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The Flintstones

American animated sitcom

This article is about the original television series. For other uses, see Flintstone.

The Flintstones is an American animated sitcom produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. The series takes place in a romanticized Stone Age setting and follows the activities of the titular family, the Flintstones, and their next-door neighbors, the Rubbles. It was originally broadcast on ABC from September 30, 1960, to April 1, 1966, and was the first animated series to hold a prime-time slot on television.[2]

The continuing popularity of The Flintstones rests heavily on its juxtaposition of modern everyday concerns in the Stone Age setting.[3][4]The Flintstones was the most financially successful and longest-running network animated television series for three decades, until The Simpsons, which debuted in late 1989.[5] In 2013, TV Guide ranked The Flintstones the second-greatest TV cartoon of all time (after The Simpsons).[6]

Overview[edit]

The show is set in a comical version of the Stone Age, but has added features and technologies that resemble mid-20th-century suburban America. The plots deliberately resemble the sitcoms of the era, with the caveman Flintstone and Rubble families getting into minor conflicts characteristic of modern life.[7] The show is set in the Stone Age town of Bedrock (pop. 2,500). Dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures are portrayed as co-existing with cavemen, saber-toothed cats, and woolly mammoths.

Animation historian Christopher P. Lehman considers that the series draws its humor in part from creative uses of anachronisms. The main one is the placing of a "modern", 20th-century society in prehistory. This society takes inspiration from the suburban sprawl developed in the first two decades of the postwar period. This society has modern home appliances, but they work by employing animals.[8] They have automobiles, but they hardly resemble the cars of the 20th century. These cars are large wooden and rock structures and burn no fuel. They are powered by people who run while inside them. This depiction is inconsistent, however. On some occasions, the cars are known to have engines (with appropriate sound effects), requiring ignition keys and gasoline. Fred might pull into a gas station and say, "Fill 'er up with Ethel", which is pumped through the trunk of a woolly mammoth marked "ETHEL". Whether the car runs by foot or by gas varies according to the needs of the story. Finally, the stone houses of this society are cookie-cutter homes positioned into neighborhoods typical of mid-20th-century American suburbs.[9]

Characters[edit]

The Flintstones[edit]

  • Fred Flintstone – The main character of the series and the husband and father in the title family, Fred is an accident-prone operator of a bronto-crane (a Brontosaurus used as an excavating machine) at the Slate Rock and Gravel Company who is overweight and likes to eat copious amounts of marginally healthy or unhealthy food. He is quick to anger (usually over trivial matters) but is a very loving husband and father. He is also good at bowling and is a member of the fictional "Loyal Order of Water Buffaloes" Lodge No. 26 (originally called the Loyal Order of Dinosaurs in Season 1), a men-only club paralleling real-life fraternities such as the Loyal Order of Moose. His famous catchphrase is "Yabba Dabba Doo!".
  • Wilma Flintstone – Fred's wife and Pebbles's mother, she is more intelligent and level-headed than her husband, though she often has a habit of spending money (with Betty and her catchphrase being "Da-da-da duh da-da CHARGE it!!"). She often is a foil to Fred's poor behavior, but is a very loyal wife to him. She is also a very jealous woman, who is easily angered if even a hint exists of another woman (especially a pretty one) having anything to do with Fred.
  • Pebbles Flintstone – The Flintstones' infant daughter, is born near the end of the third season. You can normally see her wearing a bone in her hair holding up her ponytail and a light green and black colored shirt with turquoise and black diaper. She (much like her family) does not wear shoes or pants. Pebbles also marries the Flintstones' best friend's son Bamm-Bamm Rubble.
  • Dino (pronounced "dee-no") – The Flintstones' pet dinosaur, acts like a dog. A running gag in the series involves Fred coming home from work and Dino getting excited and knocking him down and licking his face repeatedly.
  • Baby Puss – The Flintstones' pet saber-toothed cat is rarely seen in the actual series, but is always seen throwing Fred out of the house during the end credits, causing Fred to pound repeatedly on the front door and yell "Wilma!", waking the whole neighborhood in the process.

Relatives of the Flintstones[edit]

  • Pearl Slaghoople – Wilma's hard-to-please mother, Fred's mother-in-law, and Pebbles's grandmother, she is constantly disapproving of Fred and his behavior. She did not have a last name in her first appearances in season two and three. They briefly reconciled in the episode "Mother-in-Law's Visit", which originally aired on February 1, 1963, until she found out that she became Fred's "nice fat pigeon" when he suckered her out of money that he needed to buy a baby crib for Pebbles. They reconciled again at the end of the 1993 TV movie I Yabba Dabba Do. Their disastrous first meeting was recounted in flashback in the episode "Bachelor Daze", which originally aired on March 5, 1964. In the episode, her last name was identified as "Mrs. Slaghoople."
  • Uncle Tex Hardrock – Fred's maternal uncle and a member of the Texarock Rangers, he constantly holds Fred's future inheritance over his head.

The Rubbles[edit]

  • Barney Rubble – The secondary main character and Fred's best friend and next-door neighbor, he is nearly six inches shorter and also overweight; his occupation is, throughout most of the series, unknown, though later episodes depict him working in the same quarry as Fred. He shares many of Fred's interests, such as bowling and golf, and is also a member of the Loyal Order of Water Buffaloes. Though Fred and Barney frequently get into feuds with one another (usually due to Fred's short temper), their deep fraternal bond remains very evident.
  • Betty Rubble – Barney's wife and Wilma's best friend, like Wilma she has a habit of spending money and also is highly jealous of other pretty women being around her husband.
  • Bamm-Bamm Rubble – The Rubbles' abnormally strong adopted son, they adopt him during the fourth season; his name comes from the only phrase he ever speaks as a baby: "Bamm, Bamm!"
  • Hoppy – The Rubbles' pet hopparoo (a kangaroo/dinosaur combination creature), they purchase him at the beginning of the fifth season. When he first arrives, Dino and Fred mistake him for a giant mouse and are frightened of him, but they eventually become best friends after Hoppy gets help when they are in an accident. He babysits the kids as he takes them around in his pouch, which also serves as a shopping cart for Betty.

Other characters[edit]

Over 100 other characters appeared throughout the program.[10] Below are those who have made more than one appearance:

  • Mr. George Slate – Fred and Barney's hot-tempered boss at the gravel pit, he fires Fred on several occasions throughout the series, only to give him his job back by the end of the episode. A running gag is Slate's ever-changing first name, which was revealed to be Sylvester, Seymour, Nate, Oscar, and George as the series progressed. In the episode "The Long, Long, Long Weekend", which originally aired on January 21, 1966, he is shown as being the founder of "Slate Rock and Gravel Company"; still in business two million years later, the company is operated by his descendant, "George Slate the Eighty-thousandth". In the early Flintstones episodes, the more recognized "Mr. Slate" character was known as "Mr. Rockhead" and was a supervisor of Fred's. Mr. Slate was a short character. During the course of the cartoon, the two men switched identities and the shorter character faded away.
  • Arnold – The Flintstones' paperboy, Fred absolutely despises him, mainly because Arnold is frequently able to best and outsmart Fred at a number of tasks and also because he often ("unintentionally") throws the newspaper in Fred's face. Arnold's parents are mentioned in the series, but his mother Doris, a friend of Wilma and Betty's (as evidenced in the episode "The Little Stranger", which originally aired on November 2, 1962), is referenced in name only, never actually appearing onscreen. Arnold's father, however, did appear in the episode "Take Me Out to the Ball Game", which originally aired on April 27, 1962, though his name is never mentioned.
  • Joe Rockhead – A mutual friend of Fred and Barney's, Fred usually mentions doing something (such as going to a baseball game) with Joe when Fred and Barney have some kind of falling out. Joe was, at some point, the fire chief of the Bedrock Volunteer Fire Department as shown on the episode "Arthur Quarry's Dance Class", which originally aired on January 13, 1961. His appearance varied throughout the run of the series, but his appearance in the episode "The Picnic", which originally aired on December 15, 1961, was the one most commonly used.
  • The Great Gazoo – An alien exiled to Earth, he helps Fred and Barney, often against their will. The Great Gazoo is actually from the future, and is quite dismayed when he realizes he has been sent back to "the Stone Age". He can be seen only by Fred, Barney, Pebbles, Bamm-Bamm, other small children, Dino, and Hoppy. Gazoo appeared in the final season only.
  • Sam Slagheap – The Grand Poobah of the Water Buffalo Lodge.
  • The Gruesomes – A creepy but friendly family, they move in next door to the Flintstones in later seasons.
    • Weirdly Gruesome – The patriarch of the Gruesome family who works as a reality-show host.
    • Creepella Gruesome – Weirdly's tall wife.
    • Goblin "Gobby" Gruesome – Weirdly and Creepella's son.
    • Uncle Ghastly – The towering uncle of Gobby from Creepella's side of the family, he is mostly shown as a large furry hand coming out of a well or a wall. His shadow was also seen in their debut episode. Uncle Ghastly is heard for the only time as a creepy laugh emanating from a well that Fred looks into.
    • Occy – The Gruesome family's pet octopus.
    • Schneider – Gobby's pet giant spider.
  • The Hatrocks – A family of hillbillies. They originally feuded with the Flintstones' Arkanstone branch in the style of the Hatfield–McCoy feud. Fred and Barney reignite a feud with them in "The Bedrock Hillbillies" when Fred inherits San Cemente from the late Zeke Flintstone where the dispute was over who made the portrait of Fred's great-great-uncle Zeke. The Hatrocks later returned in "The Hatrocks and the Gruesomes", where they bunk with the Flintstones during their trip to Bedrock World's Fair and their antics start to annoy them. It is also revealed that the Hatrocks dislike bug music. The Flintstones, the Rubbles, and the Gruesomes were able to drive them away by performing the Four Insects song "She Said Yeah Yeah Yeah". When they found that the Bedrock World's Fair was having the Four Insects performing, the Hatrocks fled back to Arkanstone.
    • Jethro Hatrock – The patriarch of the Hatrock Family. He had brown hair in "The Hatrocks and the Flintstones" and taupe-gray hair in "The Hatrocks and the Gruesomes".
    • Gravella Hatrock – Jethro's wife.
    • Zack Hatrock – Jethro and Gravella's oldest son.
    • Slab Hatrock – The youngest son of Jethro and Gravella.
    • Granny Hatrock – The mother of Jethro and grandmother of Zack and Slab.
    • Benji Hatrock – Jethro's son-in-law.
    • Percy – The Hatrock's pet dogasaurus.

Voice cast[edit]

  • Alan Reed – Fred Flintstone, Uncle Ghastly
  • Jean Vander Pyl – Wilma Flintstone, Pebbles Flintstone
  • Mel Blanc – Barney Rubble, Dino, Zack Hatrock
  • Daws Butler – Barney Rubble (season two; episodes 1, 2, 5, 6, and 9 only)
  • Bea Benaderet – Betty Rubble (seasons one–four), Gravella Hatrock
  • Gerry Johnson – Betty Rubble (seasons five–six), Granny Hatrock (in "The Hatrocks and the Gruesomes")
  • Don Messick – Bamm-Bamm Rubble, Hoppy, Arnold, Gobby Gruesome
  • John Stephenson – Mr. Slate, Joe Rockhead, Sam Slagheap
  • Verna Felton – Wilma's mother* (seasons two and three and unnamed)
  • Janet Waldo – Pearl Slaghoople (Wilma's mother, *given a last name late in season four)
  • Harvey Korman – The Great Gazoo

Guest stars[edit]

Additional voice cast[edit]

Voice-actor details[edit]

Fred Flintstone physically resembles both the first voice actor who played him, Alan Reed, and Jackie Gleason, whose series, The Honeymooners, inspired The Flintstones.[11] The voice of Barney Rubble was provided by voice actor Mel Blanc, except for five episodes during the second season (the first, second, fifth, sixth, and ninth); Hanna-Barbera regular Daws Butler filled in and provided the voice of Barney while Blanc was incapacitated by a near-fatal car accident. Blanc was able to return to the series much sooner than expected, by virtue of a temporary recording studio for the entire cast set up at Blanc's bedside. Blanc's portrayal of Barney changed considerably after the accident. In the earliest episodes, Blanc had used a much higher pitch and portrayed Barney as a smart-aleck. After his recovery from the accident, Blanc used a deeper voice, quite similar to the voice of the Abominable Snowman he performed in other cartoons, and was shown as somewhat dopier than before.

Reed based Fred's voice upon Gleason's Honeymooners interpretation of Ralph Kramden, while Blanc, after a season of using a nasal, high-pitched voice for Barney, eventually adopted a style of voice similar to that used by Art Carney in his portrayal of Ed Norton. The first time the Art Carney-like voice was used was for a few seconds in "The Prowler" (the third episode produced).

In a 1986 Playboy interview, Gleason said Alan Reed had done voice-overs for Gleason in his early movies and that he had considered suing Hanna-Barbera for copying The Honeymooners, but decided to let it pass.[12] According to Henry Corden, a voice actor and a friend of Gleason's, "Jackie's lawyers told him he could probably have The Flintstones pulled right off the air. But they also told him, 'Do you want to be known as the guy who yanked Fred Flintstone off the air? The guy who took away a show so many kids love and so many parents love, too?'"[13]

Henry Corden's voice became Fred's after Reed's death in 1977, starting with A Flintstone Christmas.[14] Corden had previously provided Fred's singing voice in The Man Called Flintstone[15] and later on The Flintstones children's records. Since 2000, Jeff Bergman, James Arnold Taylor, and Scott Innes (performing both Fred and Barney for Toshiba commercials) have performed the voice of Fred. Since Mel Blanc's death in 1989, Barney has been voiced by Jeff Bergman, Frank Welker, and Kevin Michael Richardson. Various additional character voices were created by Hal Smith, Allan Melvin, Janet Waldo, Daws Butler, and Howard Morris, among others.

Episodes[edit]

Main article: List of The Flintstones episodes

Music[edit]

Main article: Meet the Flintstones

The opening- and closing-credits theme during the first two seasons was called "Rise and Shine", a lively instrumental underscore accompanying Fred on his drive home from work. The tune resembled "The Bugs Bunny Overture (This Is It!)", the theme song of The Bugs Bunny Show, also airing on ABC at the time, and may have been the reason the theme was changed in the third season.[16] Starting in season three, episode three ("Barney the Invisible"), the opening- and closing-credits theme was the familiar vocal "Meet the Flintstones". This version was recorded with a 22-piece big band conducted by composer Hoyt Curtin and performed by the Randy Van Horne Singers. The melody is derived from part of the 'B' section of Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 17 Movement 2, composed in 1801/02.[17] The "Meet the Flintstones" opening was later added to the first two seasons for syndication. The musical underscores were credited to Hoyt Curtin for the show's first five seasons; Ted Nichols took over in 1965 for the final season.[16] Many early episodes used the underscores composed for Top Cat and The Jetsons. Episodes of the last two seasons used the underscore of Jonny Quest for the more adventurous stories.

History and production[edit]

The idea of The Flintstones started after Hanna-Barbera produced The Huckleberry Hound Show and The Quick Draw McGraw Show. Although these programs were successful, they did not have the same wide audience appeal as their previous theatrical cartoon series Tom and Jerry, which entertained both children and the adults who accompanied them. Since children did not need their parents' supervision to watch television, though, Hanna-Barbera's output became labeled "kids only". Barbera and Hanna wanted to recapture the adult audience with an animated situation comedy.[18]

Barbera and Hanna considered making the two families hillbillies (a hillbilly theme was later incorporated into two Flintstones episodes, "The Bedrock Hillbillies" and "The Hatrocks and the Gruesomes"), ancient Romans (Hanna-Barbera eventually created The Roman Holidays), pilgrims, or American Indians before deciding on a Stone Age setting. According to Barbera, they settled on that because "you could take anything that was current, and convert it to stone-age".[19] Under the working title The Flagstones, the family originally consisted of Fred, Wilma, and their son, Fred, Jr. A brief demonstration film was also created to sell the idea of a "modern stone-age family" to sponsors and the network.[20]: 3  It was a difficult sell, and required eight weeks of daily presentations to networks and ad agencies.[7]June Foray and Hanna-Barbera regular Daws Butler voiced the characters for the demonstration film, but Foray was dropped without warning before production began; Foray was upset about the rejection and refused to work with Hanna-Barbera for many years afterward, despite Barbera's efforts to offer her other work.[21] Animator Kenneth Muse, who worked on the Tom and Jerry cartoons, also worked on the early seasons of The Flintstones.

William Hanna admitted that "At that time, The Honeymooners was the most popular show on the air, and for my bill, the funniest. The characters, I thought, were terrific. Now, that influenced greatly what we did with The Flintstones ... The Honeymooners was there, and we used that as a kind of basis for the concept."[citation needed]Joseph Barbera disavowed these claims in a separate interview, though, stating, "I don't remember mentioning The Honeymooners when I sold the show, but if people want to compare The Flintstones to The Honeymooners, then great. It's a total compliment. The Honeymooners was one of the greatest shows ever written."[22] Jackie Gleason, creator of The Honeymooners, considered suing Hanna-Barbera Productions, but decided that he did not want to be known as "the guy who yanked Fred Flintstone off the air".[23][24] Another influence was noted during Hanna-Barbera's tenure at MGM, where they were in a friendly competition with fellow cartoon director Tex Avery. In 1955, Avery directed a cartoon entitled The First Bad Man (narrated by cowboy legend Tex Ritter). The cartoon concerned the rowdy antics of a bank robber in stone-age Dallas. Many of the sight gags from that series antedated similar situations used by Hanna-Barbera in the Flintstones series by many years. Many students of American animation point to this cartoon as a progenitive seed of the Flintstones.

The concept was also antedated by the "Stone Age Cartoons" series of 12 animated cartoons released from January to September 1940 by Fleischer Studios. These cartoons show stone-age people doing modern things with primitive means. One example is "Granite Hotel" including characters such as a newsboy, telephone operator, hotel clerk, and a spoof of Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy.

Barbera explained that selling the show to a network and sponsors was not an easy task.

Here we were with a brand new thing that had never been done before, an animated prime-time television show. So we developed two storyboards; one was they had a helicopter of some kind and they went to the opera or whatever, and the other was Fred Flintstone and Barney Rubble fighting over a swimming pool. So I go back to New York with a portfolio and two half-hour boards. And no-one would even believe that you'd dare to suggest a thing like that, I mean they looked at you and they'd think you're crazy. But slowly the word got out, and I used the presentation which took almost an hour and a half. I would go to the other two boards and tell them what they did, and do all the voices and the sounds and so-on, and I'd stagger back to the hotel and I'd collapse. The phone would ring like crazy, like one time I did Bristol-Myers, the whole company was there. When I got through I'd go back to the hotel the phone would ring and say "the president wasn't at that meeting, could you come back and do it for him." So I had many of those, one time I had two agencies, they'd fill the room I mean God about 40 people, and I did this whole show. I got to know where the laughs were, and where to hit it, nothing; dead, dead, dead. So one of the people at Screen Gems said "This is the worst, those guys...." he was so angry at them. What it was, was that there were two agencies there, and neither one was going to let the other one know they were enjoying it. But I pitched it for eight straight weeks and nobody bought it. So after sitting in New York just wearing out, you know really wearing out. Pitch, pitch, pitch, sometimes five a day. So finally on the very last day I pitched it to ABC, which was a young daring network willing to try new things, and bought the show in 15 minutes. Thank goodness, because this was the very last day and if they hadn't bought it, I would have taken everything down, put it in the archives and never pitched it again. Sometimes I wake up in a cold-sweat thinking this is how close you get to disaster.[19]

When the series went into production, the working title The Flagstones was changed, possibly to avoid confusion with the Flagstons, characters in the comic strip Hi and Lois. After spending a brief period in development as The Gladstones (GLadstone being a Los Angeles telephone exchange at the time),[25] Hanna-Barbera settled upon The Flintstones, and the idea of the Flintstones having a child from the start was discarded, with Fred and Wilma starting out as a childless couple. However, some early Flintstones merchandise, such as a 1961 Little Golden Book, included "Fred Jr".[26]

Despite the animation and fantasy setting, the series was initially aimed at adult audiences, which was reflected in the comedy writing, that as noted, resembled the average primetime sitcoms of the era, with the usual family issues resolved with a laugh at the end of each episode, as well as the inclusion of a laugh track. Hanna and Barbera hired many writers from the world of live-action, including two of Jackie Gleason's writers, Herbert Finn and Sydney Zelinka, as well as relative newcomer Joanna Lee, while still using traditional animation story men such as Warren Foster and Michael Maltese.

The Flintstones premiered on September 30, 1960, at 8:30 pm Eastern time, and quickly became a hit. It was the first American animated show to depict two people of the opposite sex (Fred and Wilma; Barney and Betty) sleeping together in one bed, although Fred and Wilma are sometimes depicted as sleeping in separate beds. For comparison, the first live-action depiction of this in American TV history was in television's first-ever sitcom: 1947's Mary Kay and Johnny.[27]

Fred and Wilma advertising Winstoncigarettes during the closing credits

The first two seasons were co-sponsored by Winston cigarettes and the characters appeared in several black-and-white television commercials for Winston[28] (dictated by the custom, at that time, that the star(s) of a TV series often "pitched" their sponsor's product in an "integrated commercial" at the end of the episode).[29]

During the third season, Hanna and Barbera decided that Fred and Wilma should have a baby. Originally, Hanna and Barbera intended for the Flintstone family to have a boy, the head of the marketing department convinced them to change it to a girl since "girl dolls sell a lot better than boy dolls".[18] Although most Flintstones episodes were stand-alone storylines, Hanna-Barbera created a story arc surrounding the birth of Pebbles. Beginning with the episode "The Surprise", aired midway through the third season (January 25, 1963), in which Wilma reveals her pregnancy to Fred, the arc continued through the time leading up to Pebbles's birth in the episode "Dress Rehearsal" (February 22, 1963), and then continued with several episodes showing Fred and Wilma adjusting to the world of parenthood. Around this time, Winston pulled out their sponsorship and Welch's (grape juice and grape jellies) became the primary sponsor, as the show's audience began to shift younger. The integrated commercials for Welch's products feature Pebbles asking for grape juice in her toddler dialect, and Fred explaining to Pebbles Welch's unique process for making the jelly, compared to the competition. Welch's also produced a line of grape jelly packaged in jars that were reusable as drinking glasses, with painted scenes featuring the Flintstones and characters from the show. In Australia, the Nine Network ran a "Name the Flintstones' baby" competition during the 'pregnancy' episodes—few Australian viewers were expected to have a U.S. connection giving them information about past Flintstone episodes. An American won the contest and received an all-expenses-paid trip to tour Hanna-Barbera Studios. Another arc occurred in the fourth season, in which the Rubbles, depressed over being unable to have children of their own (making The Flintstones the first animated series in history to address the issue of infertility, though subtly), adopt Bamm-Bamm. The 100th episode made (but the 90th to air), "Little Bamm-Bamm Rubble" (October 3, 1963), established how Bamm-Bamm was adopted. Nine episodes were produced before it, but aired afterward, which explains why Bamm-Bamm was not seen again until episode 101, "Daddies Anonymous" (Bamm-Bamm was in a teaser on episode 98, "Kleptomaniac Pebbles"). Another story arc, occurring in the final season, centered on Fred and Barney's dealings with the Great Gazoo (voiced by Harvey Korman).

After Pebbles's birth, the tone and writing became more juvenile and ratings from the adult demographic began to decline. The last original episode was broadcast on April 1, 1966.[30]

The first three seasons of The Flintstones aired Friday nights at 8:30 Eastern time on ABC, with the first two seasons in black-and-white. Beginning with the third season in 1962, ABC televised the Flintstones in color, one of the first programs in color on that network.[31] Season four and part of season five aired Thursdays at 7:30. The rest of the series aired Fridays at 7:30.

In the U.S., besides being part of NBC Saturday mornings from 1966 to 1970, the syndicated reruns of the series were offered to local stations until 1997, when E/I regulations and changing tastes in the industry led to the show's move to cable television. From the time of Ted Turner's purchase of Hanna-Barbera in 1991, TBS, TNT, and Cartoon Network aired the program. On April 1, 2000, the program moved to Boomerang, where it aired until March 6, 2017 (in its last years on the channel, it had been relegated to a graveyard slot) and returned to the channel on July 30, 2018. Online, the series was made available on the In2TV service beginning in 2006, then the online version of Kids' WB until that service was discontinued in 2015. As of 2017, full episodes are only available in the U.S. on Boomerang's subscription video-on-demand service, with select clips made available on the official YouTube account tied to the revamped Kids' WB website. In 2019, MeTV acquired rerun rights to the series, returning the show to broadcast television for the first time in over 20 years.[32] All seasons of this series can currently be streamed on HBO Max, a streaming service from AT&T's WarnerMedia.

Reception[edit]

The night after The Flintstones premiered, Variety called it "a pen-and-ink disaster",[33] and the series was among many that debuted in a "vast wasteland" of a 1960–61 television season considered one of the worst in television history up to that point.[34] As late as the 1980s, highbrow critics derided the show's limited animation and derivative plots.[35] Animation historian Michael Barrier disliked the series, calling it a "dumb sitcom" and stated that "I can readily understand why someone who as a small child enjoyed, say, The Flintstones might regard that show fondly today. I have a lot more trouble understanding why anyone would try to defend anything about it on artistic grounds."[36]

Despite the mixed critical reviews, The Flintstones has generally been considered a television classic and was rerun continuously for five decades after its end. In 1961, The Flintstones became the first animated series to be nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series, but lost out to The Jack Benny Program. In January 2009, IGN named The Flintstones as the ninth-best in its "Top 100 Animated TV Shows".[37] The first season of the series received an approval rating of 100% on review aggregatorRotten Tomatoes, based on five reviews.[38]Common Sense Media gave the series a three out of five stars, saying: "Still a classic, but times have changed."[39]

Nielsen ratings[edit]

Films and subsequent television series[edit]

Following the show's cancellation in 1966, a film based upon the series was created. The Man Called Flintstone was a musical spy caper that parodied James Bond and other secret agents. The movie was released to theaters on August 3, 1966, by Columbia Pictures.[45] It was released on DVD by Warner Home Video in Canada in March 2005 and in United States in December 2008.

The show was revived in the early 1970s with Pebbles and Bamm-Bamm having grown into teenagers, and several different series and made-for-TV movies (broadcast mainly on Saturday mornings, with a few shown in primetime), including a series depicting Fred and Barney as police officers, another depicting the characters as children, and yet others featuring Fred and Barney encountering Marvel Comics superhero The Thing and Al Capp's comic strip character The Shmoo—have appeared over the years. The original show also was adapted into a live-action film in 1994, and a prequel, The Flintstones in Viva Rock Vegas, which followed in 2000. Unlike its sister show The Jetsons (the two shows appeared in a made-for-TV crossover movie in 1987), the revival programs were not widely syndicated or rerun alongside the original series.[citation needed]

Television series[edit]

Original runs:

Compilation shows:

Theatrical animated feature[edit]

Television specials[edit]

Television films[edit]

Educational films[edit]

  • The Flintstones: Library Skills Series (Sound Filmstrip Kit, Xerox Films)
    • Barney Borrows a Book (1976)
    • Barney Returns a Book (1976)
  • Energy: A National Issue (1977)
  • Hanna-Barbera Educational Filmstrips
    • Bamm-Bamm: Bamm-Bamm Tackles a Term Paper (1978)
    • Bamm-Bamm: Information Please (1979)
    • The Flintstones: A Weighty Problem (1980)
    • The Flintstones: Fire Alarm (1980)
    • The Flintstones: Fire Escape (1980)
    • The Flintstones' Driving Guide (1980)
  • Learning Tree Filmstrip Set
    • Learning About Families with The Flintstones (1982)
    • Learning About Basic Needs with The Flintstones (1982)
  • The Flintstones: Child Guidance Show 'N Tell Picturesound Program (Record and Filmstrip)
    • Fred Learns to Share (1984)
    • Fred's Tall Tale (1984)

Live-action films[edit]

Direct-to-video films[edit]

Other media[edit]

For DVDs, video games, comic books, and VHS releases, see List of The Flintstones media.

Canceled Seth MacFarlane reboot[edit]

In 2011, it was announced Family Guy creator Seth MacFarlane would be reviving The Flintstones for the Fox network, with the first episode airing in 2013.[49] After Fox Entertainment president Kevin Reilly read the pilot script and "liked it but didn't love it", MacFarlane chose to abandon work on the project rather than restarting it.[50][51]

Yabba-Dabba Dinosaurs[edit]

Main article: Yabba-Dabba Dinosaurs

Yabba-Dabba Dinosaurs is an American animated web television series spin-off of The Flintstones that premiered in 2020, the first to feature them since they appeared in the 2002 series The Rubbles, and produced by Warner Bros. Animation. It was produced by Mark Marek and Marly Halpern-Graser.

Like Cave Kids, the show focuses on the lives of best friends Pebbles Flintstone and Bamm-Bamm Rubble, who are joined by Dino for many adventures in the Stone Age. The show was scheduled to be released as a part of the Boomerang IPTV subscription service.[52] On August 19, 2021, it was announced the series would instead be released on HBO Max on September 30, 2021.[53] The series was set to first air on Teletoon as a regular television series in Canada in September 2019, but ended up airing in September 2020.[54][55] The show started airing on February 3, 2020, on Boomerang UK.[56][57]

Upcoming animated film[edit]

In 2014, it was announced that Warner Bros. was developing an animated film with Chris Henchy, Will Ferrell, and Adam McKay, to write the script for the project. Ferrell and McKay would also be executive producers.[58] In 2018, it was confirmed that the project is still in development, but if the crew members would still be involved is unknown.[59]

Bedrock[edit]

In 2019, it was reported that a new Flintstones reboot series, directed to an adult audience, is in development by Elizabeth Banks and her production company Brownstone Productions.[60] In 2021, the series was now co-produced by Fox Entertainment and Warner Bros. Animation along with Brownstone and received the title Bedrock. The new series takes place two decades after the original series with Fred Flintstone on the verge of retirement and a twenty-something Pebbles (voiced by Banks) trying to find her way in life as the Stone Age comes to an end and the Bronze Age arrives.[61]

Theme parks[edit]

Two sister Flintstones-themed amusement parks exist in the United States: Bedrock City in Custer, South Dakota, and another in Valle, Arizona. Another one near Williams, Arizona, is still open for the summer of 2019, but slated to close by 2020. It cost $5 per person to get in. Both have been in operation for decades. Bedrock City, also known as Flintstone Park, closed in August 2015.[62]

Another existed until the 1990s at Carowinds in Charlotte, North Carolina. In Canada, Flintstone Park in Kelowna, British Columbia, opened in 1968 and closed in 1998; it was notable for the "Forty Foot Fred" billboard of Fred Flintstone which was a well-known Kelowna landmark.[63][64] Another Flintstones park was located in Bridal Falls, British Columbia, which closed in 1990.[65]Calaway Park outside Calgary, Alberta, also opened with a Flintstones theme and many of the buildings today have a caveman-like design, though the park no longer licenses the characters. The Australia's Wonderland and Canada's Wonderland theme parks, both featured Flintstones characters in their Hanna-Barbera-themed children's sections from 1985 until the mid-1990s. Kings Island (near Cincinnati) and Kings Dominion (near Richmond, Virginia) had a Hanna-Barbera land, in which many Hanna-Barbera characters were featured, including the Flintstones, in the early 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s. Bedrock is one of the themed lands in the indoor Warner Bros. World Abu Dhabi park in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, mainly home to the Flintstones Bedrock River Adventure flume ride.

Live theater[edit]

A stage production opened at Universal Studios Hollywood in 1994 (the year the live-action film was released), developed by Universal and Hanna-Barbera Productions, at the Panasonic Theater, replacing the Star Trek show. The story consists of Fred, Wilma, Barney, and Betty heading for "Hollyrock". The show ran until January 2, 1997.

In popular culture[edit]

Miles Laboratories (now part of Bayer Corporation) and their One-A-Day vitamin brand was the alternate sponsor of the original Flintstones series during its first two seasons, and in the late 1960s, Miles introduced Flintstones Chewable Vitamins, fruit-flavored multivitamin tablets for children in the shape of the Flintstones characters, which are still currently being sold.[66]

The Simpsons referenced The Flintstones in several episodes. In the episode "Homer's Night Out", Homer's local convenience store clerk, Apu, remarks "You look familiar, sir. Are you on the television or something?", to which Homer replies "Sorry, buddy, you've got me confused with Fred Flintstone."[67] During the couch gag of the opening credits of the episode "Kamp Krusty", the Simpson family arrive home to find the Flintstone family already sitting on their couch.[68] The same couch gag was reused in syndicated episodes of "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show", when The Simpsons overtook The Flintstones as the longest-running animated series.[69] In "Lady Bouvier's Lover", Homer's boss, Mr. Burns, appears at the family's house and says "Why, it's Fred Flintstone (referring to Homer) and his lovely wife, Wilma! (Marge) Oh, and this must be little Pebbles! (Maggie) Mind if I come in? I brought chocolates." Homer responds by saying "Yabba-dabba-doo!"[70] The opening of "Marge vs. the Monorail" depicts Homer leaving work in a similar way to Fred Flintstone in the opening of The Flintstones, during which he sings his own version of the latter's opening theme only to slam into a chestnut tree.

On September 30, 2010, Google temporarily replaced the logo on its search page with a custom graphic celebrating the 50th anniversary of The Flintstones' first TV broadcast.[71]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Doll, Pancho (June 2, 1994). "Reel Life/Film & Video File: Music Helped 'Flintstones' on Way to Fame: In 1960, Hoyt Curtin created the lively theme for the Stone Age family. The show's producers say it may be the most frequently broadcast song on TV". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
  2. ^Woolery, George W. (1983). Children's Television: The First Thirty-Five Years, 1946–1981. Scarecrow Press. pp. 103–108. ISBN . Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  3. ^CD liner notes: Saturday Mornings: Cartoons' Greatest Hits, 1995 MCA Records
  4. ^"Flintstones, The – Season 1 Review". TVShowsOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
  5. ^"Excavating Bedrock: Reminiscences of 'The Flintstones,'" Hogan's Alley #9, 2000
  6. ^Sands, Rich (September 24, 2013). "TV Guide Magazine's 60 Greatest Cartoons of All Time". TVGuide.com.
  7. ^ abSennett, Ted (1989). The Art of Hanna-Barbera: Fifty Years of Creativity. Studio. pp. 80–81. ISBN . Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  8. ^Blake, Heidi (September 30, 2010). "The Flintstones' 50th anniversary: 10 wackiest Bedrock inventions". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  9. ^Lehman (2007), p. 25
  10. ^Romanek, Broc. "List of Flintstones Characters". Thecorporatecounsel.net, accessed March 31, 2011
  11. ^VanDerWerff, Emily (May 12, 2014). "In The Flintstones, Hanna-Barbera found a shameless rip-off that worked". The A.V. Club. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  12. ^Zehme, Bill (interviewer) (August 1986). "Jackie Gleason – Playboy Interview – Life History". Retrieved July 25, 2009.
  13. ^Brooks, Marla (2005). The American family on television: A chronology of 121 shows, 1948–2004. McFarland & Co. p. 54. ISBN .
  14. ^"A Flintstone Christmas". www.bcdb.com, April 12, 2012
  15. ^"The Man Called Flintstone". www.bcdb.com, April 12, 2012
  16. ^ abDoll, Pancho (June 2, 1994). "REEL LIFE / FILM & VIDEO FILE : Music Helped 'Flintstones' on Way to Fame : In 1960, Hoyt Curtin created the lively theme for the Stone Age family. The show's producers say it may be the most frequently broadcast song on TV". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
  17. ^"Rechmann in Recital". Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  18. ^ abThe Flintstones, season 2 DVD documentary
  19. ^ abLeonard Maltin interviews Joseph Barbera, 1997
  20. ^Barbera, Joseph (1994). My Life in "Toons": From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publishing. ISBN .
  21. ^Voiceover legend June Foray discusses The Flintstones pilot. Archive of American Television (Academy of Television Arts & Sciences). November 16, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  22. ^"The Flintstones Frequently Asked Questions List". Archived from the original on October 3, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
  23. ^"The Flintstones Frequently Asked Questions List (item 13)". Archived from the original on October 3, 2010. Retrieved November 25, 2006.
  24. ^"The Flintstones Frequently Asked Questions List (item 14)". Archived from the original on December 30, 2006. Retrieved November 25, 2006.
  25. ^"The cartoon dream team". BBC News. March 21, 2001. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
  26. ^"Homes and Offices". bookstevesbookstore.blogspot.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  27. ^"First TV Couple in Same Bed". Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  28. ^"Yabba Dabba Cough! Flashback to When The Flintstones Shilled Cigarettes". Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  29. ^Meyers, Cynthia B. (October 25, 2013). A Word from Our Sponsor: Admen, Advertising, and the Golden Age of Radio. Fordham University Press. p. 140. ISBN .
  30. ^"Big Cartoon Database". bcdb.com. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  31. ^"ABC-TV To Start Color Programs". The New York Times. April 1, 1962. p. 84.
  32. ^"MeTV Grabs 'The Flintstones'".
  33. ^Leonard Maltin interviews Joseph Barbera-1997
  34. ^Nilsson, Jeff (June 3, 2012). "The Vast Wasteland". The Saturday Evening Post. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  35. ^For example, an episode of the 1987 series Mighty Mouse: The New Adventures ("Don't Touch That Dial!") has the title character mocking The Flintstones, which appears in a satirical crossover with The Jetsons, as stupid.
  36. ^Barrier, Michael (January 6, 2008). "The Book as Toy". Michael Barrier. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  37. ^"IGN – 9. The Flintstones". Tv.ign.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  38. ^"The Flintstones". rottentomatoes.com.
  39. ^Sheppard, Deirdre. "The Flintstones". commonsensemedia.org. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  40. ^Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle (2007). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946–Present (Ninth ed.). Ballantine Books. pp. 1682–1683. ISBN .
  41. ^"Top 40 Programs from First Nielsens of the 1963-1964 Season". tvobscurities.com. November 8, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  42. ^"Nerd Exclusive: Nielsen Data (1964–1974)". January 31, 2018.
  43. ^"The TV Ratings Guide: 1964–65 Ratings History".
  44. ^"The TV Ratings Guide: 1965–66 Ratings History".
  45. ^The Man Called Flintstone (film review). Variety, August 10, 1966
  46. ^Dave Trumbore (May 23, 2018). "Boomerang Reveals New and Returning Content for Year Two of the Subscription App". Collider. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  47. ^"Boomerang UK Yabba Dabba Dinosaurs New Show Promo". ReguralCapital. January 14, 2020. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
  48. ^Otterson, Joe (April 27, 2021). "'Flintstones' Sequel Series in the Works at Fox From Warner Bros. Animation, Elizabeth Banks to Voice Pebbles". Variety. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
  49. ^"Willllllllllmmmmaaa! Animated 'Flinstones' Resurrected by Seth MacFarlane and Fox - Ratings - TVbytheNumbers.Zap2it.com". TVbytheNumbers. May 16, 2011. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011.
  50. ^Rose, Lacey (April 25, 2012). "What Killed Seth MacFarlane's 'Flintstones' TV Remake". The Hollywood Reporter.
  51. ^"It seems Seth MacFarlane will not be rebooting The Flintstones after all". avclub.com.
  52. ^"Boomerang Unveils New SCOOBY-DOO AND GUESS WHO? & YABBA-DABBA DINOSAURS! Series" (Press release). Boomerang. May 23, 2018 – via Broadway World.
  53. ^""Cry Macho," "Malignant," Limited Series "Scenes From A Marriage," The Third Season Of "Doom Patrol," And "Adventure Time: Distant Lands – Wizard City" Arrive On HBO Max This September". WarnerMedia Pressroom. August 19, 2021. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  54. ^Milligan, Mercedes (June 23, 2020). "Corus Ent. Bolsters Specialty Portfolios, Including Toons for All Ages".
  55. ^"Corus Entertainment's Powerful Specialty Portfolio Announces Lineup of 2019–2020 Orders".
  56. ^"Yabba Dabba Dinosaurs | Games, Videos and Downloads".
  57. ^"TV Listings for Yabba Dabba Dinosaurs on Boomerang UK". RegularCapital WarnerMedia Animation News. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  58. ^McNary, Dave (May 7, 2014), "'The Flintstones' Movie in the Works at Warner Bros.", Variety
  59. ^Kroll, Justin (October 15, 2018). "'Tom and Jerry,' 'Scooby-Doo' Movies Land Top Talent at Warner Animation Group (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety.
  60. ^Andreeva, Nellie (July 11, 2019). "'The Flintstones' Animated Series Reboot In Works At Warner Bros. With Elizabeth Banks Producing". Deadline.
  61. ^Milligan, Mercedes (April 27, 2021). "Primetime Toon 'Bedrock' in Works with FOX, WB & Elizabeth Banks' Brownstone". Animation Magazine. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
  62. ^"Flintstones park in South Dakota closing, gets new owner". The Washington Times. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  63. ^"Kelowna, BC, Canada – Bedrock City (Gone)". www.roadsideamerica.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  64. ^"Forty Foot Fred found on farm". infotel.ca. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  65. ^"Remember Flintstones Park in Kelowna? Where there was Fred, there was food, beer and bowling – the same is true at Freddy's Brew Pub!". Mccurdybowl.com. February 16, 2009. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  66. ^The Flintstones Season 1 DVD
  67. ^"Apu: You Look Familiar, Sir. Are You On The Television Or Something?". Anvari.org. 2011. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
  68. ^"10 great 'Simpsons' couch gags". Today. 2011. Archived from the original on October 16, 2011. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
  69. ^Canning, Robert (June 23, 2008). "The Simpsons Flashback: "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show" Review". IGN. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
  70. ^"The Simpsons "Lady Bouvier's Lover" Quotes". TVFanatic. 2011. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
  71. ^Blake, Heidi (September 30, 2010). "The Flintstones 50th anniversary is celebrated by Google Doodle". London: The Daily Telegraph, UK. Retrieved September 30, 2010.

Books[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • "The Flintstones": The Official Guide to the Cartoon Series, by Jerry Beck, Running Press, 2011.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Flintstones

stonetown in a sentence

"stonetown" in Chinese  

SentencesMobile
  • They have given St . Marys its current nickname : Stonetown.
  • Stonetown Road was realigned to run over the dam.
  • This stonetown was built as one of many trade towns on the Indian Ocean.
  • Kilwa Kisiwani has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the nearby stonetown Songo Mnara.
  • Lake, Lake Erskine, Monks, Negro Pond, Sheppard Pond, Stonetown, Upper Lake and Weyble Pond.
  • The club football field, dressing rooms and community hall are situated in Stonetown, Dundalk, Co . Louth.
  • Many tourists who roam Stonetown's labyrinthine alleyways dress in skimpy beach attire despite advice from tour operators to cover up.
  • She's dressed OK, " said a taxi driver hanging out with colleagues outside the main museum in Stonetown.
  • Unincorporated communities in the township include Reiffton, Stony Creek Mills ( also in Lower Alsace Township, ) Stonersville, and Stonetown.
  • In one, somebody stuck an explosive into a urinal in the men's room of the New Happy Lodge in the Stonetown area.
  • It's difficult to see stonetown in a sentence .
  • Reynard " Reynie " Muldoon is an orphan at the Stonetown Orphanage, an exceptionally smart child tutored by a kind woman named Miss Perumal.
  • Cuchulainn struck off their heads, placed twelve stones in the ground and set a head on each stone, hence the name " Stonetown ".
  • In the end, S . Q . saves Mr . Curtain's life from his attempted suicide, and visits him daily in the Stonetown Prison.
  • Eventually he was signed to play basketball for the Stonetown Yankees club team in Zanzibar, leading them to the Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa championship tournament.
  • "' Ismail Jussa Ladhu "'( born 18 August 1971 ) is a Zanzibari politician serving the Stonetown constituency in the Zanzibar House of Representatives.
  • This former sultanate with sand is more than 90 percent Muslim and has more than 50 mosques crowded together in the old quarter, called Stonetown, outnumbering its hotels and guesthouses.
  • "' Stonetown "'is a small rural community in the parish of Louth 10 kilometres from Dundalk, County Louth, and 11 kilometres from Carrickmacross, County Monaghan.
  • "' Annaghminnon Rovers GFC "'( Ragaire Annachminnon CPG ) is a gaelic football club from the small community of Stonetown in the parish of Louth, in County Louth.
  • In 2012, Bresler signed on with the Kottonmouth Kings to animate " Stonetown ", a web series based on cartoon characters designed by D-Loc, one of the band's MCs.
  • While the community has long been known only as Rose Point, it also bore the name of " Stonetown " for a time in its early history; the post office, however, was always named Rose Point.
  • More Sentences:  1  2
Neighbors

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How can I put and write and define stonetown in a sentence and how is the word stonetown used in a sentence and examples? stonetown造句, stonetown造句, 用stonetown造句, stonetown meaning, definition, pronunciation, synonyms and example sentences are provided by ichacha.net.

Sours: https://eng.ichacha.net/zaoju/stonetown.html
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A new West Fargo restaurant is TikTok famous!

The latest TikTok viral video out of North Dakota comes from a restaurant out of West Fargo. Recently, a teen named Kiana Larghe decided to post a video of herself making a salad at her family restaurant. While the family had hoped their social media postings would catch the eyes of potential new patrons, they never expected to get so much attention over a simple video. Now, Stone Town Grill is TikTok famous!

The video of a Tex-Mex salad being made at Stone Town Grill has garnered over a million views.

In an interview with Valley News Live, Kiana's parents, Marty and Jessica, said that the TikTok video has helped the new West Fargo restaurant that only opened last November during the pandemic. At the time of this story, Kiana's video of herself making a chicken Tex-Mex salad has 1.7 million views on TikTok. Now, Kiana is reportedly going to work on more videos to show off the delicious food options.

@kianalarghefresh, healthy AND yummy!! 😋😋😋 ##northdakota##foodtok##ZFlipClackdown##covid♬ Paper Birds - Jordan Halpern Schwartz

Stone Town Grill offers many options for building your own healthy meal.

So, what about Kiana's video is drawing in the views? Honestly, I would have to say it is because that salad she makes looks delicious and the fact that there are so many fresh and healthy food options. According to Kiana's narration, Stone Town Grill is a place where you can make your own noodle, grain, or salad bowl. They also have 26 different vegetables and 12 different sauces. The sauces are all gluten-free and there are vegan-friendly and diet-friendly options.

CHECK IT OUT: See the 100 most popular brands in America

 

 

Sours: https://hot975fm.com/stone-town-grill-tiktok/
STONETOWN EPISODE 1 PILOT SEASON 1 4/20 PREMIERE!!!

Kottonmouth Kings - Stonetown Lyrics


Welcome to Stonetown, where weed is the game
Out here in Stonetown, weed is the name

Welcome to Stonetown, it's a tokers paradise (Stonetown)
The cannabis rivers are flowing, we're blowing bowls out through the night (Down in Stonetown)
The atmosphere's always inviting, enlighten, uplifting for all (Stonetown)
The Indica and the Sativa aroma just seeps through the walls
Down in Stonetown

What's up y'all it's Mr. JR
Am like the sheriff of these here parts
Call me Mr. White Herb and protector of the perbs
And every other herb wanted at large
It's like the wild wild west for all cannabis lovers
Where cops get high too, no undercovers
Like Chris Columbus, come and discover
A new world better than sex with no rubbers
Where everybody's getting high with each other
And when a joint goes out, we just light another
Come on brother let's all get along
Oh look there's the presidents Mr. Cheech and Chong
And by now you should know it's Johnny Richter
Welcome to the Stonetown marijuana mixer
Nice to meet ya, stay as long as you want
But first you gotta clear the bowl out my fucking bong

Welcome to Stonetown, where weed is the game (Weed is the game)
Out here in Stonetown, weed is the name
So welcome to Stonetown, where weed is the game (Weed is your game)
Up here in Stonetown, we're so glad you came (We're so glad you came)

Hi folks, now how's it been going?
The crops near done and the kegs is flowing
This way to the hotel where we smoke well
But it ain't no holiday inn (No!)
It's a busted up brothel, an Amsterdam hostel
A really rundown dive
A cover up for the plants that we gots inside
Where we get whiskey drunk and we dance all night
Yeah let me take your bags and your things
Give you 29 bongs rips, none of which sting
Loc's got the kill bud, X got the chronic
Richter got a hefty bag full of supersonic and me?
Me and Bobby D we stone silly
Double edged banger next up is Greg Philly
Stuck from the scissor hash downtown living
They call me dirtball and I'm Stonetown driven

Welcome to Stonetown, where weed is the game (Weed is the game)
Out here in Stonetown, weed is the name
So welcome to Stonetown, where weed is the game (Weed is your game)
Up here in Stonetown, we're so glad you came (We're so glad you came)

So good to be here, it's nice to meet ya
Looking around at the people I greet
Now look at me face, now look at me features
I make you look crazy, I'm smoking my reefer
Call me the chief, I sprinkle the kief
The head of the class a science teacher
After the school, after the snap
I crash my car into the bleacher
I'm breaking them down to pounds to grains
Peanuts to pretzels [?]
Chris a erica, josh a bill [?]
Am super man Shaquille O'Neil
Surfing to kill it's on the deck
Ben is boss so who's the next
I check my text, I sent a tweet
I took the pitch, I smoke my weed

Welcome to Stonetown, where weed is the game (Weed is the game)
Out here in Stonetown, weed is the name
So welcome to Stonetown, where weed is the game (Weed is your game)
Up here in Stonetown, we're so glad you came (We're so glad you came)



Sours: https://lyricsjonk.com/kottonmouth-kings-stonetown.html

Town cartoon stone

South Park

American animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone

This article is about the television series. For other uses, see South Park (disambiguation).

South Park is an American animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for Comedy Central. The series revolves around four boys—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman, and Kenny McCormick—and their exploits in and around the titular Colorado town. South Park became infamous for its profanity and dark, surreal humor that satirizes a wide range of topics toward an adult audience.

Parker and Stone developed South Park from two animated short films both titled The Spirit of Christmas. The second short became one of the first Internet viral videos, ultimately leading to South Park's production. The pilot episode was produced using cutout animation, leading to all subsequent episodes being produced with computer animation that emulated the cutout technique. South Park features a very large ensemble cast of recurring characters.

Since its debut on August 13, 1997, 309 episodes of South Park have been broadcast. It debuted with great success, consistently earning the highest ratings of any basic cable program. Subsequent ratings have varied, but it remains one of Comedy Central's highest-rated programs. Two television specials, "The Pandemic Special" and "South ParQ Vaccination Special", respectively premiered in September 2020[2] and March 2021.[3][4] In August 2021, Parker and Stone announced a deal with ViacomCBS which slates the show through season 30 in 2027 for Comedy Central, and the production of a series of films made exclusively for Paramount+ with two premiering later in 2021.[5]

South Park has received numerous accolades, including five Primetime Emmy Awards, a Peabody Award, and numerous inclusions in various publications' lists of greatest television shows. A film based on the series, South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, was released in June 1999 to commercial and critical success, garnering an Academy Award nomination. In 2013, TV Guide ranked South Park the tenth Greatest TV Cartoon of All Time.[6]

Premise

Setting and characters

See also: List of South Park characters

The show follows the exploits of four boys, Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman and Kenny McCormick. The boys live in the fictional small town of South Park, located within the real-life South Park basin in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado.[7] The town is also home to an assortment of frequent characters such as students, families, elementary school staff, and other various residents, who tend to regard South Park as a bland, quiet place to live.[8] Prominent settings on the show include the local elementary school, bus stop, various neighborhoods and the surrounding snowy landscape, actual Colorado landmarks, and the shops and businesses along the town's main street, all of which are based on the appearance of similar locations in Fairplay, Colorado.[7][8] As one of the few long-running TV shows set in the Mountain West region that takes place outside the urban core of Denver, South Park frequently features the unique culture of the region, including cattle ranchers, Old West theme parks, snowy climates, mountaineering, Mormons, real-life Colorado locations such as Casa Bonita and Cave of the Winds, and many other regionally specific characteristics not frequently seen on national TV shows.

South Parktitle image from Season 17 to Season 22 which features the four main characters and most of the recurring, supporting characters in the background

Stan is portrayed as the everyman of the group,[9] as the show's website describes him as an "average, American 4th grader".[10] Kyle is the lone Jew among the group, and his portrayal in this role is often dealt with satirically.[9] Stan is modeled after Parker, while Kyle is modeled after Stone. They are best friends, and their friendship, symbolically intended to reflect Parker and Stone's friendship,[11] is a common topic throughout the series. Eric Cartman (usually nicknamed by his surname only) is loud, obnoxious, and amoral, often portrayed as an antagonist. His anti-Semitic attitude has resulted in a progressive rivalry with Kyle, although the deeper reason is the strong clash between Kyle's strong morality and Cartman's complete lack of such.[9][12] Kenny, who comes from a poor family, wears his parka hood so tightly that it covers most of his face and muffles his speech. During the show's first five seasons, Kenny died in nearly every episode before returning in the next with little-to-no definitive explanation given. He was written out of the show's sixth season in 2002, re-appearing in the season finale. Since then, Kenny's death has been seldom used by the show's creators. During the show's first 58 episodes, the boys were in the third grade. In the season four episode "4th Grade" (2000), they entered the fourth grade, and have remained there ever since.[13][14]

Plots are often set in motion by events, ranging from the fairly typical to the supernatural and extraordinary, which frequently happen in the town.[15] The boys often act as the voice of reason when these events cause panic or incongruous behavior among the adult populace, who are customarily depicted as irrational, gullible, and prone to vociferation.[7][16] The boys are also frequently confused by the contradictory and hypocritical behavior of their parents and other adults, and often perceive them as having distorted views on morality and society.[8][17]

Themes and style

See also: Subject matter in South Park and LGBTQ representation in South Park

Each episode opens with a tongue-in-cheekall persons fictitious disclaimer: "All characters and events in this show—even those based on real people—are entirely fictional. All celebrity voices are impersonated.....poorly. The following program contains coarse language and due to its content it should not be viewed by anyone."[18][19]

South Park was the first weekly program to be rated TV-MA,[20] and is generally intended for adult audiences.[21][22][23] The boys and most other child characters use strong profanity, with only the most taboo words being bleeped during a typical broadcast.[8] Parker and Stone perceive this as the manner in which real-life small boys speak when they are alone.[24][25]

South Park commonly makes use of carnivalesque and absurdist techniques,[26] numerous running gags,[27][28]violence,[28][29]sexual content,[30][31] offhand pop-cultural references, and satirical portrayal of celebrities.[32]

Early episodes tended to be shock value-oriented and featured more slapstick-style humor.[33] While social satire had been used on the show occasionally earlier on, it became more prevalent as the series progressed, with the show retaining some of its focus on the boys' fondness of scatological humor in an attempt to remind adult viewers "what it was like to be eight years old."[9] Parker and Stone also began further developing other characters by giving them larger roles in certain storylines,[9] and began writing plots as parables based on religion, politics, and numerous other topics.[8] This provided the opportunity for the show to spoof both extreme sides of contentious issues,[34] while lampooning both liberal and conservative points of view.[8][16][35] Parker and Stone describe themselves as "equal opportunity offenders",[15] whose main purpose is to "be funny" and "make people laugh",[36][37] while stating that no particular topic or group of people be exempt from mockery and satire.[16][32][38][39][40]

Parker and Stone insist that the show is still more about "kids being kids" and "what it's like to be in [elementary school] in America",[41] stating that the introduction of a more satirical element to the series was the result of the two adding more of a "moral center" to the show so that it would rely less on simply being crude and shocking in an attempt to maintain an audience.[36][37] While profane, Parker notes that there is still an "underlying sweetness" aspect to the child characters,[34] and Time described the boys as "sometimes cruel but with a core of innocence."[11] Usually, the boys or other characters pondered over what transpired during an episode and conveyed the important lesson taken from it with a short monologue. During earlier seasons, this speech commonly began with a variation of the phrase "You know, I've learned something today...".[42]

Development

Two adult males sitting in chairs with their left legs crossed.
South Parkcreators Trey Parker(left) and Matt Stonecontinue to do most of the writing, directing and voice acting on the show

Parker and Stone met in film class at the University of Colorado in 1992 and discovered a shared love of Monty Python, which they often cite as one of their primary inspirations.[43] They created an animated short entitled The Spirit of Christmas.[27] The film was created by animating construction paper cutouts with stop motion, and features prototypes of the main characters of South Park, including a character resembling Cartman but named "Kenny", an unnamed character resembling what is today Kenny, and two near-identical unnamed characters who resemble Stan and Kyle. Fox Broadcasting Company executive and mutual friend Brian Graden commissioned Parker and Stone to create a second short film as a video Christmas card. Created in 1995, the second The Spirit of Christmas short resembled the style of the later series more closely.[44] To differentiate between the two homonymous shorts, the first short is often referred to as Jesus vs. Frosty, and the second short as Jesus vs. Santa. Graden sent copies of the video to several of his friends, and from there it was copied and distributed, including on the internet, where it became one of the first viral videos.[27][45]

As Jesus vs. Santa became more popular, Parker and Stone began talks of developing the short into a television series about four children residing in the fictional Colorado town of South Park. Fox eagerly agreed to meet with the duo about the show's premise, having pride itself with edgier products such as Cops, The Simpsons, and The X-Files. However, during the meeting at the Fox office in Century City, disagreements between the two creators and the network began to arise, mainly over the latter's refusal to air a show that included a supporting talking stool character named Mr. Hankey. Some executives at 20th Century Fox Television (which was to produce the series) agreed with its then-sister network's stance on Mr. Hankey and repeatedly requested Parker and Stone to remove the character in order for the show to proceed. Refusing to their demands, the duo cut ties with Fox and its sister companies all together and began shipping the series somewhere else.[46][47][48]

The two then entered negotiations with both MTV and Comedy Central. Parker preferred the show be produced by Comedy Central, fearing that MTV would turn it into a kids show.[49] When Comedy Central executive Doug Herzog watched the short, he commissioned for it to be developed into a series.[27][50] Parker and Stone assembled a small staff and spent three months creating the pilot episode "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe".[51]South Park was in danger of being canceled before it even aired when the show fared poorly with test audiences, particularly with women. However, the shorts were still gaining more popularity over the Internet, and Comedy Central ordered a run of six episodes.[36][49]South Park debuted with "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe" on August 13, 1997.[52]

Production

Except for the pilot episode, which was produced using cutout animation, all episodes of South Park are created with the use of software, primarily Autodesk Maya. As opposed to the pilot, which took three months to complete,[53] and other animated sitcoms, which are traditionally hand-drawn by companies in South Korea in a process that takes roughly eight to nine months,[27][35] individual episodes of South Park take significantly less time to produce. Using computers as an animation method, the show's production staff were able to generate an episode in about three weeks during the first seasons.[54] Now, with a staff of about 70 people, episodes are typically completed in one week,[27][34][35] with some in as little as three to four days.[55][56][57] Nearly the entire production of an episode is accomplished within one set of offices, which were originally at a complex in Westwood, Los Angeles, California and are now part of South Park Studios in Culver City, California.[50][53] Parker and Stone have been the show's executive producers throughout its entire history.[58]Debbie Liebling, who was Senior Vice President of original programming and development for Comedy Central, also served as an executive producer during the show's first five seasons, coordinating the show's production efforts between South Park Studios and Comedy Central's headquarters in New York City.[59][60] During its early stages, finished episodes of South Park were hastily recorded to D-2 to be sent to Comedy Central for airing in just a few days' time.[61]

Writing

Scripts are not written before a season begins.[62] Production of an episode begins on a Thursday, with the show's writing consultants brainstorming with Parker and Stone. Former staff writers include Pam Brady, who has since written scripts for the films Hot Rod, Hamlet 2 and Team America: World Police (with Parker and Stone), and Nancy Pimental, who served as co-host of Win Ben Stein's Money and wrote the film The Sweetest Thing after her tenure with the show during its first three seasons.[63][64] Television producer and writer Norman Lear, an alleged idol of both Parker and Stone, served as a guest writing consultant for the season seven (2003) episodes "Cancelled" and "I'm a Little Bit Country".[62][65][66] During the 12th and 13th seasons, Saturday Night Live actor and writer Bill Hader served as a creative consultant and co-producer.[67][68][69]

After exchanging ideas, Parker will write a script, and from there the entire team of animators, editors, technicians, and sound engineers will each typically work 100–120 hours in the ensuing week.[51] Since the show's fourth season (2000), Parker has assumed most of the show's directorial duties, while Stone relinquished his share of the directing to focus on handling the coordination and business aspects of the production.[27][70] On Wednesday, a completed episode is sent to Comedy Central's headquarters via satellite uplink, sometimes just a few hours before its air time of 10 PM Eastern Time.[27][71]

Parker and Stone state that subjecting themselves to a one-week deadline creates more spontaneity amongst themselves in the creative process, which they feel results in a funnier show.[27] The schedule also allows South Park to both stay more topical and respond more quickly to specific current events than other satiric animated shows.[9][72] One of the earliest examples of this was in the season four (2000) episode "Quintuplets 2000", which references the United States Border Patrol's raid of a house during the Elián González affair, an event which occurred only four days before the episode originally aired.[73] The season nine (2005) episode "Best Friends Forever" references the Terri Schiavo case,[25][34] and originally aired in the midst of the controversy and less than 12 hours before she died.[35][74] A scene in the season seven (2003) finale "It's Christmas in Canada" references the discovery of dictator Saddam Hussein in a "spider hole" and his subsequent capture, which happened a mere three days prior to the episode airing.[75] The season 12 (2008) episode "About Last Night..." revolves around Barack Obama's victory in the 2008 presidential election, and aired less than 24 hours after Obama was declared the winner, using segments of dialogue from Obama's real victory speech.[76]

On October 16, 2013, the show failed to meet their production deadline for the first time ever, after a power outage on October 15 at the production studio prevented the episode, season 17's "Goth Kids 3: Dawn of the Posers", from being finished in time. The episode was rescheduled to air a week later on October 23, 2013.[77] On August 6, 2021, South Park was renewed all the way up to season 30 and 14 additional movies, enough to carry the show to at least 2027.[78]

Animation

Montage showing the stages of an animation process: On top, a simple black and white sketch of a male child in a rocket kiddie-ride, while another young child stands next to the ride and reluctantly holds the rider's hand. In the middle, stock animation characters reflecting the sketch shown at top, sans background characters. At bottom, a screenshot of a fully animated frame showing the same event, complete with characters and arcade games in the background
The various stages of production (from top to bottom): the storyboard sketch, the CorelDRAW props with stock character models, and a frame from the fully rendered episode, "Super Fun Time"

The show's style of animation is inspired by the paper cut-out cartoons made by Terry Gilliam for Monty Python's Flying Circus, of which Parker and Stone have been lifelong fans.[49][79][80]Construction paper and traditional stop motioncutout animation techniques were used in the original animated shorts and in the pilot episode. Subsequent episodes have been produced by computer animation, providing a similar look to the originals while requiring a fraction of the time to produce. Before computer artists begin animating an episode, a series of animatics drawn in Toon Boom are provided by the show's storyboard artists.[51][81]

The characters and objects are composed of simple geometrical shapes and primary and secondary colors. Most child characters are the same size and shape, and are distinguished by their clothing, hair and skin colors, and headwear.[17] Characters are mostly presented two-dimensionally and from only one angle. Their movements are animated in an intentionally jerky fashion, as they are purposely not offered the same free range of motion associated with hand-drawn characters.[9][53][82] Occasionally, some non-fictional characters are depicted with photographic cutouts of their actual head and face in lieu of a face reminiscent of the show's traditional style. Canadians on the show are often portrayed in an even more minimalist fashion; they have simple beady eyes, and the top halves of their heads simply flap up and down when the characters speak.[38]

When the show began using computers, the cardboard cutouts were scanned and re-drawn with CorelDRAW, then imported into PowerAnimator, which was used with SGI workstations to animate the characters.[51][53] The workstations were linked to a 54-processor render farm that could render 10 to 15 shots an hour.[51] Beginning with season five, the animators began using Maya instead of PowerAnimator.[83] The studio now runs a 120-processor render farm that can produce 30 or more shots an hour.[51]

PowerAnimator and Maya are high-end programs mainly used for 3D computer graphics, while co-producer and former animation director Eric Stough notes that PowerAnimator was initially chosen because its features helped animators retain the show's "homemade" look.[53] PowerAnimator was also used for making some of the show's visual effects,[53] which are now created using Motion,[51] a newer graphics program created by Apple, Inc. for their Mac OS Xoperating system. The show's visual quality has improved in recent seasons,[9] though several other techniques are used to intentionally preserve the cheap cutout animation look.[27][54][84]

A few episodes feature sections of live-action footage, while others have incorporated other styles of animation. Portions of the season eight (2004) premiere "Good Times with Weapons" are done in anime style, while the season 10 episode "Make Love, Not Warcraft" is done partly in machinima.[85] The season 12 episode "Major Boobage", a homage to the 1981 animated film Heavy Metal, implements scenes accomplished with rotoscoping.[86]

Voice cast

Main article: List of South Park cast members

Parker and Stone voice most of the male South Park characters.[8][9][87]Mary Kay Bergman voiced the majority of the female characters until her death in November 1999. Mona Marshall and Eliza Schneider succeeded Bergman, with Schneider leaving the show after its seventh season (2003). She was replaced by April Stewart, who, along with Marshall, continues to voice most of the female characters. Bergman was originally listed in the credits under the alias Shannen Cassidy to protect her reputation as the voice of several Disney and other kid-friendly characters.[88] Stewart was originally credited under the name Gracie Lazar,[89] while Schneider was sometimes credited under her rock opera performance pseudonym Blue Girl.[90]

Other voice actors and members of South Park's production staff have voiced minor characters for various episodes, while a few staff members voice recurring characters; supervising producer Jennifer Howell voices student Bebe Stevens,[87] co-producer and storyboard artist Adrien Beard voices Token Black,[91] who was the school's only African-American student until the introduction of Nichole in "Cartman Finds Love", writing consultant Vernon Chatman voices an anthropomorphic towel named Towelie,[87] and production supervisor John Hansen voices Mr. Slave, the former gay lover of Mr. Garrison.[92] Throughout the show's run, the voices for toddler and kindergarten characters have been provided by various small children of the show's production staff.[93]

When voicing child characters, the voice actors speak within their normal vocal range while adding a childlike inflection. The recorded audio is then edited with Pro Tools, and the pitch is altered to make the voice sound more like that of a fourth grader.[71][94][95]

Isaac Hayes voiced the character of Chef, an African-American, soul-singing cafeteria worker who was one of the few adults the boys consistently trusted.[11][96] Hayes agreed to voice the character after being among Parker and Stone's ideal candidates, which also included Lou Rawls and Barry White.[97] Hayes, who lived and hosted a radio show in New York during his tenure with South Park, recorded his dialogue on a digital audio tape while a director gave directions over the phone, after which the tape would be shipped to the show's production studio in California.[53] After Hayes left the show in early 2006, the character of Chef was killed off in the season 10 (2006) premiere "The Return of Chef".

Guest stars

Main article: List of South Park guest stars

Celebrities who are depicted on the show are usually impersonated, though some celebrities do their own voices for the show. Celebrities who have voiced themselves include Michael Buffer,[98][99]Brent Musburger,[100]Jay Leno,[101]Robert Smith,[102] and the bands Radiohead and Korn.[103][104] Comedy team Cheech & Chong voiced characters representing their likenesses for the season four (2000) episode "Cherokee Hair Tampons", which was the duo's first collaborative effort in 20 years.[105]Malcolm McDowell appears in live-action sequences as the narrator of the season four episode "Pip".[106]

Jennifer Aniston,[107]Richard Belzer,[108]Natasha Henstridge,[102]Norman Lear,[109] and Peter Serafinowicz[110] have guest starred as other speaking characters. During South Park's earliest seasons, several high-profile celebrities inquired about guest-starring on the show. As a joke, Parker and Stone responded by offering low-profile, non-speaking roles, most of which were accepted; George Clooney provided the barks for Stan's dog Sparky in the season one (1997) episode "Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride",[111] Leno provided the meows for Cartman's cat in the season one finale "Cartman's Mom Is a Dirty Slut",[111] and Henry Winkler voiced the various growls and grunts of a kid-eating monster in the season two (1998) episode "City on the Edge of Forever".[112]Jerry Seinfeld offered to lend his voice for the Thanksgiving episode "Starvin' Marvin", but declined to appear when he was only offered a role as "Turkey #2".[113]

Music

An adult male with sunglasses plays a piano under a spotlight on a darkened stage, 1973
Chefwould often sing in a style reminiscent of that of his voice actor, Isaac Hayes

Parker says that the varying uses of music is of utmost importance to South Park.[114] Several characters often play or sing songs in order to change or influence a group's behavior, or to educate, motivate, or indoctrinate others. The show also frequently features scenes in which its characters have disapproving reactions to the performances of certain popular musicians.[114]

Adam Berry, the show's original score composer, used sound synthesis to simulate a small orchestra, and frequently alluded to existing famous pieces of music. Berry also used signature acoustic guitar and mandolin cues as leitmotifs for the show's establishing shots.[114][115] After Berry left in 2001, Jamie Dunlap and Scott Nickoley of the Los Angeles-based Mad City Production Studios provided the show's original music for the next seven seasons.[94] Since 2008, Dunlap has been credited as the show's sole score composer.[116] Dunlap's contributions to the show are one of the few that are not achieved at the show's own production offices. Dunlap reads a script, creates a score using digital audio software, and then e-mails the audio file to South Park Studios, where it is edited to fit with the completed episode.[94]

In addition to singing in an effort to explain something to the children, Chef would also sing about things relevant to what had transpired in the plot. These songs were original compositions written by Parker, and they were performed by Hayes in the same sexually suggestive R&B style he had used during his own music career. The band DVDA, which consists of Parker and Stone, along with show staff members Bruce Howell and D.A. Young, performed the music for these compositions and, until the character's death on the show, were listed as "Chef's Band" in the closing credits.[53]

Rick James, Elton John, Meat Loaf, Joe Strummer, Ozzy Osbourne, Primus, Rancid, and Ween all guest starred and briefly performed in the season two (1998) episode "Chef Aid". Korn debuted their single "Falling Away from Me" as guest stars on the season three (1999) episode "Korn's Groovy Pirate Ghost Mystery".[104]

Main theme

The show's theme song was a musical score performed by the band Primus, with the lyrics alternately sung by the band's lead singer, Les Claypool, and the show's four central characters during the opening title sequence. Kenny's muffled lines are altered after every few seasons. His lines are usually sexually explicit in nature, such as his original lines, "I like girls with big fat titties, I like girls with deep vaginas".[117]

The end creditsmusic, which is an instrumental, slower tempoversion of the opening theme song.

The original unaired opening composition was originally slower and had a length of 40 seconds. It was deemed too long for the opening sequence. So Parker and Stone sped it up for the show's opening, having Claypool re-record his vocals. The instrumental version of the original composition is often played during the show's closing credits.[118]

The opening song played in the first four seasons (and the end credits in all seasons) has a folk rock instrumentation with bass guitar, trumpets and rhythmic drums. Its beat is fast in the opening and leisurely in the closing credits. It is in the minor key and it features a tritone or a diminished fifth, creating a melodic dissonance, which captures the show's surrealistic nature. In the latter parts of season 4 and season 5, the opening tune has an electro funk arrangement with pop qualities. Seasons 6–9 have a sprightly bluegrass instrumentation with a usage of banjo and is set in the major key. For the later seasons, the arrangement is electro rock with a breakbeat influence, which feature electric guitars backed up by synthesized, groovy drumbeats.[94]

The opening theme song has been remixed three times during the course of the series, including a remix performed by Paul Robb.[119] In 2006, the theme music was remixed with the song "Whamola" by Colonel Les Claypool's Fearless Flying Frog Brigade, from the album Purple Onion.[120]

Episodes

Main article: List of South Park episodes

Distribution

International

Internationally, South Park is broadcast in India,[121] New Zealand, and several countries throughout Europe and Latin America on channels that are subsidiaries of Comedy Central and ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks, both subsidiaries of ViacomCBS.[27][122] In distribution deals with Comedy Central, other independent networks also broadcast the series in other international markets. In Australia, the show is broadcast on The Comedy Channel, Comedy Central and free-to-air channel SBS Viceland (before 2009), while new episodes aired on SBS. The program also airs free-to-air in Australia on 10 Shake, a sister network to Comedy Central through ViacomCBS. [123] The series is broadcast uncensored in Canada in English on The Comedy Network[124] and, later, Much. South Park also airs in Irish on TG4 in Ireland,[125]STV in Scotland,[126]Comedy Central and MTV in the UK (previously on Sky One, Channel 4 and Viva, with 5Star recently picking up where Viva left off), B92 in Serbia,[127] and on Game One and NRJ 12 in France. In September 2020, SBS, which aired South Park in Australia since 1997, removed South Park from its television line-up, though reruns could air on SBS Viceland.[128][129]

Syndication

Broadcast syndication rights to South Park were acquired by Debmar-Mercury and Tribune Entertainment in 2003 and 2004 respectively.[130][131] Episodes further edited for content began running in syndication on September 19, 2005, and are aired in the United States with the TV-14 rating.[131][132]20th Television replaced Tribune as co-distributor in early 2008. The series is currently aired in syndication in 90 percent of the television markets across the U.S. and Canada, where it generates an estimated US$25 million a year in advertising revenue.[133][134] In 2019, CBS Television Distribution (the syndication arm of ViacomCBS, the parent company of Comedy Central), took over the full distribution rights following the acquisition of 21st Century Fox (parent of 20th Television) by The Walt Disney Company (who had employed Debmar-Mercury founder Mort Marcus as the head of their syndication division),[135] distributing the show in syndication and ViacomCBS airings.

Home media

Main article: List of South Park home video releases

Complete seasons of South Park have been regularly released on their entirety on DVD since 2002, with season twenty-three being the most recently released. Several other themed DVD compilations have been released by Rhino Entertainment and Comedy Central,[136] while the three-episode Imaginationlandstory arc was reissued straight-to-DVD as a full-length feature in 2008.[137][138][139]Blu-ray releases started in 2008 with the release of season twelve.[140] Subsequent seasons have been released in this format alongside the longer-running DVD releases. The first eleven seasons were released on Blu-ray for the first time in December 2017.[141][142]

Streaming

In March 2008, Comedy Central made every episode of South Park available for free full-length on-demandlegal streaming on the official South Park Studios website.[143] From March 2008 until December 2013 new episodes were added to the site the day following their debut, and an uncensored version was posted the following day. The episode stayed up for the remainder of the week, then taken down, and added to the site three weeks later.

Within a week, the site served more than a million streams of full episodes,[143] and the number grew to 55 million by October 2008.[144] Legal issues prevent the U.S. content from being accessible outside the U.S.,[145] so local servers have been set up in other countries.[146] In September 2009, a South Park Studios website with streaming episodes was launched in the UK and Ireland.[147] In Canada, episodes were available for streaming from The Comedy Network's website, though due to digital rights restrictions, they are no longer available.[148]

In July 2014 it was announced that Hulu had signed a three-year deal purchasing exclusive online streaming rights to the South Park for a reported $80 million. Following the announcement every episode remained available for free on the South Park Studios website, using the Hulu player. As of September 2014, following the premiere of the eighteenth season, only 30 select episodes are featured for free viewing at a time on a rationing basis on the website, with new episodes being available for an entire month starting the day following their original airings. The entire series is available for viewing on Hulu.[149]

In April 2010, the season five episode "Super Best Friends" and the season fourteen episodes "200" and "201" were removed from the site; additionally, these episodes no longer air in reruns and are only available exclusively on DVD and Blu-ray. These episodes remain unavailable following the 2014 purchase by Hulu.

As of July 1, 2015, all episodes of South Park are available for streaming in Canada on the service CraveTV, which first consisted of seasons 1–18. Subsequent seasons were released the following July.[150]

In early October 2019, industry rumors suggested that the streaming rights for South Park were being offered to various services, creating an intense bidding war that was estimated to be as high as US$500 million. HBO and South Park Digital Studios announced that HBO had secured a multi-year deal for the exclusive streaming rights for South Park on their HBO Max service starting June 24, 2020.[151] While the terms of the deal were not disclosed, Variety reported the deal fell between US$500 million and US$550 million.[152]

Re-rendered episodes

From its debut in 1997 to the season twelve finale in 2008 the series had been produced in standard definition. In 2009, the series switched to being produced in high definition1080p with the beginning of the thirteenth season.[153] Since this, all seasons originally produced in standard definition have been remastered by South Park Studios, being fully re-rendered in high definition.[153] The re-rendered versions were also released on Blu-ray. Several of the re-rendered episodes from the earlier seasons have their original uncensored audio tracks; they had previously been released in censored form.[153][154][155][156]

The fifth-season episode "Super Best Friends", which was pulled from syndication and online streams following the controversy surrounding episode "201", was not released alongside the rest of the season when it was released in HD on iTunes in 2011. The episode was later re-rendered and made available for the Blu-ray release of the season that was released on December 5, 2017.[157] The episode is presented in its original presentation, without Muhammad's image being obscured as in later episodes of the series.[158]

Reception

Ratings

When South Park debuted, it was a huge ratings success for Comedy Central and is seen as being largely responsible for the success of the channel, with Herzog crediting it for putting the network "on the map".[27][50][159]

The show's first episode, "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe", earned a Nielsen rating of 1.3 (980,000 viewers), at the time considered high for a cable program.[159] The show instantly generated buzz among television viewers, and mass viewing parties began assembling on college campuses.[21][15][23] By the time the eighth episode, "Starvin' Marvin", aired — three months after the show debuted — ratings and viewership had tripled, and South Park was already the most successful show in Comedy Central's history.[23] When the tenth episode "Damien" aired the following February, viewership increased another 33 percent. The episode earned a 6.4 rating, which at the time was over 10 times the average rating earned by a cable show aired in prime time.[21][159] The ratings peaked with the second episode of season two, "Cartman's Mom Is Still a Dirty Slut", which aired on April 22, 1998. The episode earned an 8.2 rating (6.2 million viewers) and, at the time, set a record as the highest-rated non-sports show in basic cable history.[29][37][159] During the spring of 1998, eight of the ten highest-rated shows on basic cable were South Park episodes.[22]

The success of South Park prompted more cable companies to carry Comedy Central and led it to its becoming one of the fastest-growing cable channels. The number of households that had Comedy Central jumped from 9.1 million in 1997 to 50 million in June 1998.[159] When the show debuted, the most Comedy Central had earned for a 30-second commercial was US$7,500.[21] Within a year, advertisers were paying an average of US$40,000 for 30 seconds of advertising time during airings of South Park in its second season, while some paid as much as US$80,000.[160]

By the third season (1999), the series' ratings began to decrease.[161] The third-season premiere episode drew 3.4 million viewers, a dramatic drop from the 5.5 million of the previous season's premiere.[159] Stone and Parker attributed this drop in the show's ratings to the media hype that surrounded the show in the previous year, adding that the third season ratings reflected the show's "true" fan base.[159] The show's ratings dropped further in its fourth season (2000), with episodes averaging just above 1.5 million viewers. The ratings eventually increased, and seasons five through nine consistently averaged about 3 million viewers per episode.[159] Though its viewership is lower than it was at the height of its popularity in its earliest seasons, South Park remains one of the highest-rated series on Comedy Central.[162] The season 14 (2010) premiere gained 3.7 million viewers, the show's highest-rated season premiere since 1998.[163] In 2016, a New York Times study of the 50 TV shows with the most Facebook Likes found that "perhaps unsurprisingly, South Park ... is most popular in Colorado".[164] More recent seasons have seen substantially lower ratings, with the 2019 season averaging 0.82 million viewers an episode.

Recognitions and awards

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by South Park

In 2004, Channel 4 voted South Park the third-greatest cartoon of all time.[165] In 2007, Time magazine included the show on its list of the "100 Best TV Shows of All Time", proclaiming it as "America's best source of rapid-fire satire for [the past] decade".[166] The same year, Rolling Stone declared it to be the funniest show on television since its debut 10 years prior.[167] In 2008, South Park was named the 12th-greatest TV show of the past 25 years by Entertainment Weekly,[168] while AOL declared it as having the "most astute" characters of any show in history when naming it the 16th-best television comedy series of all time.[169] In 2011, South Park was voted number one in the 25 Greatest Animated TV Series poll by Entertainment Weekly.[170] The character of Cartman ranked 10th on TV Guide's 2002 list of the "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters",[171] 198th on VH1's "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons",[172] 19th on Bravo's "100 Greatest TV Characters" television special in 2004,[173] and second on MSNBC's 2005 list of TV's scariest characters behind Mr. Burns from The Simpsons.[174] In 2006, Comedy Central received a Peabody Award for South Park's "stringent social commentary" and "undeniably fearless lampooning of all that is self-important and hypocritical in American life".[27][41][175][176] In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked South Park at number 63 among the "101 Best-Written Shows Ever".[177] Also in 2013, TV Guide listed the show at number 10 among the "60 Greatest Cartoons of All Time".[178] In 2019, the series was ranked 42nd on The Guardian newspaper's list of the 100 best TV shows of the 21st century.[179]

South Park won the CableACE Award for Best Animated Series in 1997, the last year the awards were given out.[180] In 1998, South Park was nominated for the Annie Award for Outstanding Achievement in an Animated Primetime or Late Night Television Program. It was also nominated for the 1998 GLAAD Award for Outstanding TV – Individual Episode for "Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride".[32]

South Park has been nominated for the Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program sixteen times (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004–2011, and 2013–2017). The show has won the award for Outstanding Animated Program (For Programming Less Than One Hour) four times, for the 2005 episode "Best Friends Forever",[175] the 2006 episode "Make Love, Not Warcraft",[181] the 2009 episode "Margaritaville", and the 2012 episode "Raising the Bar".[182] The "Imaginationland" trilogy of episodes won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program (For Programming One Hour or More) in 2008.[183]

Criticism

The show's frequent depiction of taboo subject matter, general toilet humor, accessibility to younger viewers, disregard for conservative sensibilities, negative depiction of liberal causes, and portrayal of religion for comic effect have generated controversy and debate over the course of its run.[184]

As the series became popular, students in two schools were barred from wearing South Park-related T-shirts,[18][22][32] and the headmaster of a UK public school asked parents not to let their children watch the programme after eight- and nine-year-old children voted the South Park character Cartman as their favorite personality in a 1999 poll.[185] Parker and Stone assert that the show is not meant to be viewed by young children, and the show is certified with TV ratings that indicate its intention for mature audiences.[22]

Parents Television Council founder L. Brent Bozell III and Action for Children's Television founder Peggy Charren have both condemned the show, with the latter claiming it is "dangerous to the democracy".[18][160][186][187] Several other activist groups have protested the show's parodies of Christianity and portrayal of Jesus Christ.[18][188] Stone has stated that parents who disapprove of South Park for its portrayal of how kids behave are upset because they "have an idyllic vision of what kids are like", adding "[kids] don't have any kind of social tact or etiquette, they're just complete little raging bastards".[32][185]

Controversies

Main article: South Park controversies

The show further lampooned the controversy surrounding its use of profanity, as well as the media attention surrounding the network show Chicago Hope's singular use of the word shit, with the season five premiere "It Hits the Fan",[189] in which the word shit is said 162 times without being bleeped for censorship purposes, while also appearing uncensored in written form.[37] In the days following the show's original airing, 5,000 disapproving e-mails were sent to Comedy Central.[49] Despite its 43 uncensored uses of the racial slur nigger, the season 11 episode "With Apologies to Jesse Jackson" generated relatively little controversy, as most in the black community and the NAACP praised the episode for its context and its comedic way of conveying other races' perceptions of how black people feel when hearing the word.[190][191]

Specific controversies regarding the show have included an April Fools' Day prank played on its viewers in 1998,[192] its depiction of the Virgin Mary in the season nine (2005) finale "Bloody Mary" that angered several Catholics,[35] its depiction of Steve Irwin with a stingray barb stuck in his chest in the episode "Hell on Earth 2006", which originally aired less than two months after Irwin was killed in the same fashion,[193][194] Comedy Central's censorship of the depiction of Muhammad in the season 10 episode "Cartoon Wars Part II" in the wake of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy[188] and consistent mockery of the concept of climate change by using climate change denialist talking points.[195][196][197]

The season nine (2005) episode "Trapped in the Closet" denounces Scientology as nothing more than "a big fat global scam",[188] while freely divulging church information that Scientology normally only reveals to members who make significant monetary contributions to the church.[198] The episode also ambiguously parodies the rumors involving the sexual orientation of Scientologist Tom Cruise, who allegedly demanded any further reruns of the episode be canceled.[193][199]Isaac Hayes, a Scientologist, later quit South Park because of his objection to the episode.[200]

The season fourteen episodes "200" and "201" were mired in controversy for satirizing issues surrounding the depiction of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. The website for the organization Revolution Muslim, a New York-based radical Muslim organization, posted an entry that included a warning to creators Parker and Stone that they risk violent retribution for their depictions of Muhammad. It said that they "will probably wind up like Theo van Gogh for airing this show". The posting provided the addresses to Comedy Central in New York and the production company in Los Angeles. The author of the post, Zachary Adam Chesser (whose alias is Abu Talhah al-Amrikee),[201] said it was meant to serve as a warning to Parker and Stone, not a threat, and that providing the addresses was meant to give people the opportunity to protest.[202][203]

Despite Chesser's claims that the website entry was a warning, several media outlets and observers interpreted it as a threat.[204][205][206] Support for the episode has come in the form of Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, a movement started on Facebook that encourages people to draw Muhammad on May 20.[207] The "200" episode, which also depicted the Buddha snorting cocaine, prompted the government of Sri Lanka to ban the series outright.[208]

Due to many taboo topics in China, such as Dalai Lama, Winnie the Pooh, summary execution, cannabis culture, and organ harvesting being involved in the season 23 (2019) episode "Band in China", South Park was entirely banned in China after the episode's broadcast. The series' Baidu Baike article, Baidu Tieba forum, Douban page, Zhihu page and Bilibili videos have been deleted or inaccessible to the public, all related keywords and topics have been prohibited from being searched and discussed on China-based search engines and social media sites including Baidu, QQ, Sina Weibo and on WeChat public platforms.[209][210][211] Parker and Stone issued a sarcastic apology in response.[212][213]

Influence and legacy

Cultural

Commentary made in episodes has been interpreted as statements Parker and Stone are attempting to make to the viewing public,[214] and these opinions have been subject to much critical analysis in the media and literary world within the framework of popular philosophical, theological, social, and political concepts.[26][214][215] Since South Park debuted, college students have written term papers and doctoral theses analyzing the show,[55] while Brooklyn College offers a course called "South Park and Political Correctness".[216][217]

Soon after one of Kenny's trademark deaths on the show, other characters would typically shout "Oh my God, they killed Kenny!", followed by another yelling out "You bastards!"—these lines were usually said by the characters Stan and Kyle, respectively. The exclamation quickly became a popular catchphrase,[11] while the running gag of Kenny's recurring deaths is one of the more recognized hallmarks among viewers of modern television.[218][219] Cartman's exclamations of "Respect my authori-tah!" and "Screw you guys ...I'm going home!" became catchphrases as well, and during the show's earlier seasons, were highly popular in the lexicon of viewers.[220] Cartman's eccentric intonation of "Hey!" was included in the 2002 edition of The Oxford Dictionary of Catchphrases.[221]

In the season two episode "Chef Aid", attorney Johnnie Cochran uses what's called in the show the Chewbacca defense, which is a legal strategy that involves addressing plot holes related to Chewbacca in the film Return of the Jedi rather than discussing the trial at hand during a closing argument in a deliberate attempt to confuse jurors into thinking there is reasonable doubt. The term "Chewbacca defense" has been documented as being used by criminologists, forensic scientists, and political commentators in their various discussions of similar methods used in legal cases and public forums.[222][223]

Another season two episode, "Gnomes", revolves around a group of "underpants gnomes" who, as their name suggests, run a corporation stealing people's underpants. When asked about their business model, various gnomes reply that theirs is a three-step process: Phase 1 is "collect underpants". Phase 3 is "profit". However, the gnomes are unable to explain what is to occur between the first and final steps, and "Phase 2" is accompanied by a large question mark on their corporate flow chart. Using "????" and "PROFIT!" as the last two steps in a process (usually jokingly) has become a widely popular Internet meme because of this. Especially in the context of politics and economics, "underpants gnomes" has been used by some commentators to characterize a conspicuous gap of logic or planning.[224][225]

When Sophie Rutschmann of the University of Strasbourg discovered a mutated gene that causes an adult fruit fly to die within two days after it is infected with certain bacteria, she named the gene kep1 in honor of Kenny.[226][227][228]

Political

While some conservatives have condemned South Park for its vulgarity, a growing population of people who hold center-right political beliefs, including teenagers and young adults, have embraced the show for its tendency to mock liberal viewpoints and lampoon liberal celebrities and icons.[229]Political commentatorAndrew Sullivan dubbed the group South Park Republicans, or South Park conservatives.[40][230][231] Sullivan averred that members of the group are "extremely skeptical of political correctness but also are socially liberal on many issues", though he says the phrase applied to them is meant to be more of a casual indication of beliefs than a strong partisan label.[16][40]Brian C. Anderson describes the group as "generally characterized by holding strong libertarian beliefs and rejecting more conservative social policy", and notes that although the show makes "wicked fun of conservatives", it is "at the forefront of a conservative revolt against liberal media" and Hollywood's "liberal hegemony."[229][232]

Parker and Stone reject the idea that the show has any underlying political position, and deny having a political agenda when creating an episode.[36][231][233] The two claim the show's higher proportion of instances lampooning liberal rather than conservative orthodoxies stems simply from their preference for making fun of liberals.[16][72] While Stone has been quoted saying, "I hate conservatives, but I really fucking hate liberals", Stone and Parker have explained that their drive to lampoon a given target comes first from the target's insistence on telling other people how to behave.[189] The duo explain that they regard liberals as having both delusions of entitlement to remain free from satire, and a propensity to enforce political correctness while patronizing the citizens of Middle America.[39][40] Parker and Stone are uncomfortable with the idea of themselves or South Park being assigned any kind of partisan classification.[36][231] Parker said he rejects the "South Park Republican" and "South Park conservative" labels, feeling that either tag implies that one only adheres to strictly conservative or liberal viewpoints.[35][229] The duo has in the past reluctantly labeled themselves libertarians and fans of government gridlock. In 2006, they said that they were "rooting for Hillary Clinton in 2008 simply because it would be weird to have her as president."[232]

Franchise

Main article: South Park (franchise)

Films

Main article: South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut

In 1999, less than two years after the series first aired, a feature-length film was released. The film, a musical comedy, was directed by Parker, who co-wrote the script with Stone and Pam Brady. The film was generally well received by critics,[234] and earned a combined US$83.1 million at the domestic and foreign box office.[235] The film satirizes the controversy surrounding the show itself and gained a spot in the 2001 edition of Guinness World Records for "Most Swearing in an Animated Film".[236] The song "Blame Canada" from the film's soundtrack earned song co-writers Parker and Marc Shaiman an Academy Award nomination for Best Music, Original Song.[237]

On August 5, 2021, it was announced that 14 new original films based on the series were greenlit at Paramount+, with two new films being released yearly starting in 2021.[238]

Shorts

As a tribute to the Dead Parrot sketch, a short that features Cartman attempting to return a dead Kenny to a shop run by Kyle aired during a 1999 BBC television special commemorating the 30th anniversary of Monty Python's Flying Circus.[239]South Park parodied Scientology in a short that aired as part of the 2000 MTV Movie Awards. The short was entitled "The Gauntlet" and also poked fun at John Travolta, a Scientologist.[240][241] The four main characters were featured in the documentary filmThe Aristocrats, listening to Cartman tell his version of the film's titular joke.[242] Short clips of Cartman introducing the starting lineup for the University of Colorado football team were featured during ABC's coverage of the 2007 matchup between the University of Colorado and the University of Nebraska.[243] In 2008, Parker, as Cartman, gave answers to a Proust Questionnaire conducted by Julie Rovner of NPR.[12] The Snakes & Arrows Tour for Rush in 2007 used an intro from Cartman, Stan, Kyle, and Kenny preceding "Tom Sawyer".[244] As Parker, Stone and producer Frank Agnone are Los Angeles Kings fans, special South Park pre-game videos have been featured at Kings home games at Staples Center,[245] and the club even sent the Stanley Cup to visit South Park Studios after winning the 2012 finals.[246] Parker and Stone have also created Denver Broncos and Denver Nuggets-themed shorts, featuring Cartman, for home games at Pepsi Center.

Music

Chef Aid: The South Park Album, a compilation of original songs from the show, characters performing cover songs, and tracks performed by guest artists was released in 1998,[247][248] while Mr. Hankey's Christmas Classics, a compilation of songs performed by the characters in the episode of the same name as well as other Christmas-themed songs was released in 1999,[249] as was the soundtrack to the feature film.[250] The song "Chocolate Salty Balls" (performed by Hayes as Chef) was released as a single in the UK in 1998 to support the Chef Aid: The South Park Album and became a number one hit.[251]

Video games

Main article: List of South Park video games

Merchandising

Merchandising related to the show is an industry which generates several million dollars a year.[252] At the time of the show's premiere, the top-selling specialty T-shirt in the United States was based on South Park, and US$30 million in T-shirt sales was reached during the show's first season.[21][32][45]

A South Park pinball machine was released in 1999 by Sega Pinball.[253] The companies Fun 4 All, Mezco Toyz, and Mirage have produced various South Park action figures, collectibles, and plush dolls.[252]

Comedy Central entered into an agreement with Frito-Lay to sell 1.5 million bags of Cheesy Poofs, Cartman's favorite snack from the show, at Walmart until the premiere of the second half of the fifteenth season on October 5, 2011.[254]

References

  1. ^Lake, Dave (2009). "The 10 Most Controversial 'South Park' Episodes". MSN TV. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  2. ^The Pandemic Special promo, retrieved September 22, 2020
  3. ^SOUTH PARQ VACCINATION SPECIAL - All-New Episode March 10, retrieved February 22, 2021
  4. ^Yasharoff, Hannah. "'South Park' announces second COVID-19 special: 'We will be herd'". USA TODAY. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  5. ^"MTV Entertainment Studios inks new and expansive deal..."Comedy Central Press. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  6. ^"TV Guide Magazine's 60 Greatest Cartoons of All Time". September 24, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  7. ^ abcGriffiths, Eric (June 21, 2007). "Young offenders". New Statesman. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
  8. ^ abcdefgHeffernan, Virginia (April 28, 2004). "Critic's Notebook; What? Morals in 'South Park'?". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  9. ^ abcdefghiJaime J. Weinman (March 12, 2008). "South Park grows up". Macleans.ca. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  10. ^"Character Guide: Stan Marsh". South Park Studios. Archived from the original on October 5, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  11. ^ abcdJeffrey Ressner & James Collins (March 23, 1998). "Gross And Grosser". Time. Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2009.
  12. ^ abRovner, Julie (April 5, 2008). "Eric Cartman: America's Favorite Little [email protected]#&*%". NPR. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
  13. ^"FAQ: When will the boys be in the fifth grades?". South Park Studios. January 11, 2005. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  14. ^"FAQ: Are the boys still in 4th grade?". South Park Studios. October 8, 2008. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  15. ^ abcRaphael, Rebecca (May 22, 1998). "Who is Andrew Philip Kyle?". New Voices. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
  16. ^ abcdeWilliam Cohen (November 4, 2005). "Respect Its Authoritah!". The Cornell Review. Archived from the original on January 29, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  17. ^ abRandy Fallows (January 2002). "The Theology of South Park". The Institute for the Study of American Popular Culture. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
  18. ^ abcdFagin, Barry S. (May 2000). "Goin' Down to South Park: How kids can learn from 'vile trash'". Reason. Reason.com. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  19. ^"Show Disclaimer – South Park Studios". South Park Studios. Archived from the original on July 27, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  20. ^Antonacci, Christopher (December 12, 1997). "South Park stirs up controversy, laughs". www.collegian.psu.edu. Archived from the original on September 21, 2004. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  21. ^ abcdeCarter, Bill (November 10, 1997). "Comedy Central makes the most of an irreverent, and profitable, new cartoon hit". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  22. ^ abcdHuff, Richard (April 16, 1998). "South Park's still top dog on basic cable". New York: www.nydailynews.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  23. ^ abcSylvia Rubin (January 26, 1998). "TV 's Foul-Mouthed Funnies". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
  24. ^Bernstein, Abbie (October 27, 1998). "South Park – Volume 2". AVRev.com. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  25. ^ abJake Trapper & Dan Morris (September 22, 2006). "Secrets of 'South Park'". ABC News. Retrieved April 18, 2009.
  26. ^ abJohnson-Woods 2007, pp. 89–103
  27. ^ abcdefghijklmDevin Leonard (October 27, 2006). "South Park creators haven't lost their edge". CNN. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
  28. ^ abBlacker, Terence (January 5, 1999). "Crude, violent – but quite brilliant – Arts & Entertainment – The Independent". London: www.independent.co.uk. Retrieved May 27, 2009.
  29. ^ ab"The growth of trash TV concerns media watchers". The Augusta Chronicle. May 5, 1998. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Park
STONETOWN EPISODE 3 - \

Mashenka cannot withstand such a group onslaught even for five minutes. She roars like a steamer whistle, jerks her whole body several times and unexpectedly tightly squeezes my neck and head with her powerful thighs. Her grip is so strong that my own hand, also caught in this trap, painfully presses with my knuckles on my cheekbone.

Now discussing:

I am glad that the percentage of overdoers is not high. - Hey, cat, don't hang around on the phone like that - Andrey is positive as always. The apple phone buzzes. Mom knows. violating the rules will be punished, weighty just hinted ).



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