First print comics

First print comics DEFAULT

This guide attempts to develop a framework to evaluate the investment potential of 2nd print comics.

On average, most 2nd print comics are not worth anything. However, in cases where the 2nd print contain first appearances of characters, they can be worth something. In some, 2nd print can be more expensive than 1st prints.

I intend to analyze when such cases can happen so as to make the best comic book investment decisions with regards to 2nd prints.

Are 2nd print comics always worth money?

I have given evidence in my article on rare copper comic books that there are cases where 3rd or later printings are worth more than first prints.

These examples include: Spider-Man #1 UPC gold, Hulk #377 3rd print, Man of Steel #18, 5th print, Spawn #1 black and white 2nd print etc.

Yet, there are also many cases where the first print will also have higher value. For example, Spiderman #361 and many other modern titles.

So, that begs the questions: when can a 2nd print can worth more than 1st print.

When can 2nd print comics be worth more than 1st print?

After comparing the price performance of many 2nd vs 1st print comics, below are my observations on what criteria is necessary to enable the 2nd print to be more valuable the 1st prints:

Observation #1: Oversupply of the first edition helps

The first interesting observation is that first editions with too much supply tend to be overtaken by later editions. Spawn #1, Man of Steel #18 etc all falls into this category.

As a result of the large supply, collectors can easily purchase the first edition without too much trouble. Once that is done, they might gravitate towards the less common editions to satisfy their rarity pursue.

In contrast, if a first edition is expensive, most collector will tend to focus on acquiring them. They will not spend the time or money to look for the later printings.

Using this logic, here are some 2nd printing books that might heat up if there is any speculation news.

New Mutants #100 3rd printing: The first printing had sales in the 400,000k range. If MCU gets serious on X-Force, interest in this book might rise again, especially the later printings. The latter has actually been speculated before so a renewal interest is not out of the question.

Uncanny X-Men #282 2nd printing: We might see Uncanny X-Men #282 2nd print heat up if Bishop ever becomes hot again. The first edition is one of the most heavily printed comics during the 90s so anyone can easily get a copy. The gold edition has more limited supply although it is still not difficult to get one.

Marvel Secret Wars #1 2nd printing: I talked about this book before. Unlike the other 2, this one is much difficult to find. If the Secret Wars theme is used as the eventual big battle in MCU Phase 4 or 5, expect this to heat up pretty quickly.

Observation #2: The first print did not have a high price point

If the first edition does not have a high supply, another important criteria that emerged is that the first print cannot already be a valuable comic.

If you look at comics whereby the 2nd or later printings are worth more even though the first edition is not abundant, it is always because they are affordable when the latter printings caught the attention of the market.

In contrast, if a first edition has already established itself as a valuable comic, no amount of scarcity for the 2nd or later printings can dethrone it.

Some examples of this can be seen in cases such as Captain Marvel #17, Amazing Spider-Man #659, #654, Venom #3 etc. These books do not have a large supply but were overtaken by the 2nd printings.

The reason is because most of the first editions of these books have not caught the attention of the market, thus making them affordable. In other words, both first and later editions are on the same starting line.

Hence, when the 2nd edition is made known and catch the attention of the market, it will gravitate towards the edition with the lower supply.

Observation #3: The cover art lights the fire for the 2nd printings

In observation #2, we talked about the 2nd print catching the attention of the market. The most obvious way of doing so is through the cover art.

In most cases, the cover art for the 2nd printings are a better first appearance cover than the first editions. Since the first edition has not become a valuable comic, most will focus on the 2nd printing.

Invincible Iron Man Vol 3 #7, 3rd printing is such a book that is currently still affordable.

The 3rd edition shows Riri on the cover while the first edition does not. It is not a unknown book as prices have been increasing but it has not fully caught fire yet.

The sales for the third edition is 6,224. For comparison, the sales for first edition is around 51,000.

This is a book to watch out for especially if RIri makes it to the MCU. If you think Riri has a high chance of becoming a hot property, you might want to grab a few of these.

Having said, there are cases where the 2nd print overtook the 1st without a brand new cover art. All New Marvel Point One 2nd printing is a good example of this. However, bear in mind that observation #2 still holds true. If the first edition of ANMPO #1 has been a $100 or more in raw, the 2nd print might not overtook it.

If such cases become common, it will a wide open field for 2nd prints as most do not have a different cover art. Having said that, it is still early and it is best to continue watching this trend. Justice League Dark #1 2nd printing can be a good book to observe.

Are 2nd print worth anything if it cannot overtake first editions?

While 2nd print overtaking is ideal as they are harder to find and hence are ideal candidates to see crazy growth.

In most cases however, this will not be possible as the first editions have established their values in the market.

Fortunately, it is still possible to make good returns even if 2nd printings cannot overtake the first. The recent examples of Ultimate Fallout #4 and Edge of Spiderverse #2 have shown us that.

Below is a table comparing the values between first and 2nd printing.

The key message is there are some serious money to be made here from 2nd printing. While their prices are below the first printing, their absolute value is still high enough to warrant some kind of speculation.

Another thing to pay attention is the absolute price of the first printing. They are a good indicator of how much returns you can get on your later printing investments.

If you can see books now hovering around the $100 mark and yet have cheap 2nd printing available, they are a good spec to pick up.


2nd and later printings have gotten a lot of interest recently. The market is still developing and this is a first step to developing a more repeatable framework for picking up good 2nd printing for speculation or investments.

To summarize, look for 2nd prints when:

  • First printing is readily available at cheap prices
  • First printing has not established itself as a valuable book, thus enabling 2nd printing to start from an equal or easier position
  • Cover art is different and features the first cover of a new character (not as important as first two)

When is a 1st Printing Not a 1st Printing? When It's From DC Comics

Posted on by Rich Johnston


We mentioned this in earlier coverage, but it seems that a collector or two has noticed and are asking questions. Because, you see, comic book collectors like a first printing. They really do. When a comic goes through multiple printings, the first printing is what people want. Unless its a much rarer and distinct later printing in some circumstances when the original 1st printing was massive. But usually it's all about the first. Which may be about to cause a problem for DC Comics collectors.

When is a 1st Printing Not a 1st Printing? When It's From DC Comics.

Because next week, the first of the new DC Comics titles that should have shipped on April 1st, will be coming to participating comic book stores courtesy of new distributors UCS Comic Distributors and Lunar Distribution.  Except that these are the same comic books that Diamond will be distributing in Mid May. They shipped from DC's printers Transcontinental to Diamond a week or two before Diamond shut its doors to new comic books, and were nor distributed by Diamond.

With Transcontinental still closed down, DC Comics found other printers. I'm even told that the big DC boss Pamela Lifford did some of the calling round. Now they have new distributors and, it seems, new print runs of the comics that Diamond still has in storage.

The question is, when it comes to next week's comics, will The Dreaming #20, say, that stores get be counted as a 1st printing? Or will that apply to the version that was previously printed and being held by Diamond for distribution from mid-May? For collectors, this really matters. Will they both count as 1st printings but from different printers? Will in indicia reflect this at all? What will happen with Batman #92 which DC are planning to see in stores in June, but which Diamond could get their 230,000 earlier copies out to stores in May?

Retailers who do get copies of any DC titles from UCS or Lunar, do feel free to let Bleeding Cool know. We're continuing to cover the impact that the current global situation is having on the comic book industry, at this link.

Posted in: Comics, DC Comics | Tagged: batman 92, coronavirus comics, dc comics, diamond, distributor wars, lunar, ucg, ucs

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About Rich Johnston

Founder of Bleeding Cool. The longest-serving digital news reporter in the world, since 1992. Author of The Flying Friar, Holed Up, The Avengefuls, Doctor Who: Room With A Deja Vu, The Many Murders Of Miss Cranbourne, Chase Variant. Lives in South-West London, works from Blacks on Dean Street, shops at Piranha Comics. Father of two. Political cartoonist.

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Rare & Low Distribution Comics

[1] ebay links are affiliate links and any payments received from ebay are put towards the cost of the website hosting and development. Before buying a Walking Dead #1 or TMNT #1, please click thru to ebay from the website links first 😍 but note that ebay affiliate linking is only valid for 24 hours or until you click another affiliate's link 😞
[2] Most publishers don't disclose actual print run data and they may not know the exact numbers in any case due to inaccuracies of the printing process leading to overage/underage (it has also been common practice to add 3-10% to the print run as cover against underage, spoilage and other damages). As well as distributed copies, there may be pre-press proofs (may differ from the main print run), spoilage (which can lead to some error variants or comics being pulped), file copies, complimentary copies and other stock that is not distributed at the time. Any disclosed distribution data should be treated with caution as this may not be totally accurate; note also limitations of the data: since around 2009, Diamond North America included most variants they distribute within its disclosed distribution data along with the standard copies as one figure; also the data excludes distribution of the same English language copies outside North America (so, for example, UK distribution via Diamond UK is excluded). Estimates on this site are just that and should be treated as a very rough guide only.
[3] Prices are just a guide and may be out-of-date so best to check other guides and realized sales from both auction sites and comic shops as well for a more accurate measure of current value.
[4] Information is as accurate as possible at the time of publication but there may be some mistakes; if you note any problems with the content of any pages please get in touch. Many thanks!

© Recalled Comics (RU), 2021.


Comic book

Publication of comics art

This article is about periodicals containing comics. For the comics art medium, see Comics.

Comic books on display at a museum, depicting how they would have been displayed at a rail station store in the first half of the 20th century.
A common comic-book cover format displays the issue number, date, price and publisher along with an illustration and cover copy that may include a story's title.

A comic book, also called comicbook,[1][2]comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are often accompanied by descriptive prose and written narrative, usually, dialogue contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized[disputed – discuss] in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s. The first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the US in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics.[3] The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; however, this practice was replaced by featuring stories of all genres, usually not humorous in tone.

The largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion ($6–7 billion),[4] with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books (tankōbon volumes and manga magazines) in Japan, equivalent to 15 issues per person.[5] The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.[6] As of 2017[update], the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics.[7] The best-selling comic book categories in the US as of 2019[update] are juvenile children's fiction at 41%, manga at 28% and superhero comics at 10% of the market.[8] Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share.[9]


Main article: Comics § Terminology

Comic books are reliant on their organization and appearance. Authors largely focus on the frame of the page, size, orientation, and panel positions. These characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons (speech bubbles), text (lines), and characters. Balloons are usually convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element. The tail has an origin, path, tip, and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing, drawing, and coloring. There are many technological formulas used to create comic books, including directions, axes, data, and metrics. Following these key formatting procedures is the writing, drawing, and coloring.[10]

American comic books[edit]

Main article: American comic book

Comics as a print medium have existed in the United States since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover,[11] making it the first known American prototype comic book. Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with the first comic standard-sized comic being Funnies on Parade. Funnies on Parades was the first book that established the size, duration, and format of the modern comic book. Following this was, Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true newsstand American comic book; Goulart, for example, calls it "the cornerstone for one of the most lucrative branches of magazine publishing".[12] In 1905 G.W. Dillingham Company published 24 select strips by the cartoonist Gustave Verbeek in an anthology book called 'The Incredible Upside-Downs of Little Lady Lovekins and Old Man Muffaroo'.[13] The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry[14] and ushered in the Golden Age of Comic Books. The Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power.[15]

Historians generally divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras. The Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s, which is generally considered the beginning of the comic book as it is known today.[16] The Silver Age of Comic Books is generally considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4 (Oct. 1956).[17][18] The Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man. The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the very early 1970s through the mid-1980s.[19] The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day.[20]

A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent (1954), which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. Wertham claimed that comic books were responsible for an increase in juvenile delinquency, as well as potential influence on a child's sexuality and morals.[21] In response to attention from the government and from the media, the US comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America.[22] The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval. It was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA.[23] The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.

Underground comic books[edit]

Main article: Underground comix

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comics. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Underground comix "reflected and commented on the social divisions and tensions of American society".[attribution needed][24] Many had an uninhibited, often irreverent style; their frank depictions of nudity, sex, profanity, and politics had no parallel outside their precursors, the pornographic and even more obscure "Tijuana bibles". Underground comics were almost never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. The underground comics encouraged creators to publish their work independently so that they would have full ownership rights to their characters.[24]

Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon,[25][26] has been credited as the first underground comic;[25][26] while R. Crumb and the crew of cartoonists who worked on Zap Comix popularized the form.

Alternative comics[edit]

Main article: Alternative comics

The rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the US. The first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, and Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini adapted into a 2003 film. Some independent comics continued in the tradition of underground comics. While their content generally remained less explicit, others resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned companies or by single artists. A few (notably RAW) represented experimental attempts to bring comics closer to the status of fine art.

During the 1970s the "small press" culture grew and diversified. By the 1980s, several independent publishers – such as Pacific, Eclipse, First, Comico, and Fantagraphics – had started releasing a wide range of styles and formats—from color-superhero, detective, and science-fiction comic books to black-and-white magazine-format stories of Latin Americanmagical realism.

A number of small publishers in the 1990s changed the format and distribution of their comics to more closely resemble non-comics publishing. The "minicomics" form, an extremely informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became increasingly popular among artists in the 1990s,[27] despite reaching an even more limited audience than the small press.

Small publishers regularly releasing titles include Avatar Comics, Hyperwerks, Raytoons, and Terminal Press, buoyed by such advances in printing technology as digital print-on-demand.

Graphic novels[edit]

Main article: Graphic novel

In 1964, Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel".[28] Precursors of the form existed by the 1920s, which saw a revival of the medievalwoodcut tradition by Belgian Frans Masereel,[29] American Lynd Ward and others, including Stan Lee. In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin, touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover. In 1971, writer-artist Gil Kane and collaborators devised the paperback "comics novel" Blackmark. Will Eisner popularized the term "graphic novel" when he used it on the cover of the paperback edition of his work A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories in 1978.

Digital comics[edit]

See also: Digital comic

Market size[edit]

In 2017, the comic book market size for North America was just over $1 billion with digital sales being flat, book stores having a 1 percent decline, and comic book stores having a 10 percent decline over 2016.[30]

Comic book collecting[edit]

Main article: Comic book collecting

The 1970s saw the advent of specialty comic book stores. Initially, comic books were marketed by publishers to children because comic books were perceived as children's entertainment. However, with increasing recognition of comics as an art form and the growing pop culture presence of comic book conventions, they are now embraced by many adults.[22]

Comic book collectors are often lifelong enthusiasts of the comic book stories, and they usually focus on particular heroes and attempt to assemble the entire run of a title. Comics are published with a sequential number. The first issue of a long-running comic book series is commonly the rarest and most desirable to collectors. The first appearance of a specific character, however, might be in a pre-existing title. For example, Spider-Man's first appearance was in Amazing Fantasy #15. New characters were often introduced this way and did not receive their own titles until there was a proven audience for the hero. As a result, comics that feature the first appearance of an important character will sometimes be even harder to find than the first issue of a character's own title.

Some rare comic books include copies of the unreleased Motion Picture Funnies Weekly #1 from 1939. Eight copies, plus one without a cover, emerged in the estate of the deceased publisher in 1974. The "Pay Copy" of this book sold for $43,125 in a 2005 Heritage auction.[31]

The most valuable American comics have combined rarity and quality with the first appearances of popular and enduring characters. Four comic books have sold for over US$1 million as of December 2010[update], including two examples of Action Comics #1, the first appearance of Superman,[32][33] both sold privately through online dealer in 2010, and Detective Comics #27, the first appearance of Batman, via public auction.

Updating the above price obtained for Action Comics #1, the first appearance of Superman, the highest sale on record for this book is $3.2 million, for a 9.0 copy.[34]

Misprints, promotional comic-dealer incentive printings, and issues with extremely low distribution also generally have scarcity value. The rarest modern comic books include the original press run of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen #5, which DC executive Paul Levitz recalled and pulped due to the appearance of a vintage Victorian era advertisement for "Marvel Douche", which the publisher considered offensive;[35] only 100 copies exist, most of which have been CGC graded. (See Recalled comics for more pulped, recalled, and erroneous comics.)

In 2000, a company named Comics Guaranty (CGC) began to "slab" comics, encasing them in thick plastic and giving them a numeric grade. Since then, other grading companies have arisen. Because condition is important to the value of rare comics, the idea of grading by a company that does not buy or sell comics seems like a good one. However, there is some controversy about whether this grading service is worth the high cost, and whether it is a positive development for collectors, or if it primarily services speculators who wish to make a quick profit trading in comics as one might trade in stocks or fine art. Comic grading has created valuation standards that online price guides such as GoCollect and GPAnalysis have used to report on real-time market values.

The original artwork pages from comic books are also collected, and these are perhaps the rarest of all comic book collector's items, as there is only one unique page of artwork for each page that was printed and published. These were created by a writer, who created the story; a pencil artist, who laid out the sequential panels on the page; an ink artist, who went over the pencil with pen and black ink; a letterer, who provided the dialogue and narration of the story by hand lettering each word; and finally a colorist, who added color as the last step before the finished pages went to the printer.

When the original pages of artwork are returned by the printer, they are typically given back to the artists, who sometimes sell them at comic book conventions, or in galleries and art shows related to comic book art. The original pages of the first appearances of such legendary characters as Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman and Spider-Man are considered priceless.

History of race in U.S. comic books[edit]

Many early iterations of black characters in comics "became variations on the 'single stereotypical image of Sambo'."[36] Sambo was closely related to the coon stereotype but had some subtle differences. They are both a derogatory way of portraying black characters. "The name itself, an abbreviation of raccoon, is dehumanizing. As with Sambo, the coon was portrayed as a lazy, easily frightened, chronically idle, inarticulate, buffoon."[37] This portrayal "was of course another attempt to solidify the intellectual inferiority of the black race through popular culture."[36] However, in the 1940s there was a change in portrayal of black characters. "A cursory glance...might give the impression that situations had improved for African Americans in comics."[36] In many comics being produced in this time there was a major push for tolerance between races. "These equality minded heroes began to spring to action just as African Americans were being asked to participate in the war effort."[36]

During this time, a government ran program, the Writers' War Board, became heavily involved in what would be published in comics. "The Writers' War Board used comic books to shape popular perceptions of race and ethnicity..."[38] Not only were they using comic books as a means of recruiting all Americans, they were also using it as propaganda to, "[construct] a justification for race based hatred of America's foreign enemies."[38] The Writers' War Board created comics books that were meant to "[promote] domestic racial harmony".[38] However, "these pro-tolerance narratives struggled to overcome the popular and widely understood negative tropes used for decades in American mass culture..."[38] However, they weren't accomplishing this agenda within all of their comics.

In Captain Marvel Adventures, a character named steamboat was an amalgamation of some of the worst stereotypes of the time. The Writers' War Board did not ask for any change with this character. "Eliminating Steamboat required the determined efforts of a black youth group in New York City."[38] Originally their request was refused by individuals working on the comic stating, "Captain Marvel Adventures included many kinds of caricatures 'for the sake of humor'."[38] The black youth group responded with, "this is not the Negro race, but your one-and-a-half millions readers will think it so."[38] Afterwards, Steamboat disappeared from the comics all together. There was a comic created about the 99th squadron, also known as the Tuskegee Airmen, an all black air force unit. Instead of making the comic about their story the comic the comic was about Hop Harrigan. A white pilot who captures a Nazi, shows him videos of the 99th squadron defeating his man and then reveals to the Nazi that his men were defeated by African Americans which infuriated him as he sees them as a less superior race and can't believe they bested his men."...[The] Tuskegee Airmen, and images of black aviators appear in just three of the fifty three panels...[the] pilots of the 99th squadron have no dialogue and interact with neither Hop Harrigan nor his Nazi captive."[38] During this time, they also used black characters in comic books as a means to invalidate the militant black groups that were fighting for equality within America. "Spider-Man 'made it clear that militant black power was not the remedy for racial injustice'."[36] "The Falcon openly criticized black behavior stating' maybe it's important fo[sic] us to cool things down-so we can protect the rights we been fightin' for'."[36] This poor portrayal and character development of black characters can be partially blamed on the fact that, during this time, "there had rarely been a black artist or writer allowed in a major comics company"[36]

Asian characters faced some of the same treatment in comics as black characters did. They were dehumanized and the narrative being pushed was that they were "incompetent and subhuman."[38] "A 1944 issue of the United States Marines included a narrative entitled "The Smell of the Monkeymen...the story depicts Japanese soldiers as simian brutes whose sickening body odor betrays their concealed locations."[38] Chinese characters received the same treatment. "By the time the United States entered WWII, negative perceptions of Chinese were an established part of mass culture..."[38] However, concerned that the Japanese could use America's anti chinese material as propaganda they began "to present a more positive image of America's Chinese allies..."[38] Just as they tried to show better representation for Black people in comics they did the same for Asian people. However, "Japanese and filipino characters [were] visually indistinguishable. Both groups have grotesque buckteeth, tattered clothing, and bright yellow skin."[38] "publishers...depicted America's Asian allies through derogatory images and language honed over the preceding decades."[38] Asian characters were previously portrayed as, "ghastly yellow demons".[36] During WWII, "[every] major superhero worth his spandex devoted himself to the eradication of asian invaders."[36] There was "a constant relay race in which one asian culture merely handed off the baton of hatred to another with no perceptible changes in the manner in which the characters would be portrayed."[36]

"The only specific depiction of a Hispanic superhero[dubious – discuss] did not end well. In 1975 Marvel gave us Hector Ayala a.k.a The White Tiger."[36] "Although he fought for several years alongside the likes of much more popular heroes such as Spider-Man and Daredevil, he only lasted six years before sales of comics featuring him got so bad that Marvel had him retire.[36] The most famous Hispanic character is Bane, a villain from Batman.[36]

The Native American representation in comic books "can be summed up in the noble savage stereotype"[36] " a recurring theme...urg[ed] American indians to abandon their traditional hostility towards the United States. They were the ones painted as intolerant and disrespectful of the dominant concerns of white America"[36]

East Asian comics[edit]

Japanese manga[edit]

Main article: Manga

Manga (漫画) are comic books or graphic novels originating from Japan. Most manga conform to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century, though the art form has a long prehistory in earlier Japanese art. The term manga is used in Japan to refer to both comics and cartooning. Outside Japan, the word is typically used to refer to comics originally published in the country.


Main article: Dōjinshi

Dōjinshi (同人誌, fan magazine), fan-made Japanese comics, operate in a far larger market in Japan than the American "underground comics" market; the largest dōjinshi fair, Comiket, attracts 500,000 visitors twice a year.[39]

Korean manhwa[edit]

Main article: Manhwa

Korean manhwa has quickly gained popularity outside Korea in recent times as a result of the Korean Wave. The manhwa industry has suffered through two crashes and strict censorship since its early beginnings as a result of the Japanese occupation of the peninsula which stunts the growth of the industry but has now started to flourish thanks in part to the internet and new ways to read manhwa whether on computers or through smartphones. In the past manhwa would be marketed as manga outside the country in order to make sure they would sell well but now that is no longer needed since more people are now more knowledgeable about the industry and Korean culture.


Main article: Webtoons

Webtoons have become popular in South Korea as a new way to read comics. Thanks in part to different censorship rules, color and unique visual effects, and optimization for easier reading on smartphones and computers. More manhwa have made the switch from traditional print manhwa to online webtoons thanks to better pay and more freedom than traditional print manhwa. The webtoon format has also expanded to other countries outside of Korea like China, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Western countries. Major webtoon distributors include Lezhin, Naver, and Kakao.

Chinese manhua[edit]

Main article: Manhua

Vietnamese truyện tranh[edit]

Main article: Truyện tranh (Viet comics)

European comics[edit]

Main article: European comics

Franco-Belgian comics[edit]

Main article: Franco-Belgian comics

France and Belgium have a long tradition in comics and comic books, called BDs (an abbreviation of bande dessinées) in French and strips in Dutch. Belgian comic books originally written in Dutch show the influence of the Francophone "Franco-Belgian" comics but have their own distinct style.

The name bande dessinée derives from the original description of the art form as drawn strips (the phrase literally translates as "the drawn strip"), analogous to the sequence of images in a film strip. As in its English equivalent, the word "bande" can be applied to both film and comics. Significantly, the French-language term contains no indication of subject-matter, unlike the American terms "comics" and "funnies", which imply an art form not to be taken seriously. The distinction of comics as le neuvième art (literally, "the ninth art") is prevalent in French scholarship on the form, as is the concept of comics criticism and scholarship itself. Relative to the respective size of their populations, the innumerable authors in France and Belgium publish a high volume of comic books. In North America, the more serious Franco-Belgian comics are often seen as equivalent to graphic novels, but whether they are long or short, bound or in magazine format, in Europe there is no need for a more sophisticated term, as the art's name does not itself imply something frivolous.

In France, the authors control the publication of most comics. The author works within a self-appointed time-frame, and it is common for readers to wait six months or as long as two years between installments. Most books first appear in print as a hardcover book, typically with 48, 56, or 64 pages.

British comics[edit]

Main article: British comics

Although Ally Sloper's Half Holiday (1884) was aimed at an adult market, publishers quickly targeted a younger demographic, which has led to most publications being for children and has created an association in the public's mind of comics as somewhat juvenile. The Guardian refers to Ally Sloper as "one of the world's first iconic cartoon characters", and "as famous in Victorian Britain as Dennis the Menace would be a century later."[41] British comics in the early 20th century typically evolved from illustrated penny dreadfuls of the Victorian era (featuring Sweeney Todd, Dick Turpin and Varney the Vampire).[42] First published in the 1830s, penny dreadfuls were "Britain's first taste of mass-produced popular culture for the young."[43]

The two most popular British comic books, The Beano and The Dandy, were first published by DC Thomson in the 1930s. By 1950 the weekly circulation of both reached two million.[44][45] Explaining the enormous popularity of comics in the UK during this period, Anita O'Brien, director curator at London's Cartoon Museum, states: "When comics like the Beano and Dandy were invented back in the 1930s – and through really to the 1950s and 60s – these comics were almost the only entertainment available to children."[44]Dennis the Menace was created in the 1950s, which saw sales for The Beano soar.[46] He features in the cover of The Beano, with the BBC referring to him as the "definitive naughty boy of the comic world."[46]

In 1954, Tiger comics introduced Roy of the Rovers, the hugely popular football based strip recounting the life of Roy Race and the team he played for, Melchester Rovers. The stock media phrase "real 'Roy of the Rovers' stuff" is often used by football writers, commentators and fans when describing displays of great skill, or surprising results that go against the odds, in reference to the dramatic storylines that were the strip's trademark.[47] Other comic books such as Eagle, Valiant, Warrior, Viz and 2000 AD also flourished. Some comics, such as Judge Dredd and other 2000 AD titles, have been published in a tabloid form. Underground comics and "small press" titles have also appeared in the UK, notably Oz and Escape Magazine.

The content of Action, another title aimed at children and launched in the mid-1970s, became the subject of discussion in the House of Commons. Although on a smaller scale than similar investigations in the US, such concerns led to a moderation of content published within British comics. Such moderation never became formalized to the extent of promulgating a code, nor did it last long. The UK has also established a healthy market in the reprinting and repackaging of material, notably material originating in the US. The lack of reliable supplies of American comic books led to a variety of black-and-white reprints, including Marvel's monster comics of the 1950s, Fawcett's Captain Marvel, and other characters such as Sheena, Mandrake the Magician, and the Phantom. Several reprint companies became involved in repackaging American material for the British market, notably the importer and distributor Thorpe & Porter. Marvel Comics established a UK office in 1972. DC Comics and Dark Horse Comics also opened offices in the 1990s. The repackaging of European material has occurred less frequently, although The Adventures of Tintin and Asterix serials have been successfully translated and repackaged in softcover books. The number of European comics available in the UK has increased in the last two decades. The British company Cinebook, founded in 2005, has released English translated versions of many European series.

In the 1980s, a resurgence of British writers and artists gained prominence in mainstream comic books, which was dubbed the "British Invasion" in comic book history.[48] These writers and artists brought with them their own mature themes and philosophy such as anarchy, controversy and politics common in British media. These elements would pave the way for mature and "darker and edgier" comic books and jump start the Modern Age of Comics.[49] Writers included Alan Moore, famous for his V for Vendetta, From Hell, Watchmen, Marvelman, and The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen;[50]Neil Gaiman with The Sandman mythos and Books of Magic; Warren Ellis, creator of Transmetropolitan and Planetary; and others such as Mark Millar, creator of Wanted and Kick-Ass. The comic book series John Constantine, Hellblazer, which is largely set in Britain and starring the magician John Constantine, paved the way for British writers such as Jamie Delano.[51]

At Christmas, publishers repackage and commission material for comic annuals, printed and bound as hardcover A4-size books; "Rupert" supplies a famous example of the British comic annual. DC Thomson also repackages The Broons and Oor Wullie strips in softcover A4-size books for the holiday season.

On 19 March 2012, the British postal service, the Royal Mail, released a set of stamps depicting British comic book characters and series.[52] The collection featured The Beano, The Dandy, Eagle, The Topper, Roy of the Rovers, Bunty, Buster, Valiant, Twinkle and 2000 AD.[52]

Spanish comics[edit]

Main article: Spanish comics

It has been stated that the 13th century Cantigas de Santa María could be considered as the first Spanish "comic", although comic books (also known in Spain as historietas or tebeos) made their debut around 1857. The magazine TBO was influential in popularizing the medium. After the Spanish Civil War, the Franco regime imposed strict censorship in all media: superhero comics were forbidden and as a result, comic heroes were based on historical fiction (in 1944 the medieval hero El Guerrero del Antifaz was created by Manuel Gago and another popular medieval hero, Capitán Trueno, was created in 1956 by Víctor Mora and Miguel Ambrosio Zaragoza). Two publishing houses — Editorial Bruguera and Editorial Valenciana — dominated the Spanish comics market during its golden age (1950–1970). The most popular comics showed a recognizable style of slapstick humor (influenced by Franco-Belgian authors such as Franquin): Escobar's Carpanta and Zipi y Zape, Vázquez's Las hermanas Gilda and Anacleto,Ibáñez's Mortadelo y Filemón and 13. Rue del Percebe or Jan's Superlópez. After the end of the Francoist period, there was an increased interest in adult comics with magazines such as Totem, El Jueves, 1984, and El Víbora, and works such as Paracuellos by Carlos Giménez.

Spanish artists have traditionally worked in other markets finding great success, either in the American (e.g., Eisner Award winnersSergio Aragonés, Salvador Larroca, Gabriel Hernández Walta, Marcos Martín or David Aja), the British (e.g., Carlos Ezquerra, co-creator of Judge Dredd) or the Franco-Belgian one (e.g., Fauve d'Or winnerJulio Ribera or Blacksad authors Juan Díaz Canales and Juanjo Guarnido).

Italian comics[edit]

Main article: Italian comics

In Italy, comics (known in Italian as fumetti) made their debut as humor strips at the end of the 19th century, and later evolved into adventure stories. After World War II, however, artists like Hugo Pratt and Guido Crepax exposed Italian comics to an international audience. Popular comic books such as Diabolik or the Bonelli line—namely Tex Willer or Dylan Dog—remain best-sellers.[53]

Mainstream comics are usually published on a monthly basis, in a black-and-white digest size format, with approximately 100 to 132 pages. Collections of classic material for the most famous characters, usually with more than 200 pages, are also common. Author comics are published in the French BD format, with an example being Pratt's Corto Maltese.

Italian cartoonists show the influence of comics from other countries, including France, Belgium, Spain, and Argentina. Italy is also famous for being one of the foremost producers of Walt Disney comic stories outside the US; Donald Duck's superhero alter ego, Paperinik, known in English as Superduck, was created in Italy.

Comics in other countries[edit]

See also: List of comics by country


Distribution has historically been a problem for the comic book industry with many mainstream retailers declining to carry extensive stocks of the most interesting and popular comics. The smartphone and the tablet have turned out to be an ideal medium for online distribution.[54]

Digital distribution[edit]

On 13 November 2007, Marvel Comics launched Marvel Digital Comics Unlimited, a subscription service allowing readers to read many comics from Marvel's history online. The service also includes periodic release new comics not available elsewhere. With the release of Avenging Spider-Man #1, Marvel also became the first publisher to provide free digital copies as part of the print copy of the comic book.[55]

With the growing popularity of smartphones and tablets, many major publishers have begun releasing titles in digital form. The most popular platform is comiXology. Some platforms, such as Graphicly, have shut down.

Comic collections in libraries[edit]

Many libraries have extensive collections of comics in the form of graphic novels. This is a convenient way for many in the public to become familiar with the medium.[56]

Guinness World Records[edit]

In 2015, the Japanese manga artistEiichiro Oda was awarded the Guinness World Records title for having the "Most copies published for the same comic book series by a single author". His manga series One Piece, which he writes and illustrates, has been serialized in the Japanese magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump since December 1997, and by 2015, 77 collected volumes had been released. Guinness World Records reported in their announcement that the collected volumes of the series had sold a total of 320,866,000 units. One Piece also holds the Guinness World Records title for "Most copies published for the same manga series".[57]

On 5 August 2018, the Guinness World Records title for the "Largest comic book ever published" was awarded to the Brazilian comic book Turma da Mônica — O Maior Gibi do Mundo!, published by Panini Comics Brasil and Mauricio de Sousa Produções. The comic book measures 69.9 cm by 99.8 cm (2 ft 3.51 in by 3 ft 3.29 in). The 18-page comic book had a print run of 120 copies.[58]

With the July 2021 publication of the 201st collected volume of his manga series Golgo 13, Japanese manga artist Takao Saito was awarded the Guinness World Records title for "Most volumes published for a single manga series."[59]Golgo 13 has been continuously serialized in the Japanese magazine Big Comic since October 1968, which also makes it the oldest manga still in publication.[60][61]

See also[edit]


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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


Print comics first

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What to look for in grading your comics and how to notice a 1st or 2nd print of a comic.

But today I had a very different kind of pleasure. Finally she stretched herself contentedly and gave me one last kiss on my. Crimson head.

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I love you to the moon and back. E-mail of the author: biz-25mаil. ru Author: Еrix 2010 gаmilkаr-bаrkidyаndеx. ru) BLACK QUARTER BLACK (part two) Returning home in the evening, Rick and Lance Lindhow were surprised not to find Kelly. She should have returned from school by now.

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