables or triggering custom events they might contain.

Blueprint Class

Blueprint Classes are ideal for making interactive assets such as doors, switches, collectible items, and destructible scenery. In the image above, the button and the set of doors are each separate Blueprints that contain the necessary script to respond to player overlap events, make them animate, play sound effects, and change their materials (the button lights up when pressed, for example).

In this case, pressing the button activates an event inside the door Blueprint, causing it to open - but the doors could just as easily be activated by another type of Blueprint, or by a Level Blueprint sequence. Because of the self-contained nature of Blueprints, they can be constructed in such a way that you can drop them into a level and they will simply work, with minimal setup required. This also means that editing a Blueprint that is in use throughout a project will update every instance of it.

What Else Can Blueprints Do?

You have read about Level Blueprints and Blueprint Classes, listed below are a handful of examples that can be accomplished with the Blueprint system.

Create Customizable Prefabs with Construction Scripts

The Construction Script is a type of graph within Blueprint Classes that executes when that Actor is placed or updated in the editor, but not during gameplay. It is useful for creating easily customizable props that allow environment artists to work faster, such as a light fixture that automatically updates its material to match the color and brightness of its point light component, or a Blueprint that randomly scatters foliage meshes over an area.

In the Content Examples maps, the long rooms that contain each example (pictured above) are actually a single Blueprint made up of many components. The Blueprint's Construction Script creates and arranges the various Static Meshes and lights according to parameters exposed in the Blueprint's Details panel. With each Content Example map we created, we were able to drop in the demo room Blueprint, set values for the length, height, and number of rooms that would be generated (and a few other options), and have a complete set of rooms ready in moments.

A Blueprint like this can be time-consuming to create initially, but if you know you will use it often, the time saved when building a level and the ease of making changes can make it very worthwhile.

Create A Playable Game Character

Pawns are also a type of Blueprint Class, and it is possible to put together every element you need for a playable character in the Blueprint graph. You can manipulate camera behavior, set up input events for mouse, controller, and touch screens, and create an Animation Blueprint asset for handling skeletal mesh animations.

When you create a new Character Blueprint, it comes with a character component that has much of the behavior needed for moving around, jumping, swimming, and falling built-in, and all that is required is to add some input events in accordance with how you want your character to be controlled.

Create A HUD

Blueprint script can be used to create a game's HUD as well, which is similar to Blueprint Classes in that it can contain event sequences and variables, but is assigned to your project's GameMode asset instead of being added directly to a level.

You can set up a HUD to read variables from other Blueprints and use them to display a health bar, update a score value, display objective markers, and so on. It is also possible to use the HUD to add hit-boxes for elements like buttons that can be clicked on or, in the case of mobile games, can respond to touch input.

While possible with Blueprint, the Unreal Motion Graphics system is a more designer-friendly way of laying out UI and is based on Blueprint Visual Scripting.

Blueprint Editors and Graphs

Whether you are building a Level Blueprint or a Blueprint Class, you will be using Blueprint Elements assembled in a Blueprint Editor.

Different types of Blueprint Editor are available depending on the type of Blueprint you are working with. The core feature of most Blueprint Editors is the Graph mode, with its central Graph tab for laying out the network of your Blueprint.

Blueprint Samples and Tutorials

Below are additional resources you can use to learn more about the Blueprint system.

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Blueprints Quick Start Guide

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This quick start guide will walk you through building an Actor in the level with different Components, then turning it into a Blueprint Class you can add launching behavior to so your Character will fly around the level! Making it into a Blueprint Class also means you can create as many launchpads in your world as you want, just by dragging into the level from the Content Browser.

1 - Required Project Setup

  1. From the New Project tab of the Unreal Project Browser, create a new project from the Games category that uses the following settings:

    • Side Scroller

    • Blueprint

    • With Starter Content

  2. Choose whatever scalability and quality settings work best for your setup.

    If you are unsure of what settings are right for you, you can find more information in the Project Settings section.

  3. Name your project, then create it by clicking the Create Project button.

You should now be ready to jump into and start adding to the side-scroller level that appears.

2 - Construct your Launchpad

In the Level Editor, you will build a launchpad, then convert it to a Blueprint Class so you can add your gameplay behavior to it.

  1. First, move around in the viewport until you are looking at the top platforms in the level.

    We are going to create the container to hold all the parts of our launchpad by using the Empty Actor. The two parts (or Components) you will need are a shape to represent the launchpad, and a trigger for when the character overlaps it.

  2. In the Main Toolbar, press the Modes button, and from the dropdown click on Select to display the Place Actors panel.

  3. In the Place Actors panel, click on Basic, then find the Empty Actor.

  4. Drag it into the level so that it is sitting on one of the top platforms.

  5. Now that you have the Actor selected in the level, its properties are visible in the Details panel. At the top of the Details panel, you can rename it. Go ahead and click in the box to enter a new name, like LaunchPad.

  6. In the Details panel, click the Add Component button, then select Cube under Common.

  7. Click and drag the newly added Cube to the DefaultSceneRoot to make the Cube the new root.

  8. With the Cube component selected, change the Scale to (X: 1.0, Y: 1.0, Z: 0.1)

  9. Now, we will add a Box Collision Component, which will fire off an event whenever something overlaps it. In the Details panel, click the Add Component button, then (under Collision) select Box Collision.

  10. Change the Box Collision scale to ( X: 1.25, Y: 1.25, Z: 9.75) and location to ( X: 0, Y: 0, Z: 200) so the box covers and extends above the launch pad.

If at any time you need to change your Actor's properties, you can click on LaunchPad (Instance), found in the Details panel, under the Add Components button.

Now that you have your Actor the way you want it, we will turn it into a Blueprint Class. You can add more components inside the Blueprint Editor, and tweak them just like you can in the Level.

3 - Convert Your Actor to a Blueprint Class

When you make changes inside the Blueprint, each time you make a new launchpad in the Level, it will have the look and feel that you have created in the Blueprint Editor. While you could simply duplicate your LaunchPad Actor around the level, any changes you make on a particular launchpad would only affect that one copy.

  1. In the Details panel, click on the Blueprint/Add Script button.

  2. The Create Blueprint from Selection dialog box appears. We are going to edit the default path of the Blueprint.

  3. Change the path from Game/SideScrollerBP to Game/SideScrollerBP/Blueprints.

  4. At this point, you could rename your Blueprint, or leave it as the default LaunchPad_Blueprint.

  5. Click on Create Blueprint.

Your Blueprint is now visible in the Content Browser. Right now, you could drag and drop from the Content Browser into the level to create lots of copies of your platform mesh and trigger, but there will not be any behavior on it yet. In the next step, you will start setting up the graph nodes inside of your Blueprint to launch your Character when it crosses the launchpad.

4 - Create Your Starting Point

To start adding behavior to your Blueprint Class, you will need to open it in the Blueprint Editor.

  1. Double-click the Blueprint Class in the Content Browser.

  2. The Blueprint Editor will open, and you can see your Cube and Box components in a viewport. At this point, if you adjust the Box Component's placement, it will be applied to all launchpads you make from this Blueprint Class. Just like when you were working with components on your LaunchPad Actor, you can select the Box component in the Components list and adjust the location. Try a location of (X: 0, Y: 0, Z: 350).

  3. Docked next to the Viewport tab is a Construction Script tab and an Event Graph tab. Since you are going to be creating gameplay behavior, you should start with the Event Graph. Click on that tab now.

    Events are the starting point of your Blueprint graph's execution, and can be associated with a number of different gameplay situations. A selection of the most commonly used events are visible right away, seen as translucent Event nodes. Though certainly useful for many of your Blueprint graphs, we will be making one of our very own.

  4. We want an event that will execute when anything overlaps our Box component. First, select the Box component in the Components tab.

  5. Right-click in an empty spot in your graph to bring up the context menu of nodes you could add to the graph.

    To move around in the graph, right-click and drag around. At this point, you could drag the graph to the left, moving the pre-placed event nodes off the left side of the screen and creating more blank space to create your launchpad logic in.

  6. We are adding an event for this Component, so expand the Add Event for Box dropdown, and then Collision. You could also use the search box, using "Component Begin Overlap" to filter the menu.

  7. Select On Component Begin Overlap.

Your graph now has an OnComponentBeginOverlap node. Any nodes connected to this event will execute when something overlaps the Box component of your launchpad.

In the next step of this guide, you will begin connecting nodes to the output pins of this node, and learn more about working with nodes in Blueprints.

5 - Test the Overlapping Actor

Right now, that OnComponentBeginOverlap event will execute when anything overlaps the Box trigger. We only want to actually execute our launching behavior, though, if the overlapping thing is our avatar, or Pawn. Think of it as asking "Is the Actor overlapping the Box trigger the same Actor as our Pawn?"

We will do that by working with the Other Actor output from the OnComponentBeginOverlap event.

  1. From the OnComponentBeginOverlap event, click on the Other Actor pin , drag into an empty spot on the graph, and release to display the context menu.

    The context menu is adaptive, filtering by the pin you are currently working with to show you only nodes that are compatible.

  2. Type = into the search box to filter the available nodes, then select Equal (Object).


    We could set Side Scroller Character as the other input to the Equal node, but then if we changed the Character we were using, we would need to re-open this Blueprint and manually update that. Instead, let's get a reference to the current Pawn we are using.

  3. Right-click in an empty part of the graph to bring up the context menu.

  4. Type Player Pawn in the menu's search box, then (under Game) select Get Player Pawn.

  5. Connect the Return Value output on Get Player Pawn to the second input on the Equal node.


    Now that we have got a node that will tell us if the Other Actor is the Pawn our player controls, we will use the answer to change the execution flow of our graph. That is, we will direct the execution flow as it leaves the On Component Begin Overlap node. For that, we want to use a Flow Control node, specifically the Branch node.

  6. Drag off of the execution pin on the OnComponentBeginOverlap node and release in an empty part of the graph.

  7. Type Branch in the search, then select Branch from the context menu.

  8. Connect the output pin of the Equals node to the input Boolean pin on the Condition node.

The graph is now ready for you to set up different behavior to execute depending on whether the overlapping Actor is your Pawn or not. In the next step, we will do just that, and set up Blueprint nodes to launch our Character if the result of the Equals comparison is True.

6 - Launch Your Character

Our launchpad is going to work by using a function called Launch Character. The Launch Character function adds the velocity you specify to the Character's current velocity, allowing you to throw it in whichever direction you would like. It only works on Characters, though, so we need to make sure that our Pawn (avatar) is a Character (humanoid avatar).

We do this by casting. Casting attempts to convert your input into a different type, so you can access specific functionality that is only allowed for that particular type. It will succeed if your input is based on that type.

Everything you can place in your level is an Actor, in addition to any other specialized behavior added on later. That means that you can get a reference to anything in your level, cast it to Actor, and it will succeed. However, not everything in your level is the Pawn representing you in the game, so casting something to Pawn may or may not succeed.

  1. From the Get Player Pawn node, drag off of the Return Value pin.

  2. Begin typing Cast to Character in the search field of the context menu to find the node of the same name.

  3. From the Cast to Character node, drag off of the As Character pin.

  4. Type "Launch" into the search box, then select Launch Character in the context menu.

    Click image for full size.

    Notice that the output execution pin for successfully casting automatically connected to the input execution pin of Launch Character.

  5. Type 3000 into the Z field of the Launch Character node.

  6. Finally, connect the Branch node True execution pin to the Cast to Character node's input execution pin, so that Cast to Character and Launch Character only occur if the overlapping Actor is our Pawn.

    Click image for full size.

    At this point, Compile and Save the Blueprint using the toolbar buttons, then close the Blueprint Editor.

  7. Drag several of the launchpads into your Level from the Content Browser.

  8. Click on Play in the toolbar, then run around the Level (using WASD) and jump (using the Spacebar). Land on one of the platforms and watch as you go flying through the air!

7 - On Your Own!

Using what you have learned over the course of this Quick Start guide, try to do the following:

  1. Play a sound when your Character is launched using an Audio Component.

  2. Create a variable to store your Launch Velocity, and expose it so you can set it on each copy in the level.

  3. Add a Particle System Component to your Blueprint and use one of the Particle Systems from the Starter Content.

  4. Add an Arrow Component and use its rotation to define the direction to launch the character.

  5. Using Timelines, add some animation to the Box Mesh to represent it launching the character.

For more information on Blueprint Visual Scripting, see the Blueprints page.

As for specifics covered in this quick start:

  1. For a quick overview of different types of Blueprint Classes you can make, see Blueprints Getting Started

  2. For more information on Blueprint Classes, see: Blueprint Classes

  3. For more short tutorials on creating and working with Blueprint Classes, see: Blueprints How-To

  4. For more information on the Blueprint Editor, see: Blueprint Editor

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Unreal Engine 4 Blueprints Tutorial

Blueprints is the visual scripting system inside Unreal Engine 4 and is a fast way to start prototyping your game. Instead of having to write code line by line, you do everything visually: drag and drop nodes, set their properties in a UI, and drag wires to connect.

In addition to being a fast prototyping tool, Blueprints also makes it very easy for non-programmers to dive in and start scripting.

In this tutorial, you will use Blueprints to:

  • Set up a top-down camera
  • Create a player-controlled actor with basic movement
  • Set up player inputs
  • Create an item that disappears when the player touches it
Note: This tutorial assumes you know how to navigate the Unreal Engine 4 interface. You should be comfortable with basic Blueprint concepts such as components and nodes. If you need a refresher, check out our beginner tutorial for Unreal Engine 4.

This tutorial also makes basic use of vectors. If you are not familiar with vectors, I recommend this article on vectors at gamedev.net

Note: This tutorial is part of a 10-part tutorial series on Unreal Engine:

Getting Started

Download the starter project and unzip it. To open the project, go to the project folder and open BananaCollector.uproject.

Note: If you get a message saying that the project was created with an earlier version of the Unreal editor, that’s OK (the engine is updated frequently). You can either choose the option to open a copy, or the option to convert in place.

You will see the scene below. This is where the player will move around and collect the items.

I have categorized the project files into folders for easier navigation, like you see here:

You can use the button highlighted in red above to show or hide the sources panel if you’d like.

Creating the Player

In the Content Browser, navigate to the Blueprints folder. Click the Add New button and select Blueprint Class.

Since you want the actor to be able to receive inputs from the player, the Pawn class is fitting. Select Pawn from the pop-up window and name it BP_Player.

Note: The Character class would also work. It even includes a movement component by default. However, you will be implementing your own system of movement so the Pawn class is sufficient.

Attaching a Camera

A camera is the player’s method of looking into the world. You will create a camera that looks down towards the player.

In the Content Browser, double-click on BP_Player to open it in the Blueprint editor.

To create a camera, go to the Components panel. Click Add Component and select Camera.

For the camera to be in a top-down view, you need to place it above the player. With the camera component selected, go to the Viewport tab.

Activate the move manipulator by pressing the W key and then move it to (-1100, 0, 2000). Alternatively, you can type the coordinates into the Location fields. It is located under the Transform section in the Details panel.

If you have lost sight of the camera, press the F key to focus on it.

Next, activate the rotation manipulator by pressing the E key. Rotate the camera down to -60 degrees on the Y-axis.

Representing the Player

A red cube will represent the player so you will need to use a Static Mesh component to display it.

First, deselect the Camera component by left-clicking an empty space in the Components panel. If you don’t do this, the next added component will be a child of Camera.

Click Add Component and select Static Mesh.

To display the red cube, select the Static Mesh component and then go to the Details tab. Click on the drop-down located to the right of Static Mesh and select SM_Cube.

This is what you should see (you can hit F inside the Viewport to focus on this if you don’t see it):

Now, it’s time to spawn the player Pawn. Click Compile and go back to the main editor.

Spawning the Player

Before the player can control the Pawn, you need to specify two things:

  1. The Pawn class the player will control
  2. Where the Pawn will spawn

You accomplish the first by creating a new Game Mode class.

Creating a Game Mode

A Game Mode is a class that controls how a player enters the game. For example, in a multiplayer game, you would use Game Mode to determine where each player spawns. More importantly, the Game Mode determines which Pawn the player will use.

Go to the Content Browser and make sure you are in the Blueprints folder. Click the Add New button and select Blueprint Class.

From the pop-up window, select Game Mode Base and name it GM_Tutorial.

Now, you need to specify which Pawn class will be the default. Double-click on GM_Tutorial to open it.

Go to the Details panel and look under the Classes section. Click the drop-down for Default Pawn Class and select BP_Player.

Before you can use your new Game Mode, the level needs to know which Game Mode to use. You can specify this in World Settings. Click Compile and close the Blueprint editor.

Each level has their own settings. You can access the settings by selecting Window\World Settings. Alternatively, you can go to the Toolbar and select Settings\World Settings.

A new World Settings tab will open next to the Details tab. From here, click the drop-down for GameMode Override and select GM_Tutorial.

You will now see that the classes have changed to the ones selected in GM_Tutorial.

Finally, you need to specify where the player will spawn. You do this by placing a Player Start actor into the level.

Placing the Player Start

During the process of spawning a player, the Game Mode looks for a Player Start actor. If the Game Mode finds one, it will attempt to spawn the player there.

To place a Player Start, go to the Modes panel and search for Player Start. Left-click and drag Player Start from the Modes panel into the Viewport. Releasing left-click will place it.

You can place this wherever you like. When you’re done, go to the Toolbar and click Play. You will spawn where you placed the Player Start.

To exit the game, click the Stop button in the Toolbar or press the Esc key. If you can’t see your cursor, press Shift+F1.

It’s not much of a game if you can’t move around, right? Your next task is to set up the input settings.

Setting Up Inputs

Assigning a key to an action is called key binding.

In Unreal, you can set up key bindings that will trigger an event when you press them. Events are nodes that execute when certain actions happen (in this case, when you press the bound key). When the event is triggered, any nodes hooked up to the event will execute.

This method of binding keys is useful because it means you do not have to hard code keys.

For example, you bind left-click and name it Shoot. Any actor that can shoot can use the Shoot event to know when the player has pressed left-click. If you want to change the key, you change it in the input settings.

If you had hard coded it, you would have to go through each actor and change the keys individually.

Axis and Action Mappings

To view the input settings, go to Edit\Project Settings. On the left, select Input under the Engine section.

The Bindings section is where you will set up your inputs.

Unreal provides two methods to create key bindings:

  • Action Mapping: These can only be in two states: pressed or not pressed. Action events will only trigger once you press or release the key. Used for actions that don’t have an in-between state, such as firing a gun.
  • Axis Mapping: These output a numerical value called an axis value (more on that later). Axis events will fire every frame. Generally used for actions that require a thumbstick or mouse.

For this tutorial, you will use axis mappings.

Creating Movement Mappings

First, you will create two axis mapping groups. Groups allow you to bind multiple keys to one event.

To create a new axis mapping group, click the + sign to the right of Axis Mappings. Create two groups and name them MoveForward and MoveRight.

MoveForward will handle moving forward and backwards. MoveRight will handle moving left and right.

You will map movement to four keys: W, A, S and D. Currently, there are only two slots to map keys. Add another axis mapping to each group by clicking the + sign next to the group name field.

To map a key, click the drop-down to bring up a list of keys. Map the W and S keys to MoveForward. Map the A and D keys to MoveRight.

Next, you will set the Scale fields.

Axis Value and Input Scale

Before you set the Scale fields, you need to learn about how they work with axis values.

An axis value is a numerical value that is determined by the type of input and how you use it. Buttons and keys output 1 when pressed. Thumbsticks output a value between -1 and 1 depending on the direction and how far you push it.

You can use the axis value to control a Pawn’s speed. For example, if you push the thumbstick to the edge, the axis value will be 1. If you push it halfway, it will be 0.5.

By multiplying the axis value with a speed variable, you can adjust the speed with the thumbstick.

You can also use the axis value to specify a direction along an axis. If you multiply a Pawn’s speed by a positive axis value, you will get a positive offset. Using a negative axis value will result in a negative offset. Adding this offset to the Pawn’s location will determine which direction it moves in.

Since keyboard keys can only output an axis value of 1 or 0, you can use scale to convert it to a negative. It works by taking the axis value and multiplying it by the scale.

If you multiply a positive (the axis value) with a negative (the scale), you will get a negative.

Set the scale of the S and A keys by clicking on the Scale field and entering -1.

Next, comes the fun part: making the Pawn move! Close the Project Settings and then open up BP_Player in the Blueprints editor by double clicking on it.

Moving the Player

First, you need to get the events for your movement mappings. Right-click an empty space in the Event Graph to get a list of nodes. From the menu, search for MoveForward. Add the MoveForward node listed under Axis Events. Note you’re looking for the red node under Axis Events, not the green node under Axis Values.

Repeat the process for MoveRight.

Now, you will set up the nodes for MoveForward.

Using Variables

To move, you need to specify how fast the Pawn is moving. An easy way to specify the speed is by storing it in a variable.

To create one, go to the My Blueprint tab and click the + sign to the right of the Variables section.

With your new variable selected, head over to the Details tab. Rename the variable to MaxSpeed. Afterwards, change the variable type to Float. Do this by clicking the drop-down next to Variable Type and selecting Float.

Next, you need to set the default value. Before you can set it though, you need to click Compile in the Toolbar.

With your variable still selected, go back to the Details tab. Go to the Default Value section and change the default value of MaxSpeed to 10.

Next, drag-click the MaxSpeed variable from the My Blueprint tab into the Event Graph. Select Get from the menu.

You will now multiply MaxSpeed and the axis value to determine the final speed and direction. Add a float * float node and connect Axis Value and MaxSpeed to it.

Getting the Player Direction

To move forward, you need to know where the Pawn is facing. Luckily, Unreal has a node for that purpose. Add a Get Actor Forward Vector node.

Next, add a Add Movement Input node. This node will take in a direction and value and convert it to a stored offset. Connect the nodes like so:

The white line represents a chain of execution. In other words, when the player moves the input axis, an event will generate that will execute the InputAxis MoveForward node. The white line represents that once this happens, you will then execute the Add Movement Input node.

The Add Movement Input node takes the following inputs:

  • Target: set to self, which in this case is the player (the red box).
  • World Direction: The direction to move the target, which in this case is the direction the player is facing.
  • Scale Value: How much to move the player, which in this case is the max speed * the axis value (which remember is a value in the range of -1 to 1).

Repeat the process for MoveRight but replace Get Actor Forward Vector with Get Actor Right Vector. See how much you can do yourself without reviewing the instructions above!

Adding the Offset

To actually move the Pawn, you need to get the offset calculated by Add Movement Input and add it to the Pawn’s location.

Basically your strategy will be to move the player a small amount each frame of your game, so you’ll need to add the movement to an Event Tick event, which is generated every frame.

Navigate to the Event Tick node in your Event Graph. It should be grayed out to the left, but create one if you don’t have it.

To get the offset, create a Consume Movement Input Vector node. To add the offset, create an AddActorLocalOffset node. Afterwards, link them like so:

Basically, this means that each frame of the game, you’ll get any stored movement input, and add it to the actor’s current location.

Click Compile, and go back to the main editor and click Play. You will now be able to move around!

There is one small problem though. Higher end machines are be able to render frames at a quicker rate. Since Event Tick is called every frame, the movement nodes will execute more often. This results in the Pawn moving at a faster rate on high end machines and vice versa.

To fix this, your movement needs to be frame rate independent.

Note: I’ve set up some key bindings that will show you the effect of frame rate dependence. Press 0 to cap the frame rate to 60 and press 1 to reset the cap. Move around in both frame rates to see the difference in speed.

Frame Rate Independence

Frame rate independence means everything will have the same result, regardless of frame rate. Thankfully, achieving frame rate independence in Unreal is easy.

Exit the game and then open up BP_Player. Next, navigate to your Event Tick node and take a look at Delta Seconds.

Delta Seconds is the amount of time elapsed since the last Event Tick. By multiplying your offset with Delta Seconds, your movement will be frame rate independent.

For example, your Pawn has a maximum speed of 100. If one second had passed since the last Event Tick, your Pawn would move the full 100 units. If half a second had passed, it would move 50 units.

If the movement is frame rate dependent, the Pawn will move 100 units every frame, regardless of the time between frames.

To multiply your offset with Delta Seconds, add a vector * float node. Afterwards, connect your nodes like so:

Because the time between frames (Delta Seconds) is very small, your Pawn will move a lot slower. Fix this by changing the default value of MaxSpeed to 600.

Congratulations, you have successfully achieved frame rate independence!

You might have noticed that the cube passes right through everything. To fix that, you need to learn about collisions.

Strap on your safety helmet because you’re about to have a head-on collision with some theory!

Actor Collisions

When you think of a collision, you probably think of cars crashing into each other. Luckily, collisions in Unreal are much safer.

To be able to collide, an actor needs a representation of its collidable space (usually called collision). You can use one of the following:

  • Collision mesh: These are auto generated (if you enable it) when a mesh gets imported. The user can also create a custom collision mesh using 3D software. The red box already has an auto generated collision mesh.
  • Collision component: These come in three shapes: box, capsule and sphere. You can add them through the Components panel. Generally used for simple collision.

Below is an example of a character and its collision.

A collision occurs when an actor’s collision touches another actor’s collision.

Now, it’s time to enable collision.

Enabling Collision

You’re probably wondering why the box didn’t collide, even though it has a collision mesh. When you move an actor, Unreal only considers the root component for collisions. Since your Pawn’s root component doesn’t have any collision, it passes through everything.

Note: An actor that doesn’t have their collision as the root can still block other actors. But, if you move the actor, it will not collide with anything.

So, to use the collision mesh, StaticMesh needs to be the root. To do this, go to the Components panel. Next, left-click and dragStaticMesh to DefaultSceneRoot. Release left-click to make StaticMesh the new root.

There is one more thing to do before collisions will work. Switch to the Event Graph and go to the AddActorLocalOffset node. Locate the Sweep input and set it to true by left-clicking the checkbox.

Basically, AddActorLocalOffset teleports the actor to a new location. Sweep makes sure the actor collides with anything that is between the old and new locations.

Go back to the main editor and click Play. The cube will now collide with the level!

The last thing you will do is create an item that disappears when the player touches it.

Creating an Item

Generally, an item is anything that the player can collect. You will use BP_Banana as the item.

To detect when the cube touches the item, you need an event node that triggers when there is a collision. You can use collision responses to generate such events.

A collision response also determines how an actor reacts when colliding with another actor. There are three types of collision responses: Ignore, Overlap and Block. Here is how they interact with each other:

Although you can use either Overlap or Block, this tutorial will only show you how to use Overlap.

Setting the Collision Response

Exit the game and then open BP_Banana. Select the StaticMesh component and then go to the Details panel. The Collision section is where you’ll set the collision response.

As you can see, most of the settings are greyed out. To make them editable, left-click the drop-down next to Collision Presets. Select Custom from the list.

Now, you need to specify the collision response between the item and the cube.

Components have an attribute called object type. The object type is just a convenient way to group together similar actors. You can read more about object types here.

Since the cube’s type is WorldDynamic, you want to change the collision response to that type. Under the Collision Responses section, change the collision response of WorldDynamic to Overlap. Do this by left-clicking the middle checkbox to the right of WorldDynamic.

Handling Collision

To handle collision, you need to use an overlap event. Go to the Components panel and right-click on StaticMesh. From the context menu, select Add Event\Add OnComponentBeginOverlap.

This will add the OnComponentBeginOverlap (StaticMesh) node to your Event Graph.

Finally, create a DestroyActor node and link it to the OnComponentBeginOverlap (StaticMesh) node. As its name suggests, it will remove the targeted actor from the game. However, since there is no target, it will destroy the actor that called it.

Placing the Item

Close the Blueprint editor and then make sure you are in the Blueprints folder.

Start placing bananas into the level by left-clicking and draggingBP_Banana into the Viewport.

Click Play and start collecting the bananas!

Where to Go From Here?

You can download the completed project here.

You are now one step closer to becoming an Unreal Engine expert. I hope this tutorial didn’t drive you bananas.

If you want to keep learning, check out the next post in the series, where I cover more about materials in Unreal Engine.

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