Dolby dynamic range

Dolby dynamic range DEFAULT

Home Theater Mysteries EXPLAINED!

Many Audio Video Receivers (AVRs), and some Source devices such as movie disc players, will include Digital Audio processing options for Dynamic Range Compression or Loudness Adjustment.  Should you use them?

In a word, No!  Not if your goal is best quality Audio.

Loudness Adjustment was first on the scene -- appearing in the very first Sound Processors for Home Music and Home Theater.    It is based on the idea the sensitivity of the human ear to both bass and treble audio frequencies diminishes (in comparison to mid-range frequencies) as volume gets softer.  So a Loudness Adjustment attempts to compensate by boosting both lower and higher frequencies -- to a varying degree depending on the current Volume setting.

Dynamic Range Compression came later -- first appearing under names such as Volume Leveling or Normalization.  The idea is to raise softer passages and reduce louder passages so the range of  volume extremes is smaller.  I.e., less need to reach for the Volume control to hear a passage that's suddenly too soft or squelch one that's suddenly too loud (such as a loud commercial interrupting your TV show).

With the advent of Home Theater equipment, Dynamic Range Compression became an even more likely feature for manufacturers to toss in, under the theory users weren't ready for the range of volumes likely to be found in the new, multi-channel Bitstream audio tracks -- PARTICULARLY given the special, Low Frequency Effects (LFE) channel carrying LOUD Bass!  See my prior post on Calibration Discs for details.

Bitstream audio tracks can also include additional information DESCRIBING the audio found in the track -- called "metadata".  And in particular, Dolby's TrueHD Bitstream tracks -- found on Blu-ray and UHD discs -- can include special metadata in aid of improved quality Dynamic Range Compression.

So traditional Dynamic Range Compression processing is something which gets applied at the time the Bitstream audio track gets decoded into LPCM.  See my prior post on Digital Audio for details.  Now decoding may happen EITHER in the Source device (i.e., when converting Bitstream tracks to LPCM Digital Audio for output) or in the AVR (i.e., when receiving a Bitstream track from some Source device and then doing conversion to LPCM as the first step of its own processing).  And THAT means settings related to Dynamic Range Compression will likely be found BOTH in your Source devices and in your AVR.  If you have the Source device set to produce LPCM output, then its setting for Dynamic Range Compression will be the one that applies.  Otherwise, if the AVR is being fed the original Bitstream audio then ITS setting for Dynamic Range Compression will be the one that applies.

MARKETING NOTE:  Dolby has gone further in this regard, licensing a feature called "Dolby Volume" to AVR makers.  Dolby Volume uses Digital Signal Processing to provide a combo of Dynamic Range Compression AND Loudness-like volume adjustments at the same time.  It's a newer, fancier algorithm, but basically a repackaging of the same ideas as above.


Dictionary English-German

And this time, using the right



[...] terms, I found the answer: The Apple DVD player implements the"Dolby Dynamic Range Control(DRC)" (technically a sort of auto-compression) that dynamically [...]

adjusts the volume.

Und diesmal habe ich mit Hilfe der richtigen Stichwörter die Antwort gefunden:


Der Apple DVD-Player

[...] implementiert die "Dolby Dynamic Range Control (DRC)" (technisch gesehen wohl eine Art Auto-Kompressor), die die Lautsrke dynamisch runterregelt.

Enable or disable your PS3" system'sdynamic range controlfeature when playing a BD or DVD containing audio recorded inDolbyaudio(DolbyDigital, Dolby Digital Plus and [...]

Dolby TrueHD).

Hier können Sie die Dynamikbereichskontrolle des PS3"-Systems während der Wiedergabe von BDs und DVDs mit Dolby-Ton (Dolby Digital, Dolby Digital Plus und Dolby TrueHD) aktivieren [...]

oder deaktivieren.

WithDolbyDigital, thedynamic rangeis compressed so that [...]

powerful sound can be achieved at regular volume levels.

Bei Dolby Digital wird der Dynamikumfang komprimiert, damit [...]

bei normaler Lautstärke ein satter Sound erzielt wird.

Enable or disable your PS3" system'sdynamic range controlfeature while playing BDs and DVDs that produceDolbyDigital sound.

Aktivieren oder

[...] deaktivieren Sie die Dynamikbereichskontrolle des PS3"-Systems während derWiedergabe von BDs und DVDs mit Dolby Digital-Ton.

Dynamic rangecompression can be selected inDolbyDigital mode.

Die Einschnkung des Dynamikbereichs ist im Modus Dolby Digital wählbar.

For this reason it is

[...] possible to reduce thedynamic rangeofDolbydigital encoded sound [...]

sources in such a way that quiet


passages (e.g. whispered conversations) are reproduced somewhat louder, while loud passages (e.g. gigantic explosions) are reduced in volume slightly (see 'Main Menu').

Deshalb kann der Dynamikbereichr Dolby Digitalcodierte Tonquellen [...]

so reduziert werden, dass ruhige Passagen (z. B. leise


Gespräche) bei geringerer Lautstärke etwas lauter wiedergegeben werden, während laute Passagen (z. B. gewaltige Explosionen) in der Lautstärke etwas reduziert werden (s. 'Haupt Menü').

UMTS phones are also power-controlled;controlis distinctly faster, and thedynamic rangeis considerably larger than that of GSM.

Auch UMTS-Telefone werden in ihrer

[...] Leistung geregelt undzwar deutlich schneller und auch mit einem wesentlich größeren Dynamikbereich als bei GSM.

It is possible to reduce thedynamic rangeofDolbydigital encoded sound material [...]

in three stages. The result is that quiet


passages are reproduced slightly louder when the volume is set low, whereas loud passages are slightly reduced in volume (s. 'Surround systems - explanatory notes' -.

Für Dolby Digital-codierte Tonquellen kann der Dynamikbereich in drei Stufen so [...]

reduziert werden, dass ruhige Passagen bei


geringerer Lautstärke etwas lauter wiedergegeben werden, während laute Passagen in der Lautstärke etwas reduziert werden (s. dazu 'Erläuterungen zum Thema Surround -.

Dynamic Range controllimits the dynamic, decreasing the level difference between loud and quiet passages inaDolbyDigital 5.1 signal thus balancing the effect [...]


Dynamic Range Control

[...] (Anpassung des Dynamikumfangs) begrenzt die Dynamik, verringert also den Pegelunterschied zwischen leisen und lauten Passagen bei einem Dolby Digital 5.1-Signal, dadurch [...]

wird die Effektlautstärke angepasst.

The digital control system offers drift-free operation and


excellent concentricity as

[...] well as maximumdynamic controlresponse and rigidity throughout the entire speedrange; control range>1:3000 The [...]

controller can be operated by

Die digitale Regelung bietet driftfreien Betrieb und



[...] Rundlaufeigenschaften sowie höchste Regeldynamik und Steifigkeit im gesamten Drehzahlbereich; Regelbereich > 1:3000 Der Regler [...]


ann bedient werden durch

The DRC(Dynamic Range Control)level of a broadcast [...]

is set by the station and sent with the signal.

Der DRC-Wert (Dynamic Range Control) einer Sendung [...]

wird vom Sender bestimmt und mit dem Signal übertragen.

This test examined the ability of the STB to

[...] process the entirerangeofDolbyDigital data rates [...]

allowed in ETSI document TS 101 154.

Der Test überprüft die Fähigkeit der STB

[...] den ganzen Bereich der 'Dolby Digital'-Datenraten [...]

zu verarbeiten, die in ETSI TS101 154 erlaubt sind.

The 202MKV offers continuous recording or playback through both decks, simultaneous recording on both decks, normal or double-speed dubbing, pitch control on the first deck (±12%), A-B


repeat playback, a

[...] microphone input with levelcontrolfor mix recording,DolbyBnoise reduction and [...]

automatic playback/recording start on power-on.

Das 202MKV bietet fortlaufende Aufnahme oder Wiedergabe über beide Laufwerke, Aufnahme parallel mit beiden Laufwerken, Kopieren mit einfacher und doppelter Geschwindigkeit, Pitch-Control auf dem ersten Laufwerk (±12 Prozent),


A-B-Wiederholung, einen

[...] Mikrofoneingang mit Pegelregler für Mix-Aufnahmen, Dolby-B-Rauschunterdrückung [...]

und automatischen Aufnahme-/Wiedergabebeginn bei Stromzufuhr.

It functions in a similar manner to the center widthcontrolforDolbyPro Logic IIx.

Der einzige,

[...] vom Benutzer einzustellende Parameter ist die Centerbreite, die in der gleichen Weise einzustellen ist wier Dolby Pro Logic IIx.

The Sound Control

[...] Unit offers a built-inDolbyDigital decoder and numerous other sound settings. In addition to the output Dolby Digital 2.0,DolbyDigital 5.1 andDolbyPro Logic supports the SoundControlUnit, the chat function under PS3, X-box and X-box 360, as well as the sound setting of Time Delay (TD) andDynamicRanksControl(DRC).

Die Sound Control Unit

[...] bietet einen integrierten Dolby-Digital-Decoderund zahlreiche weitere Klangeinstellungen: Neben der Ausgabe von Dolby Digital 2.0, Dolby Digital 5.1 und Dolby Pro Logic unterstützt die Sound Control Unit die Chatfunktion unter PS3, Xbox und Xbox 360 sowie die Soundeinstellungen Time Delay (TD) und Dynamic Range Control (DRC).

Checking the

[...] "DD/DTS Pass-Thru" box in the Audiophile USBControlPanel will allow you sendDolbyDigital,DolbySurround, DTS, or any encoded surround sound [...]

signal to


the S/PDIF Output of the Audiophile USB.

Wenn Sie im Control Panel die Funktion "DD/DTS Pass-Thru" aktivieren, können Sie Multichannel-Formate wie Dolby Digital, Dolby Surround,DTS [...]

und andere Surround-Sound-Signale


über den S/PDIF-Ausgang routen und Audiophile USB als Interface für Ihr Heimkinosystem oder andere Multichannel-Decoder einsetzen.

Impressive cinema

[...] experiences: fully-integratedDolbyDigital solution with AMXcontrol


[...] Kinoerlebnisse: Vollintegrierte Dolby Digital Lösung mit AMX Steuerung

Dynamic Range Control"function is effective only with analogue audio connection.

Die "Dynamiksteuerung"-Funktion ist nur bei einer analogen Audio-Verbindung wirksam.

o Photoelectric amplifier adapted to standard photodiodes o Built-in bandpass filter with 300 kHz center frequency o Differential current-signal output with open drain low-side drivers o Nonlinear


transfer function

[...] results in widedynamic rangeof 100 nA to 1.5 mA for pulsed photocurrents o Fast flash recovery time of max. 30 µs o Recovery time below 10 µs for excessive photocurrents of up to 1.8 mA o 3-step shift register andcontrollogic o Compatible [...]

to CMOS levels


o Single 5 V supply o Low standby current; circuit activation by input data o Power-down reset o Suited for high-risk applications according to IEC 61496-1 o ESD protection

o Fotostromverstärker angepasst an Standardfotodioden o Integrierter Bandpass mit 300 kHz Mittenfrequenz o Differenz-Stromausgang als

[...] [...] Open-Drain-Low-Side-Treiber o Weiter Aussteuerungsbereich für gepulste Fotoströme von 100 nA bis 1.5 mA durch nichtlineare Übertragungsfunktion o Kurze Störblitzerholzeit von max. 30 µs o Erholzeit bei hohen Fotoströmen von 1.8 mA kleiner als 10 µs o Logiksteuerung [...]

mit dreistufigem


Schieberegister o CMOS-kompatible Logikpegel o 5-V-Versorgungsspannung o Geringer Ruhestrom; Aktivierung durch Eingangsdaten o Power-down-Reset o Integrierter ESD-Schutz o Auslegung für Sicherheitssysteme gemäß IEC 61496-1

The outstanding quality of the processing is based on

[...] the Multi-Loopdynamic range controlprinciple in [...]

combination with adaptive controlled


processing algorithms developed by Junger Audio.

Begründet wird die hervorragende Qualität


der Signalverarbeitung in dem

[...] Multi-Loop-Prinzip der Dynamikkontrolle in Kombination mit [...]

den adaptiv gesteuerten Verarbeitungsalgorithmen;


- von Jünger Audio entwickelt.

Gain auto Exposurecontrolautomatic Flicker cancel on / off WDR WideDynamic Rangeon /off Zoom ratio

Gain auto Belichtungssteuerung automatisch Flickerless Funktion ein / aus WDR Wide Dynamic Range ein / aus Zoomverhältnis

During the performances on Good Friday and Easter Sunday, the audience can


experience how the

[...] violin's musicalrangeis reassembled in space: In the hall of the Radialsystem V, the listeners can sit down in the middle of a grid and physically experience the tonal dimensions of the Chaconne in D minor from loudspeakers installed above, below and beside them (analogous to theDolbySurround System [...]

5.1 in movie theaters).

In den Aufführungen am Karsamstag und Ostersonntag ist dann zu erleben, wie der Bachsche


Klangreichtum, gespielt von nur

[...] einer Violine, im Raum wieder zusammengefügt wird:In der Halle des Radialsystems V kann der Hörer in der Mitte einer Gitterrostfläche Platz nehmen und aus Lautsprechern über, unter und neben ihm die klanglichen Dimensionen der d-moll Chaconne (analog dem Dolby Surround System 5.1" im Kino) physisch [...]


The OV10630 not only has the ability to accurately


reproduce high-contrast scenes,

[...] but also employs autodynamic range controlto adjust to changing [...]

lightning and scene conditions


to produce a clear, detailed and low-noise color image in any automotive situation.

Der OV10630 ist nicht nur in der Lage, kontrastreiche Situationen präzise abzubilden,


sondern verfügt auch über

[...] eine automatische Regelung des Dynamikbereichs, um sich an verschiedene [...]

Licht- und Situationsbedingungen


anzupassen und so ein klares, detailliertes und rauscharmes Farbbild in jeder Fahrsituation liefern zu können.

The increase of signal density


and loudness level of the digital audio signals can be achieved by the

[...] interaction of twodynamic range controlprocesses.

Die Signalverdichtung und der damit


verbundene Lautheitsgewinn des digitalen Audiosignals können durch

[...] das Zusammenwirken zweier Regelprozesse erreicht werden.

The outstanding quality of dynamic range

[...] processing is based on the new Multi-loopdynamic range controlprinciple developed by Jünger Audio.

Die herausragende

[...] Qualität der Dynamikbearbeitung basiert auf einem neuartigen Multi-Loop-Regel- verstärkerprinzip [...]

das von Jünger Audio entwickelt wurde.

The introduction of the MediaPlus chassis, which makes possible


the integration of Internet, digital

[...] television (DVB), andDolbydigital into television [...]

sets, is causing the segments entertainment


electronics and multimedia to merge.

Die Einführung des MediaPlus-Chassis, welches


eine Integration von Internet, digitalem

[...] Fernsehen (DVB) und Dolby Digital in Fernsehgeräte [...]

ermöglicht, lässt die Geschäftsbereiche


Unterhaltungselektronik und Multimedia zusammenwachsen.

The new module can extractDolbyDigital signals and [...]

direct them to an internal decoder or to external equipment such as


the Certos system for surround sound playback.

Das neue Modul kann Dolby-Digital-Signale extrahieren [...]

und an einen internen Decoder oder zur Raumklangwiedergabe an externe


Geräte wie die Certos-Anlage weiterleiten.

Two types of test were conducted; firstly, sequencing

[...] through the fullrangeofDolbyDigital data rates [...]

and, secondly, switching between


the two most commonly used data rates of 192 and 384 kbit/s (stereo to 5.1).

führt; erstens ein Durchspielen des

[...] ganzen Bereichs der für Dolby Digital erlaubten Datenraten, [...]

und zweitens eine Umschaltung


zwischen den gebräuchlichsten Datenraten von 192 und 384 kbit/s (Stereo nach 5.1).

Select this when you connect the

[...] digital input connector ofaDolbyDigital Decoder or an amplifier with a built-inDolbyDigital Decoder.

Wählen Sie diese Einstellung für den


Anschluss der

[...] Digitaleingangsbuchse eines Dolby Digital-Decoders oder eines Verstärkers mit integriertem Dolby Digital-Decoder.

Looking back at 20 years of activity in industrial microscopy, Imagic disposes of a wide application experience and a large portfolio of hardware and software modules. Starting from


controlling analog and

[...] digital cameras, coded and motorized microscopes, acquisitioncontrolsuchas Multifocus and HighDynamic Range,through to image processing, interactive measurement and analysis, [...]

ending in automated


Word Report generation and seamless integration into customer LIMS and order management systems.

Dank einer mehr als 20-jährigen Aktivität in der industriellen Mikroskopie verfügt Imagic heute über eine große Anwendungserfahrung und ein breites Portfolio an



[...] und Softwaremodulen, von der Ansteuerung analoger und digitaler Kameras, codierten und motorisierten Mikroskopen, über Bildaufnahmemodule wie Multifokus und High Dynamic Range, Bildbearbeitung, [...]

Vermessung und


Analyse, bis zur automatisierten Bericht-Erstellung in MS Word und der nahtlosen Anbindung an Auftrags- oder LIMS-Systeme.

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Dynamic range

For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation).

Dynamic range (abbreviated DR, DNR,[1] or DYR[2]) is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume. It is often used in the context of signals, like sound and light. It is measured either as a ratio or as a base-10 (decibel) or base-2 (doublings, bits or stops) logarithmic value of the difference between the smallest and largest signal values.[3]

Electronically reproduced audio and video is often processed to fit the original material with a wide dynamic range into a narrower recorded dynamic range that can more easily be stored and reproduced; this processing is called dynamic range compression.

Human perception[edit]

Factor (power)DecibelsStops

The human senses of sight and hearing have a relatively high dynamic range. However, a human cannot perform these feats of perception at both extremes of the scale at the same time. The human eye takes time to adjust to different light levels, and its dynamic range in a given scene is actually quite limited due to optical glare. The instantaneous dynamic range of human audio perception is similarly subject to masking so that, for example, a whisper cannot be heard in loud surroundings.

A human is capable of hearing (and usefully discerning) anything from a quiet murmur in a soundproofed room to the loudest heavy metal concert. Such a difference can exceed 100 dB which represents a factor of 100,000 in amplitude and a factor 10,000,000,000 in power.[4][5] The dynamic range of human hearing is roughly 140 dB,[6][7] varying with frequency,[8] from the threshold of hearing (around −9 dB SPL[8][9][10] at 3 kHz) to the threshold of pain (from 120–140 dB SPL[11][12][13]). This wide dynamic range cannot be perceived all at once, however; the tensor tympani, stapedius muscle, and outer hair cells all act as mechanical dynamic range compressors to adjust the sensitivity of the ear to different ambient levels.[14]

A human can see objects in starlight[a] or in bright sunlight, even though on a moonless night objects receive 1/1,000,000,000 of the illumination they would on a bright sunny day; a dynamic range of 90 dB.

In practice, it is difficult for humans to achieve the full dynamic experience using electronic equipment. For example, a good quality LCD has a dynamic range limited to around 1000:1,[b] and some of the latest CMOS image sensors now[when?] have measured dynamic ranges of about 23,000:1.[15][c] Paper reflectance can produce a dynamic range of about 100:1.[16] A professional video camera such as the Sony Digital Betacam achieves a dynamic range of greater than 90 dB in audio recording.[17]


Audio engineers use dynamic range to describe the ratio of the amplitude of the loudest possible undistorted signal to the noise floor, say of a microphone or loudspeaker.[18] Dynamic range is therefore the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the case where the signal is the loudest possible for the system. For example, if the ceiling of a device is 5 V (rms) and the noise floor is 10 µV (rms) then the dynamic range is 500000:1, or 114 dB:

{\displaystyle 20\times \log _{10}\left({\frac {\rm {5\,V}}{10\,\mu \mathrm {V} }}\right)=20\times \log _{10}(500000)=20\times 5.7=114\,\mathrm {dB} }

In digital audio theory the dynamic range is limited by quantization error. The maximum achievable dynamic range for a digital audio system with Q-bit uniform quantization is calculated as the ratio of the largest sine-wave rms to rms noise is:[19]

{\mathrm  {DR_{{ADC}}}}=20\times \log _{{10}}\left({\frac  {2^{Q}}{1}}\right)=\left(6.02\cdot Q\right)\ {\mathrm  {dB}}\,\!

However, the usable dynamic range may be greater, as a properly dithered recording device can record signals well below the noise floor.

The 16-bit compact disc has a theoretical undithered dynamic range of about 96 dB;[20][d] however, the perceived dynamic range of 16-bit audio can be 120 dB or more with noise-shapeddither, taking advantage of the frequency response of the human ear.[21][22]

Digital audio with undithered 20-bit quantization is theoretically capable of 120 dB dynamic range. 24-bit digital audio affords 144 dB dynamic range.[6] Most Digital audio workstations process audio with 32-bit floating-point representation which affords even higher dynamic range and so loss of dynamic range is no longer a concern in terms of digital audio processing. Dynamic range limitations typically result from improper gain staging, recording technique including ambient noise and intentional application of dynamic range compression.

Dynamic range in analog audio is the difference between low-level thermal noise in the electronic circuitry and high-level signal saturation resulting in increased distortion and, if pushed higher, clipping.[23] Multiple noise processes determine the noise floor of a system. Noise can be picked up from microphone self-noise, preamp noise, wiring and interconnection noise, media noise, etc.

Early 78 rpm phonograph discs had a dynamic range of up to 40 dB,[24] soon reduced to 30 dB and worse due to wear from repeated play. Vinyl microgroove phonograph records typically yield 55-65 dB, though the first play of the higher-fidelity outer rings can achieve a dynamic range of 70 dB.[25]

German magnetic tape in 1941 was reported to have had a dynamic range of 60 dB,[26] though modern day restoration experts of such tapes note 45-50 dB as the observed dynamic range.[27]Ampex tape recorders in the 1950s achieved 60 dB in practical usage,[26] In the 1960s, improvements in tape formulation processes resulted in 7 dB greater range,[28]: 158  and Ray Dolby developed the Dolby A-Type noise reduction system that increased low- and mid-frequency dynamic range on magnetic tape by 10 dB, and high-frequency by 15 dB, using companding (compression and expansion) of four frequency bands.[28]: 169  The peak of professional analog magnetic recording tape technology reached 90 dB dynamic range in the midband frequencies at 3% distortion, or about 80 dB in practical broadband applications.[28]: 158  The Dolby SR noise reduction system gave a 20 dB further increased range resulting in 110 dB in the midband frequencies at 3% distortion.[28]: 172 

Compact Cassette tape performance ranges from 50 to 56 dB depending on tape formulation, with type IV tape tapes giving the greatest dynamic range, and systems such as XDR, dbx and Dolby noise reduction system increasing it further. Specialized bias and record head improvements by Nakamichi and Tandberg combined with Dolby C noise reduction yielded 72 dB dynamic range for the cassette.[citation needed]

A dynamic microphone is able to withstand high sound intensity and can have a dynamic range of up to 140 dB. Condenser microphones are also rugged but their dynamic range may be limited by the overloading of their associated electronic circuitry.[29] Practical considerations of acceptable distortion levels in microphones combined with typical practices in a recording studio result in a useful dynamic range of 125 dB.[28]: 75 

In 1981, researchers at Ampex determined that a dynamic range of 118 dB on a dithered digital audio stream was necessary for subjective noise-free playback of music in quiet listening environments.[30]

Since the early 1990s, it has been recommended by several authorities, including the Audio Engineering Society, that measurements of dynamic range be made with an audio signal present, which is then filtered out in the noise floor measurement used in determining dynamic range.[31] This avoids questionable measurements based on the use of blank media, or muting circuits.

The term dynamic range may be confusing in audio production because it has two conflicting definitions, particularly in the understanding of the loudness war phenomenon.[32][33]Dynamic range may refer to micro-dynamics,[34][35][36] related to crest factor,[37][38] whereas the European Broadcasting Union, in EBU3342 Loudness Range, defines dynamic range as the difference between the quietest and loudest volume, a matter of macro-dynamics.[32][33][39][40][41][42]


When showing a movie or a game, a display is able to show both shadowy nighttime scenes and bright outdoor sunlit scenes, but in fact the level of light coming from the display is much the same for both types of scene (perhaps different by a factor of 10). Knowing that the display does not have a huge dynamic range, the producers do not attempt to make the nighttime scenes accurately dimmer than the daytime scenes, but instead use other cues to suggest night or day. A nighttime scene will usually contain duller colours and will often be lit with blue lighting, which reflects the way that the sensitive rod cells in the human eye sees colours at low light levels.[citation needed]


In electronics dynamic range is used in the following contexts:

In audio and electronics applications, the ratio involved is often large enough that it is converted to a logarithm and specified in decibels.[43]


In metrology, such as when performed in support of science, engineering or manufacturing objectives, dynamic range refers to the range of values that can be measured by a sensor or metrology instrument. Often this dynamic range of measurement is limited at one end of the range by saturation of a sensing signal sensor or by physical limits that exist on the motion or other response capability of a mechanical indicator. The other end of the dynamic range of measurement is often limited by one or more sources of random noise or uncertainty in signal levels that may be described as defining the sensitivity of the sensor or metrology device. When digital sensors or sensor signal converters are a component of the sensor or metrology device, the dynamic range of measurement will be also related to the number of binary digits (bits) used in a digital numeric representation in which the measured value is linearly related to the digital number.[43] For example, a 12-bit digital sensor or converter can provide a dynamic range in which the ratio of the maximum measured value to the minimum measured value is up to 212 = 4096.

Metrology systems and devices may use several basic methods to increase their basic dynamic range. These methods include averaging and other forms of filtering, correction of receivers characteristics,[43] repetition of measurements, nonlinear transformations to avoid saturation, etc. In more advance forms of metrology, such as multiwavelength digital holography, interferometry measurements made at different scales (different wavelengths) can be combined to retain the same low-end resolution while extending the upper end of the dynamic range of measurement by orders of magnitude.


In music, dynamic range describes the difference between the quietest and loudest volume of an instrument, part or piece of music.[49] In modern recording, this range is often limited through dynamic range compression, which allows for louder volume, but can make the recording sound less exciting or live.[50]

The dynamic range of music as normally perceived in a concert hall does not exceed 80 dB, and human speech is normally perceived over a range of about 40 dB.[28]: 4 


A scene demanding high dynamic range, taken with the Nikon D7000 digital camera, capable of 13.9 stops of dynamic range per DxOMark.[51] The unedited version of the digital photo is to the left, while the shadows have been pushed heavily in Photoshop to produce the final image on the right. The better the dynamic range of the camera, the more an exposure can be pushed without significantly increasing noise.

Photographers use dynamic range to describe the luminance range of a scene being photographed, or the limits of luminance range that a given digital camera or film can capture,[52] or the opacity range of developed film images, or the reflectance range of images on photographic papers.

The dynamic range of digital photography is comparable to the capabilities of photographic film[53] and both are comparable to the capabilities of the human eye.[54]

There are photographic techniques that support even higher dynamic range.

  • Graduated neutral density filters are used to decrease the dynamic range of scene luminance that can be captured on photographic film (or on the image sensor of a digital camera): The filter is positioned in front of the lens at the time the exposure is made; the top half is dark and the bottom half is clear. The dark area is placed over a scene's high-intensity region, such as the sky. The result is more even exposure in the focal plane, with increased detail in the shadows and low-light areas. Though this doesn't increase the fixed dynamic range available at the film or sensor, it stretches usable dynamic range in practice.[55]
  • High-dynamic-range imaging overcomes the limited dynamic range of the sensor by selectively combining multiple exposures of the same scene in order to retain detail in light and dark areas. Tone mapping maps the image differently in shadow and highlights in order to better distribute the lighting range across the image. The same approach has been used in chemical photography to capture an extremely wide dynamic range: A three-layer film with each underlying layer at 1/100 the sensitivity of the next higher one has, for example, been used to record nuclear-weapons tests.[56]

Consumer-grade image file formats sometimes restrict dynamic range.[57] The most severe dynamic-range limitation in photography may not involve encoding, but rather reproduction to, say, a paper print or computer screen. In that case, not only local tone mapping but also dynamic range adjustment can be effective in revealing detail throughout light and dark areas: The principle is the same as that of dodging and burning (using different lengths of exposures in different areas when making a photographic print) in the chemical darkroom. The principle is also similar to gain riding or automatic level control in audio work, which serves to keep a signal audible in a noisy listening environment and to avoid peak levels that overload the reproducing equipment, or which are unnaturally or uncomfortably loud.

If a camera sensor is incapable of recording the full dynamic range of a scene, high-dynamic-range (HDR) techniques may be used in postprocessing, which generally involve combining multiple exposures using software.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ISSCC Glossary
  2. ^"Archived copy"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2016-08-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 2016-08-22. Retrieved 2016-08-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 2016-08-27. Retrieved 2016-08-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^"Dynamic range", Electropedia, IEC, archived from the original on 2015-04-26
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External list[edit]

What is 'Dynamic Range'? (Quick tutorial)

There, he pointed to a small one-story building with a flat roof, one side adjacent to the production building and the. Other to the administration block. There are showers and a sauna, Vince said. - Guys, probably wash. You can wait in the lobby.

Dynamic range dolby

The cafe in which we sat was open until 10, we began to decide what we would do next. The guys offered to go to the sauna and we agreed without hesitation. Having stopped by the store and bought food and alcohol, we went to the sauna.

Turn Off Dynamic Range Compression In Your Receiver For Exciting Movies - Episode 3

Sooner or later, all good things end, as it happened now, when the taxi stopped at the specified address. The driver said: - We've arrived. - Thank you. - Thank you.

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ABOUT. Julia was without panties (I managed to prepare for a meeting with a friend, having heard a tear-stained voice on the phone). Olya clung to Julia's pussy and began to lick the sweet juices.

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