FIA confirms revised engine regulations for 2017
The agreement follows lengthy talks with the current four F1 power unit manufacturers – Mercedes, Ferrari, Renault and Honda – and will see the removal of the existing ‘token’ system for in-season engine development.
The FIA statement in full:
The FIA is pleased to announce that, following extensive work done in conjunction with the four Power Unit manufacturers involved in the FIA Formula One World Championship, and with the support of the Commercial Rights Holder, a global agreement on power units has been reached for the 2017-2020 period.
The agreement has been approved by all levels of the F1 governance structure, including the World Motor Sport Council, and will now be included as Technical and Sporting regulations for the 2017 and 2018 FIA Formula One World Championship.
The global agreement on power units covers four key areas relating to the cost and supply price, obligation to supply, performance convergence and the sound of the power units.
As part of the power unit agreement, adherence to the measures outlined below will see the FIA commit to supporting power unit regulations stability and the maintaining of the current Formula One governance structure for the 2017-2020 period.
Agreement has been reached on a significant reduction in the price of power unit supply to customer teams and a reduction in cost to manufacturers over the coming years.
- In 2017 the power unit price for customer teams will be reduced by €1m per season compared to 2016.
- From 2018, the annual supply price will be reduced by a further €3m.
- Cost reduction on power units will be driven by changes to the Sporting and Technical regulations in 2017 and 2018, with a progressive reduction of the number of power unit elements per driver per season.
Supply of power units to customer teams will be ensured, as the homologation procedure will include an “obligation to supply” that will be activated in the event of a team facing an absence of supply.
The new agreement includes a package of measures aimed at achieving performance convergence.
- The token system is to be removed from 2017
- Additionally, constraints on power unit part weights, dimensions and materials, and on boost pressure will be introduced in 2017 and in 2018.
Manufacturers are currently conducting a promising research programme into further improving the sound of the current power units, with the aim of implementation by 2018 at the latest.
How much power F1 engines have?
F1 power units are very close to the magical number of 1000 HP, but currently the best engine in F1 2017 doesn’t match that goal – we bring a review of engine power in today’s Formula 1 that are based on GPS data.
Although the precise figures of engine power in Formula 1 have always been wrapped in secrets, the media often get unofficial information from engineers, and the teams closely monitor each other with GPS data and can thus establish some framework values.
Renault’s Cyril Abiteboul said before 2017 F1 season that even best engines will not have 1000 HP, which proved to be correct, and at the end of the 2017 Mercedes have also admitted that they still don’t have a magical 1000 HP despite a stunning efficiency of 50% on the test bench which is an improvement over the initial 44% in 2014 when a hybrid turbo era began.
Today’s F1 power units consist of a 1,6-liter V6 internal combustion turbo engine and the energy recovery system consists of MGU-H, MGU-K and batteries. The entire system is controlled by control electronics.
As ERS system strength is limited to a maximum of 163 HP for 33.3 seconds in one lap, which means that for a total power of 1000 HP the engine itself must have at least 837 HP.
Auto Motor und Sport reports that the Mercedes power unit M08 EQ Power + develops the peak power of 949 HP while Ferrari has 15 HP less (934 HP).
The third is Renault with a 42 HP gap to Mercedes (907 HP) while Honda with their latest specification of RA617H power unit has 881 HP.
Mercedes is the strongest, most reliable and most efficient
These are impressive figures due to the small engine capacity of only 1,6 liters, but also because fuel flow limit of 100 kg/h and and the maximum of 105 kg of fuel in the race.
The old V10 engines from the mid-2000s developed a similar power but with a thermal efficiency of only 30%.
In addition to having the greatest power, Mercedes is the only manufacturer that has been able to finish the 2017 F1 season with up to four units of each of the six elements of the power unit (with the exception of deliberate changes to the Hamilton car in Brazil) with all six cars, which will be extremely important next year with only three engines available.
Another Mercedes’s advantage is fuel consumption. In Mexico, the Mercedes drivers started with about 10 kg of fuel less than their rivals, which is a huge advantage (reducing towards the end of the race), which results in better start and lower fuel and tyre consumption.
It should be noted that the low fuel consumption at the Mercedes is also contributed by their chassis that uses a very low rake angle and has a very narrow rear end due to its long length (the longest car in F1 2017).
Apart from the fact that other manfacturers have to aim for power, they must also achieve incredible reliability and low fuel consumption, which is putting them under even greater pressure to be brave with technical solutions.
2017 F1 POWER UNIT OVERVIEW
TOTAL POWER (V6+ERS)
|Mercedes M08||949 HP||786 HP|
|Ferrari 062||934 HP||771 HP||15 HP|
|Renault R.E.17||907 HP||744 HP||42 HP|
|Honda RA617H||881 HP||718 HP||68 HP|
Details about the specification of F1's alternative -- or client -- engine for 2017 have emerged.
Previously, it was believed independent outfits like Ilmor or Cosworth were being invited to bid to exclusively supply Formula One with a 2.2-liter twin-turbo V6, with the regulations to run parallel to the existing 1.6-liter engines.
The specifications now say the new engine will be a 2.5-liter V6 or smaller, with one or two turbochargers producing greater than 870 hp.
The engine will have no limits on revs, engine durability or fuel flow, as well as no restrictions on freedom in the area of the exhaust; it will also have no hybrid power.
Mercedes, the F1 championship team for 2014 and 2015, has made it clear that its officials are not happy with the plan.
"I think many of us share the opinion that the 'balance of performance engine' does not work. It doesn't work in any other category," said Mercedes team boss Toto Wolff. "We hear about the aggravation in GT racing, and it (hurts) my head in hearing these ideas."
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Formula One engines
History of Formula One engines
Since its inception in 1947, Formula One has used a variety of engineregulations. "Formulae" limiting engine capacity had been used in Grand Prix racing on a regular basis since after World War I. The engine formulae are divided according to era.
Formula One currently uses 1.6 litre four-stroketurbocharged 90 degree V6double-overhead camshaft (DOHC) reciprocating engines. They were introduced in 2014 and have been developed over the subsequent seasons.
The power a Formula One engine produces is generated by operating at a very high rotational speed, up to 12,000 revolutions per minute (rpm). This contrasts with road car engines of a similar size, which typically operate at less than 6,000 rpm. The basic configuration of a naturally aspirated Formula One engine had not been greatly modified since the 1967 Cosworth DFV and the mean effective pressure had stayed at around 14 bar. Until the mid-1980s Formula One engines were limited to around 12,000 rpm due to the traditional metal springs used to close the valves. The speed required to operate the engine valves at a higher rpm called for ever stiffer springs, which increased the power required to drive the camshaft and the valves to the point where the loss nearly offset the power gain through the increase in rpm. They were replaced by pneumatic valve springs introduced by Renault in 1986, which inherently have a rising rate (progressive rate) that allowed them to have an extremely high spring rate at larger valve strokes without much increasing the driving power requirements at smaller strokes, thus lowering the overall power loss. Since the 1990s, all Formula One engine manufacturers used pneumatic valve springs with the pressurised air allowing engines to reach speeds of over 20,000 rpm.
Formula One cars use short-stroke engines. To operate at high engine speeds, the stroke must be relatively short to prevent catastrophic failure, usually from the connecting rod, which is under very large stresses at these speeds. Having a short stroke means a relatively large bore is required to reach a 1.6-litre displacement. This results in a less efficient combustion stroke, especially at lower rpm.
In addition to the use of pneumatic valve springs, a Formula One engine's high rpm output has been made possible due to advances in metallurgy and design, allowing lighter pistons and connecting rods to withstand the accelerations necessary to attain such high speeds. Improved design also allows narrower connecting rod ends and so narrower main bearings. This permits higher rpm with less bearing-damaging heat build-up. For each stroke, the piston goes from a virtual stop to almost twice the mean speed (approximately 40 m/s), then back to zero. This occurs once for each of the four strokes in the cycle: one Intake (down), one Compression (up), one Power (ignition-down), one Exhaust (up). Maximum piston acceleration occurs at top dead center and is in the region of 95,000 m/s2, about 10,000 times standard gravity (10,000 g).
Formula One engines have come through a variety of regulations, manufacturers and configurations through the years.
This era used pre-war voiturette engine regulations, with 4.5 L atmospheric and 1.5 L supercharged engines. The Indianapolis 500 (which was a round of the World Drivers' Championship from 1950 onwards) used pre-war Grand Prix regulations, with 4.5 L atmospheric and 3.0 L supercharged engines. The power range was up to 425 hp (317 kW), though the BRM Type 15 of 1953 reportedly achieved 600 hp (447 kW) with a 1.5 L supercharged engine.
In 1952 and 1953, the World Drivers' Championship was run to Formula Two regulations, but the existing Formula One regulations remained in force and a number of Formula One races were still held in those years.
Naturally-aspirated engine size was reduced to 2.5 L and supercharged cars were limited to 750 cc. No constructor built a supercharged engine for the World Championship. The Indianapolis 500 continued to use old pre-war regulations. The power range was up to 290 hp (216 kW).
Introduced in 1961 amidst some criticism, the new reduced engine 1.5 L formula took control of F1 just as every team and manufacturer switched from front to mid-engined cars. Although these were initially underpowered, by 1965 average power had increased by nearly 50% and lap times were faster than in 1960. The old 2.5 L formula had been retained for International Formula racing, but this did not achieve much success until the introduction of the Tasman Series in Australia and New Zealand during the winter season, leaving the 1.5 L cars as the fastest single seaters in Europe during this time. The power range was between 150 hp (112 kW) and 225 hp (168 kW).
In 1966, with sports cars capable of outrunning Formula One cars thanks to much larger and more powerful engines, the FIA increased engine capacity to 3.0 L atmospheric and 1.5 L compressed engines. Although a few manufacturers had been clamouring for bigger engines, the transition was not smooth and 1966 was a transitional year, with 2.0 L versions of the BRM and Coventry-Climax V8 engines being used by several entrants. The appearance of the standard-produced Cosworth DFV in 1967 made it possible for small manufacturers to join the series with a chassis designed in-house. Compression devices were allowed for the first time since 1960, but it was not until 1977 that a company actually had the finance and interest of building one, when Renault debuted their new Gordini V6 turbocharged engine at that year's British Grand Prix at Silverstone. This engine had a considerable power advantage over the naturally-aspirated Cosworth DFV, Ferrari and Alfa Romeo engines. By the start of the 1980s, Renault had proved that turbocharging was the way to go in order to stay competitive in Formula One, particularly at high-altitude circuits like Kyalami in South Africa and Interlagos in Brazil. Ferrari introduced their all-new V6 turbocharged engine in 1981, before Brabham owner Bernie Ecclestone managed to persuade BMW to manufacture straight-4 turbos for his team from 1982 onwards. In 1983, Alfa Romeo introduced a V8 turbo, and by the end of that year Honda and Porsche had introduced their own V6 turbos (the latter badged as TAG in deference to the company that provided the funding). Cosworth and the Italian Motori Moderni concern also manufactured V6 turbos during the 1980s, while Hart Racing Engines manufactured their own straight-4 turbo. By mid-1985, every Formula One car was running with a turbocharged engine. BMW's straight-4 turbo, the M12/13, produced around 1,400–1,500 hp (1,040–1,120 kW) at over 5 bar of boost in qualifying trim, but was detuned to produce between 850–900 hp (630–670 kW) in race spec. It powered the Brabham BT52 of 1983, with which Nelson Piquet won that year's Drivers' Championship. By 1986, power figures were reaching unprecedented levels, with all engines reaching over 1,000 hp (750 kW) during qualifying with unrestricted turbo boost pressures. This was especially seen with the BMW engines of Benetton's cars, reaching around 1,400 hp (1,040 kW) at a 5.5 bar boost pressure during qualifying. However, these engines and gearboxes were very unreliable because of the engine's immense power, and would only last about four laps. For the race, the turbocharger's boost was restricted to ensure engine reliability; but the engines still produced 850–1,000 hp (630–750 kW) during the race. The power range from 1966 to 1986 was between 285 hp (210 kW) to 500 hp (370 kW), turbos 500 hp (370 kW) to 900 hp (670 kW) in race trim, and in qualifying, up to 1,400 hp (1,040 kW). Following their experiences at Indianapolis, in 1971 Lotus made a few unsuccessful experiments with a Pratt & Whitney turbine fitted to chassis which also had four-wheel-drive.
Following the turbo domination, forced induction was allowed for two seasons before its eventual ban. The FIA regulations limited boost pressure, to 4 bar in qualifying in 1987 for 1.5 L turbo; and allowed a bigger 3.5 L formula. These seasons were still dominated by turbocharged engines, the Honda RA167E V6 supplying Nelson Piquet winning the 1987 Formula One season on a Williams also winning the constructors championship, followed by TAG-Porsche P01 V6 in McLaren then Honda again with the previous RA166E for Lotus then Ferrari's own 033D V6.
The rest of the grid was powered by the Ford GBA V6 turbo in Benetton, with the only naturally-aspirated engine, the DFV-derived Ford-Cosworth DFZ 3.5 L V8 outputting 575 hp (429 kW) in Tyrrell, Lola, AGS, March and Coloni. The massively powerful BMW M12/13 inline-four found in the Brabham BT55 tilted almost horizontally, and in upright position under the Megatron brand in Arrows and Ligier, producing 900 bhp (670 kW) at 3.8 bar in race trim, and an incredible 1,400–1,500 bhp (1,040–1,120 kW) at 5.5 bar of boost in qualifying spec.Zakspeed was building its own turbo inline-four, Alfa Romeo was to power the Ligiers with an inline-four but the deal fell through after initial testing had been carried out. Alfa was still represented by its old 890T V8 used by Osella, and Minardi was powered by a Motori Moderni V6.
In 1988, six teams – McLaren, Ferrari, Lotus, Arrows, Osella and Zakspeed – continued with turbocharged engines, now limited to 2.5 bar. Honda's V6 turbo, the RA168E, which produced 685 hp (511 kW) at 12,300 rpm in qualifying, powered the McLaren MP4/4 with which Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost won fifteen of the sixteen races between them. The Italian Grand Prix was won by Gerhard Berger in the Ferrari F1/87/88C, powered by the team's own V6 turbo, the 033E, with about 620 hp (462 kW) at 12,000 rpm in qualifying. The Honda turbo also powered Lotus's 100T, while Arrows continued with the Megatron-badged BMW turbo, Osella continued with the Alfa Romeo V8 (now badged as an Osella) and Zakspeed continued with their own straight-4 turbo. All the other teams used naturally aspirated 3.5 L V8 engines: Benetton used the Cosworth DFR, which produced 585 hp (436 kW) at 11,000 rpm; Williams, March and Ligier used the Judd CV, producing 600 hp (447 kW); and the rest of the grid used the previous year's 575 hp (429 kW) Cosworth DFZ.
Turbochargers were banned from the 1989 Formula One season, leaving only a naturally aspirated 3.5 L formula. Honda was still dominant with their RA109E 72° V10 giving 685 hp (511 kW) @ 13,500 rpm on McLaren cars, enabling Prost to win the championship in front of his teammate Senna. Behind were the Renault RS1-powered Williams, a 67° V10 giving 650 hp (485 kW) @ 12,500 rpm. Ferrari with its 035/5 65° V12 giving 660 hp (492 kW) at 13,000 rpm. Behind, the grid was powered mainly by Ford Cosworth DFR V8 giving 620 hp (462 kW) @ 10,750 rpm except for a few Judd CV V8 in Lotus, Brabham and EuroBrun cars, and two oddballs: the 620 hp (460 kW) Lamborghini 3512 80° V12 powering Lola, and the 560 hp (420 kW) Yamaha OX88 75° V8 in Zakspeed cars. Ford started to try its new design, the 75° V8 HBA1 with Benetton.
The 1990 Formula One season was again dominated by Honda in McLarens with the 690 hp (515 kW) @ 13,500 rpm RA100E powering Ayrton Senna and Gerhard Berger ahead of the 680 hp (507 kW) @ 12,750 rpm Ferrari Tipo 036 of Alain Prost and Nigel Mansell. Behind them the Ford HBA4 for Benetton and Renault RS2 for Williams with 660 hp (492 kW) @ 12,800 rpm were leading the pack powered by Ford DFR and Judd CV engines. The exceptions were the Lamborghini 3512 in Lola and Lotus, and the new Judd EV 76° V8 giving 640 hp (477 kW) @ 12,500 rpm in Leyton House and Brabham cars. The two new contenders were the Life which built for themselves an F35 W12 with three four cylinders banks @ 60°, and Subaru giving Coloni a 1235 flat-12 from Motori Moderni
Honda was still leading the 1991 Formula One season in Senna's McLaren with the 725–760 hp (541–567 kW) @ 13,500-14,500 rpm 60° V12 RA121E, just ahead of the Renault RS3 powered Williams benefiting from 700 hp (520 kW) @ 12,500 rpm. Ferrari was behind with its Tipo 037, a new 65° V12 giving 710 hp (529 kW) @ 13,800 rpm also powering Minardi, just ahead the Ford HBA4/5/6 in Benetton and Jordan cars. Behind, Tyrrell was using the previous Honda RA109E, Judd introduced its new GV with Dallara leaving the previous EV to Lotus, Yamaha were giving its 660 hp (492 kW) OX99 70° V12 to Brabham, Lamborghini engines were used by Modena and Ligier. Ilmor introduced its LH10, a 680 hp (507 kW) @ 13,000 rpm V10 which eventually became the Mercedes with Leyton House and Porsche sourced a little successful 3512 V12 to Footwork Arrows; the rest of the field was Ford DFR powered.
In 1992, the Renault engines became dominant, even more so following the departure from the sport of Honda at the end of 1992. The 3.5 L Renault V10 engines powering the Williams F1 team produced a power output between 750–820 bhp (559–611 kW; 760–831 PS) @ 13,000 - 14,500 rpm toward the end of the 3.5 L naturally-aspirated era, between 1992 and 1994. Renault-engined cars won the last three consecutive world constructors' championships of the 3.5 L formula era with Williams (1992-1994).
The Peugeot A4 V10, used by the McLaren Formula One team in 1994, initially developed 700 bhp (522 kW; 710 PS) @ 14,250 rpm. It was later further developed into the A6, which produced even more power, developing 760 bhp (567 kW; 771 PS) @ 14,500 rpm.
The EC Zetec-RV8, which powered the championship-winning Benetton team and Michael Schumacher in 1994, produced between 730–740 bhp (544–552 kW; 740–750 PS) @ 14,500 rpm.
By the end of the 1994 season, Ferrari's Tipo 043V12 was putting out around 850 hp (634 kW) @ 15,800 rpm, which is to date the most-powerful naturally-aspirated V12 engine ever used in Formula One.
This era used a 3.0 L formula, with the power range varying (depending on engine tuning) between 650 hp (485 kW) and 1,000 hp (746 kW), depending on the RPM, and from eight to twelve cylinders. Renault was the initial dominant engine supplier from 1995 until 1997, winning the first three world championships with Williams and Benetton in this era. The championship-winning 1995 Benetton B195 produced a power output of 675 hp (503.3 kW) @ 15,200 rpm, and the 1996 championship-winning Williams FW18 produced 700 hp (522.0 kW) @ 16,000 rpm; both from a shared Renault RS9 3.0 L V10 engine. The 1997 championship-winning FW19 produced between 730–760 hp (544.4–566.7 kW) @ 16,000 rpm, from its Renault RS9B 3.0 L V10. Between 1995 to 2000, cars using this 3.0 L engine formula, imposed by the FIA, produced a constant power range (depending on engine type and tuning), varying between 600 hp and 815 hp. Most Formula One cars during the 1997 season comfortably produced a consistent power output of between 665–760 hp (495.9–566.7 kW), depending on whether a V8 or V10 engine configuration was used. From 1998 to 2000 it was Mercedes' power that ruled, giving Mika Häkkinen two world championships. The 1999 McLaren MP4/14 produced between 785 and 810 hp @ 17,000 rpm. Ferrari gradually improved their engine. In 1996, they changed from their traditional V12 engine to a smaller and lighter V10 engine. They preferred reliability to power, losing out to Mercedes in terms of outright power initially. Ferrari's first V10 engine, in 1996, produced 715 hp (533 kW) @ 15,550 rpm, down on power from their most powerful 3.5 L V12 (in 1994), which produced over 830 hp (619 kW) @ 15,800 rpm, but up on power from their last 3.0 L V12 (in 1995), which produced 700 hp (522 kW) @ 17,000 rpm. At the 1998 Japanese GP, Ferrari's 047D engine spec was said to produce over 800 bhp (600 kW), and from 2000 onward, they were never short of power or reliability. To keep costs down, the 3.0 L V10 engine configuration was made fully mandatory for all teams in 2000 so that engine builders would not develop and experiment with other configurations. The V10 configuration had been the most popular since the banning of turbocharged engines in 1989, and no other configuration had been used since 1998.
BMW started supplying its engines to Williams from 2000. The engine was very reliable in the first season though slightly short of power compared to Ferrari and Mercedes units. The BMW E41-powered Williams FW22 produced around 810 hp @ 17,500 rpm, during the 2000 season. BMW went straight forward with its engine development. The P81, used during the 2001 season, was able to hit 17,810 rpm. Unfortunately, reliability was a big issue with several blowups during the season.
The BMW P82, the engine used by the BMW WilliamsF1 Team in 2002, had hit a peak speed of 19,050 rpm in its final evolutionary stage. It was also the first engine in the 3.0 litre V10-era to break through the 19,000 rpm wall, during the 2002 Italian Grand Prix's qualifying. BMW's P83 engine used in 2003 season managed an impressive 19,200 rpm and cleared the 900 bhp (670 kW) mark, at around 940 bhp, and weighs less than 200 lb (91 kg). Honda's RA003E V10 also cleared the 900 bhp (670 kW) mark at the 2003 Canadian Grand Prix.
In 2005, the 3.0 L V10 engine was permitted no more than 5 valves per cylinder. Also, the FIA introduced new regulations limiting each car to one engine per two Grand Prix weekends, putting the emphasis on increased reliability. In spite of this, power outputs continued to rise. Mercedes engines had about 930 bhp (690 kW) in this season. Renault, Ferrari, and BMW engines all produced around 900 bhp (670 kW) to 950 bhp (710 kW) @ 19,000 RPM. Honda had about 965 bhp (720 kW). Toyota engines had about 1,000 bhp (750 kW), according to Toyota Motorsport's executive Vice President, Yoshiaki Kinoshita. However, for reliability and longevity purposes, this power figure may have been detuned to around 940 bhp (700 kW) for races.
For 2006, the engines had to be 90° V8 of 2.4 litres maximum capacity with a circular bore of 98 mm (3.9 in) maximum, which implies a 39.8 mm (1.57 in) stroke at maximum bore. The engines must have two inlet and two exhaust valves per cylinder, be naturally aspirated and have a 95 kg (209 lb) minimum weight. The previous year's engines with a rev-limiter were permitted for 2006 and 2007 for teams who were unable to acquire a V8 engine, with Scuderia Toro Rosso using a Cosworth V10, after Red Bull's takeover of the former Minardi team did not include the new engines. The 2006 season saw the highest rev limits in the history of Formula One, at well over 20,000 rpm; before a 19,000 rpm mandatory rev limiter was implemented for all competitors in 2007. Cosworth was able to achieve just over 20,000 rpm with their V8, and Renault around 20,500 rpm. Honda did the same; albeit only on the dynamometer.
Pre-cooling air before it enters the cylinders, injection of any substance other than air and fuel into the cylinders, variable-geometry intake and exhaust systems, and variable valve timing were forbidden. Each cylinder could have only one fuel injector and a single plug spark ignition. Separate starting devices were used to start engines in the pits and on the grid. The crankcase and cylinder block had to be made of cast or wrought aluminium alloys. The crankshaft and camshafts had to be made from an iron alloy, pistons from an aluminium alloy, and valves from alloys based on iron, nickel, cobalt or titanium. These restrictions were in place to reduce development costs on the engines.
The reduction in capacity was designed to give a power reduction of around 20% from the three-litre engines, to reduce the increasing speeds of Formula One cars. Despite this, in many cases the performance of the car improved. In 2006 Toyota F1 announced an approximate 740 hp (552 kW) output at 18,000 rpm for its new RVX-06 engine, but real figures are of course difficult to obtain. Most cars from this period (2006–2008) produced a regular power output of approximately between 730 and 785 hp @ 19,000 RPM (over 20,000 RPM for the 2006 season).
The engine specification was frozen in 2007 to keep development costs down. The engines which were used in the 2006 Japanese Grand Prix were used for the 2007 and 2008 seasons and they were limited to 19,000 rpm. In 2009 the limit was reduced to 18,000 rpm with each driver allowed to use a maximum of 8 engines over the season. Any driver needing an additional engine is penalised 10 places on the starting grid for the first race the engine is used. This increases the importance of reliability, although the effect is only seen towards the end of the season. Certain design changes intended to improve engine reliability may be carried out with permission from the FIA. This has led to some engine manufacturers, notably Ferrari and Mercedes, exploiting this ability by making design changes which not only improve reliability but also boost engine power output as a side effect. As the Mercedes engine was proven to be the strongest, re-equalisations of engines were allowed by the FIA to allow other manufacturers to match the power.
2009 saw the exit of Honda from Formula One. The team was acquired by Ross Brawn, creating Brawn GP and the BGP 001. With the absence of the Honda engine, Brawn GP retrofitted the Mercedes engine to the BGP 001 chassis. The newly branded team won both the Constructors' Championship and the Drivers' Championship from better-known and better-established contenders Ferrari, McLaren-Mercedes, and Renault.
Cosworth, absent since the 2006 season, returned in 2010. New teams Lotus Racing, HRT, and Virgin Racing, along with the established Williams, used this engine. The season also saw the withdrawal of the BMW and Toyota engines, as the car companies withdrew from Formula One due to the recession.
In 2009, constructors were allowed to use kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS), also called regenerative brakes. Energy can either be stored as mechanical energy (as in a flywheel) or as electrical energy (as in a battery or supercapacitor), with a maximum power of 81 hp (60 kW; 82 PS). Four teams used it at some point in the season: Ferrari, Renault, BMW, and McLaren.
Although KERS was still legal in F1 in the 2010 season, all the teams agreed not to use it. KERS returned for the 2011 season, when only three teams elected not to use it. For the 2012 season, only Marussia and HRT raced without KERS, and in 2013 all teams on the grid had KERS. From 2010 to 2013 cars have a regular power of 700–800 hp, averaging around 750 hp @ 18,000 RPM.
The FIA announced to change the 2.4-litre V8 to 1.6-litre V6 hybrid engines for the 2014 season. The new regulations allow kinetic and heat energy recovery systems. Forced induction is now allowed, and instead of limiting the boost level, fuel flow restriction at 100 kg of gasoline per hour maximum is introduced. The engines sounded very different due to the lower rev limit (15,000 rpm) and the turbocharger. While superchargers are allowed, all constructors opted to use a turbo.
The new formula allows turbocharged engines, which last appeared in 1988. These have their efficiency improved through turbo-compounding by recovering energy from exhaust gases. The original proposal for four-cylinder turbocharged engines was not welcomed by the racing teams, in particular Ferrari. Adrian Newey stated during the 2011 European Grand Prix that the change to a V6 enables teams to carry the engine as a stressed member, whereas an inline-4 would have required a space frame. A compromise was reached, allowing V6 forced induction engines instead. The engines rarely exceed 12,000 rpm during qualifying and race, due to the new fuel flow restrictions.
Energy recovery systems such as KERS had a boost of 160 hp (120 kW) and 2 megajoules per lap. KERS was renamed Motor Generator Unit–Kinetic (MGU-K). Heat energy recovery systems were also allowed, under the name Motor Generator Unit–Heat (MGU-H)
The 2015 season was an improvement on 2014, adding about 30–50 hp (20–40 kW) to most engines, the Mercedes engine being the most powerful with 870 hp (649 kW). In 2019, Renault's engine was claimed to have hit 1,000 hp in qualifying trim.
Of the previous manufacturers, only Mercedes, Ferrari and Renault produced engines to the new formula in 2014, whereas Cosworth stopped supplying engines. Honda returned in 2015 with their own engine, while McLaren used Honda power, changing from Mercedes power in 2014. In 2019, Red Bull switched from using a Renault engine to Honda power. Honda supplies both Red Bull and AlphaTauri. Honda are due to withdraw as a power unit supplier at the end of 2021, with Red Bull taking over the project and producing the engine in-house.
2022 and beyond
In 2017, the FIA began negotiations with existing constructors and potential new manufacturers over the next generation of engines with a projected introduction date of 2021 but delayed to 2022 due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemics. The initial proposal was designed to simplify engine designs, cut costs, promote new entries and address criticisms directed at the 2014 generation of engines. It called for the 1.6 L V6 configuration to be retained, but abandoned the complex Motor Generator Unit–Heat (MGU-H) system. The Motor Generator Unit–Kinetic (MGU-K) would be more powerful, with a greater emphasis on driver deployment and a more flexible introduction to allow for tactical use. The proposal also called for the introduction of standardised components and design parameters to make components produced by all manufacturers compatible with one another in a system dubbed "plug in and play". A further proposal to allow four-wheel drive cars was also made, with the front axle driven by an MGU-K unit—as opposed to the traditional driveshaft—that functioned independently of the MGU-K providing power to the rear axle, mirroring the system developed by Porsche for the 919 Hybrid race car.
Engine specification progression
- ^2-stroke, gas turbine, rotary, etc.
- ^MGU(Motor Generator Unit)-Kinetic (brake) and MGU-Heat (exhaust) energy recovery systems allowed.
- ^Naturally aspirated engines are not prohibited, but have not been used by any team. Boost pressure is not limited, but fuel flow rate (which was not regulated up to 2013) is limited to 100 kg per hour (roughly equivalent to 3.5 bar at the maximum rpm).
- ^5.75% bio-sourced alcohol content is required in pump-petroleum.
- ^Kinetic (braking) energy recovery system (KERS) allowed.
- ^For 2006 and 2007, the FIA reserved the right to give special dispensations to teams without access to new specification engines to use 2005-spec engines with a rev-limiter. This dispensation was given to Scuderia Toro Rosso in 2006.
- ^For 1952 and 1953, World Championship races were run to Formula Two rules (0.75 L with compressor, 2 L without), but Formula One regulations remained intact.
Current engine technical specifications
Combustion, construction, operation, power, fuel and lubrication
- Manufacturers: Mercedes, Renault, Ferrari and Honda
- Type: Hybrid-powered intercooled
- Engine stroke combustion: Four-stroke piston Otto cycle
- Configuration: V6 single hybrid turbocharged engine
- V-angle: 90° cylinder angle
- Displacement: 1.6 L (98 cu in)
- Bore: Maximum 80 mm (3.15 in)
- Stroke: 53 mm (2.09 in)
- Valvetrain: DOHC, 24-valve (four valves per cylinder)
- Fuel: 98–102 RON unleaded gasoline + 5.75% biofuel
- Fuel delivery: Gasoline direct injection
- Fuel injection pressure: 500 bar (7,252 psi; 493 atm; 375,031 Torr; 50,000 kPa; 14,765 inHg)
- Fuel-mass flow restrictor rate: 100 kg/h (220 lb/h) (−40%)
- Fuel economy mileage range: 6 mpg‑US (39.20 L/100 km)
- Aspiration: Single-turbocharged
- Power output: 875–1,000 + 160 hp (652–746 + 119 kW) @ 10,500 rpm
- Torque: Approx. 600–680 N⋅m (443–502 lb⋅ft)
- Lubrication: Dry sump
- Maximum revs: 15,000 RPM
- Engine management: McLaren TAG-320 (2014-2018) later TAG-320B (2019-present)
- Max. speed: 370 km/h (230 mph)
- Cooling: Single mechanical water pump feeding a single-front cooling system
- Ignition: High energy inductive
- Banned engine materials: Magnesium-based alloys, Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs), intermetallic materials, alloys containing more than 5% by weight of platinum, ruthenium, iridium or rhenium, copper-based alloys containing more than 2.75% beryllium, any other alloy class containing more than 0.25% beryllium, tungsten-based alloys and ceramics, and ceramic-matrix composites
- Weight: 145 kg (320 lb) overall including headers, clutch, ECU, spark box or filters
Forced induction and push-to-pass
- MGU-K RPM: Max 50,000 rpm
- MGU-K power: Max 120 kW
- Energy recovered by MGU-K: Max 2 MJ/lap
- Energy released by MGU-K: Max 4 MJ/lap
- MGU-H RPM: >100,000 rpm
- Energy recovered by MGU-H: Unlimited (> 2 MJ/lap)
Figures correct as of the 2021 Turkish Grand Prix
Bold indicates engine manufacturers that are competing in Formula One in the 2021 season.
World Championship Grand Prix wins by engine manufacturer
^ * Built by Ilmor between 1997 and 2005
^ ** Built by Cosworth
^ *** Built by Porsche
^ **** The Indianapolis 500 was part of the World Drivers' Championship from 1950 to 1960
^ ***** Built by Renault
^ ****** Built by Mercedes
Most wins in a season
|1||Ford||1969||11||11||100%||DFV||Matra, Brabham, Lotus, McLaren|
|1973||15||15||DFV||Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren|
|5||Ford||1968||12||11||91.7%||DFV||Lotus, McLaren, Matra|
|7||Ferrari||2002||17||15||88.2%||Tipo 050, Tipo 051||Ferrari|
|8||Ferrari*||1952||8||7||87.5%||Tipo 500, Tipo 375||Ferrari|
|9||Alfa Romeo**||1950||7||6||85.7%||Tipo 158, Tipo 159||Alfa Romeo|
* Only Alberto Ascari raced in the 1952 Indianapolis 500 with Ferrari.
** Alfa Romeo did not race in the 1950 Indianapolis 500.
Most consecutive wins
|1||Ford||22||1972, 1973, 1974||1972 Austrian Grand Prix – 1974 South African Grand Prix||DFV||Lotus, Tyrrell, McLaren, Brabham|
|2||Ford||20||1968, 1969, 1970||1968 British Grand Prix – 1970 Monaco Grand Prix||DFV||Lotus, Matra, McLaren, Brabham, March|
|3||Renault||16||1995, 1996||1995 French Grand Prix – 1996 San Marino Grand Prix||RS7, RS8||Benetton, Williams|
|4||Honda||11||1988||1988 Brazilian Grand Prix – 1988 Belgian Grand Prix||RA168E||McLaren|
|5||Ferrari||10||2002||2002 Canadian Grand Prix – 2002 Japanese Grand Prix||Tipo 051||Ferrari|
|Mercedes||2015, 2016||2015 Japanese Grand Prix – 2016 Russian Grand Prix||PU106B Hybrid, PU106C Hybrid||Mercedes|
|2016||2016 Monaco Grand Prix – 2016 Singapore Grand Prix||PU106C Hybrid||Mercedes|
|2018, 2019||2018 Brazilian Grand Prix – 2019 French Grand Prix||M09 EQ Power+, M10 EQ Power+||Mercedes|
|9||Ford||9||1980, 1981||1980 Dutch Grand Prix – 1981 Belgian Grand Prix||DFV||Brabham, Williams|
|Renault||2013||2013 Belgian Grand Prix – 2013 Brazilian Grand Prix||RS27-2013||Red Bull|
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Engine f1 2017
Much has been made of the debate between fans of Indy and F1 as to which s the fastest, ‘best’, and most exciting.
F1 is known as the pinnacle of motorsport around the world, but Indy has a much bigger following than F1 in the USA owing to its prioritisation of having a more equal playing field, which often leads to different race winners throughout a season.
IndyCar has a higher top speed than Formula One, topping out around 235 mph (378km/h), which is 30 mph more than a Formula 1 cars top speed of 205 mph (329km/h). As IndyCars often race on ovals, less downforce is needed than in Formula 1, who prioritise downforce and cornering speeds to race on tighter circuits.
On the Utah salt flats, Honda was able to tune an engine to reach 397km/h in straight-line speed, as downforce and cornering was not a consideration for their attempt.
Although an IndyCar is faster in a straight line than a Formula 1 car, this does not give them an overall speed advantage, as an F1 car is able to accelerate much faster and lose less time in the corners.
Circuit of the Americas is used for the United States Grand Prix, and in 2019 IndyCar raced there for the first time, which meant a more accurate comparison between the two racing classes could be made.
In IndyCar, Australian Will Power took pole in 1m46.017s.
When Formula 1 hit COTA later that year, Valtteri Bottas set the pole lap in 1m32.029s – a time which would see the Finn some 14 seconds faster than Power.
Honda’s Engine Is Completely Broken In The F1 2017 Game Too
McLaren and Honda rekindled their F1 partnership in 2015 but it hasn’t gone particularly well. Actually, that’s a big understatement. It’s been extremely tough.
The situation looked to be improving last year, but reliability issues and a lack of power have severely hampered McLaren’s fortunes in 2017 and the team is desperately considering its options.
Anyone who decided to pick McLaren for their career mode in the F1 2017 game was definitely up for a serious challenge. But that’s got a whole lot tougher.
We thought the latest F1 release was realistic. Codemasters has taken things to a whole-new level, though, because not only is the McLaren Honda engine broken in real life, but it’s not working in the game either.
Absolutely incredible. You couldn’t make this up…
Some F1 2017 players who picked McLaren for career mode have been furiously upgrading their car in the Research & Development hub, using up their hard-earned resource points.
They’ve been updating the engine and power unit, but haven’t been feeling or seeing any results. In past games, you could tell when the car had been upgraded, but that wasn’t what the players have been reporting.
Some have gone two or three seasons into their career mode without feeling any real improvement to the engine, but now we know why that is.
In a Codemasters forum thread about the issue, the F1 Support account confirmed that there is a bug in the game to do with the McLaren engine. It said:
So, McLaren’s own Honda power unit is faulty in real life and in the virtual F1 world too. This takes racing games to a new level of realism.
A fix is being worked on, so if you have picked McLaren for the career mode, perhaps focus on upgrading other areas until the problem is resolved.
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The MCL32, driven by Fernando Alonso, during the 2017 Malaysian Grand Prix.
|Designer(s)||Tim Goss(Technical Director)|
Matt Morris(Engineering Director)
Peter Prodromou(Chief Engineer)
Christian Schramm (Head of Racing Technology)
Stefano Sordo (Head of Vehicle Performance)
Mark Ingham (Head of Chassis Design)
Guillaume Cattelani (Head of Aerodynamics)
Simone Nulli Rinalducci (Head of CFD)
|Chassis||Carbon fibre composite survival cell|
|Suspension (front)||Carbon fibre wishbone and pushrod suspension elements operating inboard torsion bar and dampers (KONI dampers, springs and shock absorbers)|
|Suspension (rear)||Carbon fibre wishbone and pullrod suspension elements operating inboard torsion bar and dampers (KONI dampers, springs and shock absorbers)|
|Length||5,200 mm (205 in)|
|Width||2,000 mm (79 in)|
|Height||950 mm (37 in)|
|Wheelbase||3,520 mm (139 in) with -/+25 mm (0.9843 in) adjustable by adjusting the toe depending on circuit layout|
|Engine||Honda RA617H 1.6 L (98 cu in) direct injection V6turbocharged engine, limited to 15,000 rpm in a mid-mounted, rear-wheel drive layout|
|Electric motor||Kinetic and thermal energy recovery systems|
|Transmission||McLaren Applied Technologies 8-speed + 1 reverse sequential seamless semi-automatic paddle shift with epicyclic differential and multi-plate limited slip clutch|
|Battery||Honda lithium-ion batteries|
|Power||850–900 hp (634–671 kW)|
|Weight||728 kg (1,605 lb) (including driver)|
|Brakes||Akebono brake-by-wire system featuring steel calipers and carbon discs and pads|
|Tyres||Pirelli P Zero dry slick and Pirelli Cinturato treaded intermediate and wet tyres|
Enkei 13" magnesium racing wheels
|Clutch||AP Racing electro-hydraulically operated, carbon multi-plate|
|Notable entrants||McLaren Honda Formula 1 Team|
|Debut||2017 Australian Grand Prix|
The McLaren MCL32 (originally known as the McLaren MP4-32) is a Formula One racing car designed and constructed by McLaren to compete in the 2017 FIA Formula One World Championship. The car was driven by two-time World Drivers' ChampionFernando Alonso, who stayed with the team for a third season; and Stoffel Vandoorne, who joined the team after Jenson Button retired from full-time competition at the end of the 2016 season. Button later returned to replace Alonso for one race and as such, the MCL32 was the last Formula One car raced by the 2009 World Champion.
The MCL32 made its competitive début at the 2017 Australian Grand Prix and is the first car built by McLaren since the McLaren M30—which contested part of the 1980 season—that does not contain the "MP4" prefix as part of its chassis name. The change was introduced following CEO Ron Dennis's departure from the team's parent company, the McLaren Technology Group, in November 2016.[N 1] This was the last McLaren car to be fitted with a Honda engine as it was replaced by Renault engines from the 2018 season onwards.
After an improvement in the previous year, 2017 was a rough season for McLaren. The cars were slow and the team's Honda engines proved to be very unreliable for much of the beginning of the season. Alonso retired from the opening two races and the team suffered double retirements in China, Monaco, and Italy. The team failed to score a point until Baku, when Alonso finished 9th, with Vandoorne picking up his first point of the season with 10th in Hungary. McLaren finished 9th in the Constructors' Championship, with 30 points, three more than their first season back with Honda power in 2015.
The MCL32 was the first McLaren car not to field the British drivers regularly in the McLaren driver's line-up since the McLaren MP4-21 car in 2006 when McLaren paired the Finnish Kimi Räikkönen and Colombian Juan Pablo Montoya as their 2006 season drivers.
Design and development
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) amended the technical regulations for the 2017 season to abandon the token system—which limited engine development over the course of a season—first introduced in 2014, engine supplier Honda was free to extensively redesign the team's power unit, which was named the RA617H. The company started with the ultra-compact RA615H that accommodated the "size zero" concept first conceived for use in the MP4-30 chassis, but with the RA617H moved to recreate the configuration first used by Mercedes in the PU106 series of engines. Honda's Formula One project manager Yusuke Hasegawa described the new architecture for the RA617H as "very high risk", justifying the choice as being the only way to catch up to Mercedes. Hasegawa also admitted that the technology implemented into the design—particularly around the combustion concept—was not entirely understood and that its potential would take time to fully realise. While discussing the issues with the engine mid-season, Hasegawa pointed to Honda's inability to recreate racing conditions during dyno testing; their underestimating the increased stresses placed on the engine as a result of the revised technical regulations introduced for the 2017 season; and severe vibrations affecting the transmission and oil tank as the root of the RA617H's problems.
Following the Australian Grand Prix, Honda announced that work carried out between pre-season testing and the race meant that a majority of the issues that plagued them were fixed. Although the engine proved reliable over the race meeting, it had been detuned and the gearbox shift times increased to maintain reliability. Honda also revealed that a heavily revised "B-specification" engine was already in development and would be ready in as little as eight weeks, with both Honda and McLaren developing upgrades for successive Grands Prix to make up the deficit. At the Spanish Grand Prix, Honda brought an update to the power unit in the form of a revised intake system and mapping. Honda claimed this reduced the inherent drive train vibrations significantly allowing the gearbox and engine to run relatively normal in comparison to earlier races, this provided a small bump in power. Although Alonso had an excellent run in qualifying, gaining 7th position, the power unit still experienced reliability issues in early practice sessions with oil leaks and pressure issues causing stoppages. At the Azerbaijan Grand Prix, Honda introduced a redesigned MGU-H and turbo for both Alonso and Vandoorne claiming to have fixed the underlying reliability issues with those components. In addition to the new components, Honda brought one new spec engine which debuted a new fuel injection system to be used in tandem with a new BP fuel upgrade, further mapping improvements and various other minor updates for Alonso to use, however, due to the amount of penalties required to introduce the new engine, and in the interest of saving mileage on the new spec, Honda decided to limit its use to the practice sessions only, using them as test sessions to verify the engines effectiveness and for Alonso to revert to the earlier engine for qualifying and the race, albeit still with the revised MGU-H and turbo. After the Friday practice sessions had concluded, although experiencing a gearbox failure during the test, Honda remained confident and encouraged by the data the new engine showed, feeling it has made a decent step forward with the new unit while also suggesting the aim is for both drivers to have one for the next GP in Austria.
Prior to the start of the season, McLaren secured technical partnerships with BP to provide fuel and Castrol to provide engine lubricants for the RA617H after ending their contract with ExxonMobil who left the fuel and lubricant team sponsorship for Red Bull Racing.
The McLaren MCL32 also the first McLaren car to utilize Castrol motor oil and other fluids products since McLaren M30 in 1980.
As in 2015, McLaren endured a difficult pre-season during testing at the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya. The new RA617H, which featured a completely overhauled concept compared to the previous two seasons, was found to be unreliable, interrupting the team's preparations and preventing them from achieving consistent running.Fernando Alonso was particularly critical of the engine, complaining about lack of reliability and power. The team managed to complete only 425 laps in the eight days of testing compared to Mercedes, who completed over one thousand laps in the same period, and had used more engines during pre-season testing than they would be permitted to use during the regular season. The team's initial struggles then prompted reports that McLaren had sought out an alternative engine supplier.
McLaren endured a difficult start to the season. Alonso retired from 10th with bodywork damage at the Australian Grand Prix, while Vandoorne finished 13th, despite having dashboard damage. Alonso had a good start at the next race in China, jumping up to 6th, before retiring with a driveshaft failure. Vandoorne retired with fuel system issues. Bahrain was a bad race for the team as Vandoorne couldn't start the race due to water pressure issues and Alonso retired late in the race with power unit issues. Alonso couldn't start the Russian Grand Prix because of gearbox problems, while Vandoorne finished 14th.
European rounds and Canada
At the start of the European season in Spain, Alonso qualified a strong 7th, but finished the race in 12th. Vandoorne retired after an accident. Jenson Button returned for a one-off in Monaco, replacing Alonso who is racing in the Indy 500. Button qualified an impressive 9th and Vandoorne 10th, but both drivers crash in the race (Button with suspension damage caused by punting the Sauber of Pascal Wehrlein onto its side at Portier). At the Canadian Grand Prix, Alonso was running in 10th until he retired three laps from the end with power unit issues, while Vandoorne finished 14th. Alonso scored the team's first points of the season at the Azerbaijan Grand Prix with a 9th-place finish, while Vandoorne finished 12th. Alonso retired in Austria after being hit from behind on lap 1, Vandoorne again finished in 12th.
At the British Grand Prix, Vandoorne qualified 9th and finished the race 11th, meanwhile Alonso retired with a fuel pump issue. The team would have a positive weekend in Hungary. After both drivers qualified in the top 10, Alonso finished the race in 6th with the fastest lap of the race, while Vandoorne finished in 10th to score his first points of the season and make it a double points finish for the team.
At the Belgian Grand Prix, Alonso retired the car mid-race after complaining about engine problems in the radio, however, the team could not find any evidence of engine problems in Alonso's data prompting some speculation he 'gave up'. Vandoorne finished the race in fourteenth. Vandoorne qualified tenth at the Italian Grand Prix, but retired with electrical issues, while Alonso retired with clutch issues.
In Singapore, both drivers qualified in the top 10, but Alonso is involved in a crash at the start of the race and retires. Vandoorne is not involved and finished in seventh position. At the Malaysian Grand Prix, Vandoorne qualified a strong seventh, while Alonso makes it two cars in the top ten with tenth position. Vandoorne finished the race in seventh to overtake Alonso in the points, while Alonso finished eleventh. In Japan, Alonso and Vandoorne qualified tenth and eleventh respectively. The team just miss out on points with eleventh by Alonso, while Vandoorne is fourteenth.
Alonso qualified ninth for the United States Grand Prix, but retired from the race with engine issues. Vandoorne charged from the back of the field to finish twelfth. Alonso finished in the points again with 10th in Mexico, while Vandoorne was twelfth. Alonso converted his seventh place in qualifying to finish eighth at the Brazilian Grand Prix, overtaking Vandoorne in the points after he was involved in a collision. For the third consecutive time, Alonso finished in the points with ninth in Abu Dhabi, while Vandoorne finished the race in twelfth position.
The season ended relatively positively with the team scoring the seventh most points in the last 12 races of the season, but the bad start to the season meant that they finished a disappointing ninth in the constructors' standings with 30 points.
Complete Formula One results
(key) (results in bold indicate pole position; results in italics indicate fastest lap)
- † – Driver failed to finish the race, but was classified as they had completed over 90% of the winner's race distance.
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- ^"Pirelli confirms new three-year F1 deal to 2019". f1fanatic.co.uk. Keith Collantine. 17 June 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- ^ abElizalde, Pablo (10 February 2017). "McLaren F1 team locks in BP/Castrol supply deal for 2017". Autosport. Motorsport Network. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- ^"Zak Brown – The Man To Get McLaren Back On Track?". www.badgergp.com. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- ^Howard, Tom (24 February 2017). "McLaren reveals bold new MCL32 challenger". speedcafe.com. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- ^"F1 – 2017 Provisional Entry List". Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. 6 December 2016. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
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- ^"Fernando Alonso to race at Indy 500 with McLaren, Honda and Andretti Autosport". mclaren.com. McLaren. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- ^"McLaren announce new car name". Formula1.com. Formula One Administration. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
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- ^ abEdmondson, Laurence (3 February 2017). "McLaren drops 'MP4' from 2017 car name". ESPN. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
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- ^Nugnes, Franco (9 January 2017). "Honda to follow Mercedes' philosophy with McLaren's 2017 F1 engine". Autosport. Motorsport Network. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- ^"'Very high risk' is how Honda describe new McLaren engine". AS.com. Diario AS. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
- ^"Honda opens up on cause of F1 engine problems - Speedcafe". speedcafe.com. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
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- ^Haupt, Andreas. "McLaren und Alonso wieder auf Platz 13: "Besseres Ergebnis als erwartet"". auto-motor-und-sport.de. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- ^Noble, Jonathan. "Honda tries 'spec 3' Formula 1 engine in Baku practice with Alonso". autosport.com. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- ^Noble, Jonathan (7 March 2017). "McLaren-Honda Formula 1 relationship feeling 'maximum strain'". Autosport. Motorsport Network. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- ^Noble, Jonathan (8 March 2017). "Honda F1 engine has no power, no reliability – Fernando Alonso". Autosport. Motorsport Network. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- ^Parkes, Ian; Barretto, Lawrence (12 May 2016). "How Formula 1's new engine rules will work". autosport.com. Haymarket Publications. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
- ^Howard, Tom (17 March 2017). "McLaren considers Formula 1 engine options". speedcafe.com. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- ^"No evidence of engine problem in Alonso data, say Honda". www.racefans.net. Retrieved 2019-07-30.
Media related to McLaren MCL32 at Wikimedia Commons