Indian motorcycles wikipedia

Indian motorcycles wikipedia DEFAULT
Indian Motorcycle tank logo.svg
TypeLLC
Fate Liquidated
Founded 1901
Founder(s) George M. Hendee
Carl Oscar Hedström
HeadquartersSpringfield, Massachusetts, USA
Key people George M. Hendee
Carl Oscar Hedström (designer)
Charles B. Franklin(designer, racer)
ProductsMotorcycles
Indian Motorcycle logo.svg

Indian is an American brand of motorcycles[1][2] originally manufactured from 1901 to 1953 by a company in Springfield, Massachusetts, US, initially known as the Hendee Manufacturing Company but which was renamed the Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Company [sic][1][2] in 1928.

The Indian factory team took the first three places in the 1911 Isle of Man Tourist Trophy. During the 1910s Indian became the largest manufacturer of motorcycles in the world. Indian's most popular models were the Scout, made from 1920 to 1946, and the Chief, made from 1922 to 1953.

The Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Company went bankrupt in 1953. A number of successor organizations have perpetuated the name in subsequent years, with limited success. In 2011 Polaris Industries purchased Indian Motorcycles and relocated operations from North Carolina, merging them into existing facilities in Minnesota and Iowa. Since August 2013, three motorcycle models that capitalize on Indian's traditional styling have been built under the Indian name.

History

Early years – Hendee and Hedström

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

The "Indian Motocycle Co." was originally founded as the Hendee Manufacturing Company by George M. Hendee in 1897 to manufacture bicycles. These were initially badged as "Silver King" and "Silver Queen" brands but the name "American Indian" (very quickly reduced to simply "Indian") was adopted by Hendee from 1898 onwards because it gave better product recognition in export markets. Carl Oscar Hedström joined in 1900. Both Hendee and Hedström were former bicycle racers and manufacturers, and they teamed up to produce a motorcycle with a 1.75 bhp, single-cylinder engine in Hendee's home town of Springfield. The bike was successful and sales increased dramatically during the next decade.[3]

In 1901, a prototype and two production units of the diamond framed Indian Single were successfully designed, built and tested. The first Indian motorcycles, having chain drives and streamlined styling, were sold to the public in 1902. In 1903, Indian's co-founder and chief engineer Oscar Hedström set the world motorcycle speed record (56 mph).[citation needed] In 1904 the company introduced the deep red color that would become Indian's trademark. Production of Indian motorcycles then exceeded 500 bikes annually, rising to a peak of 32,000 in 1913. The engines of the Indian Single were built by the Aurora Firm in Illinois under license from the Hendee Mfg. Co. until 1906.

Competitive successes

In 1905, Indian built its first V-twin factory racer, and in following years made a strong showing in racing and record-breaking. In 1907 the company introduced the first street version V-twin and a roadster styled after the factory racer. The roadster can be distinguished from the racers by the presence of twist grip linkages.[4][verification needed] One of the firm's most famous riders was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker, who set many long-distance records. In 1914, he rode an Indian across America, from San Diego to New York, in a record 11 days, 12 hours and ten minutes. Baker's mount in subsequent years was the Powerplus, a side-valve V-twin, which was introduced in 1916. Its 61ci (1000 cc), 42 degree V-twin engine was more powerful and quieter than previous designs, giving a top speed of 60 mph (96 km/h). The Powerplus was highly successful, both as a roadster and as the basis for racing bikes. It remained in production with few changes until 1924.

Competition success played a big part in Indian's rapid growth and spurred technical innovation, as well. One of the American firm's best early results came in the Isle of Man TT in 1911, when Indian riders Oliver Cyril Godfrey, Franklin and Moorehouse finished first, second and third. Indian star Jake DeRosier set several speed records both in America and at Brooklands in England, and won an estimated 900 races on dirt and board track racing.[5] He left Indian for Excelsior and died in 1913, aged 33, of injuries sustained in a board track race crash with Charles "Fearless" Balke, who later became Indian's top rider.[5] Work at the Indian factory was stopped while DeRosier's funeral procession passed.[5]

Oscar Hedstrom left Indian in 1913 after disagreements with the Board of Directors regarding dubious practices to inflate the company's stock values.[6] George Hendee resigned in 1916.[7]

Indian lightweights 1916-1919

Indian introduced the 221 cc single cylinder two-stroke Model K "Featherweight" in 1916.[8][9] The Model K had an open cradle frame with the engine as a stressed member[10] and a pivoting front fork that had been used earlier on single-cylinder motorcycles but had mostly been replaced on other Indian motorcycles by a leaf-sprung trailing link fork.[8]

The Model K was manufactured for one year and was replaced in 1917 by the Model O. The Model O had a four-stroke flat-twin engine and a new frame, but retained the pivoting fork at the front. The Model O was manufactured until 1919.[8]

World War I

As the US entered World War I, Indian sold most of its Powerplus line in 1917 and 1918 to the United States government, starving its network of dealers. This blow to domestic availability of the motorcycles led to a loss of dealers from which Indian never quite recovered.[11] While the motorcycles were popular in the military, post-war demand was then taken up by other manufacturers to whom many of the previously loyal Indian dealers turned. While Indian shared in the business boom of the 1920s, it had lost its Number One position in the US market to Harley-Davidson.

Inter-war era – Scouts, Chiefs, and Fours

The Scout and Chief V-twins, introduced in the early 1920s, became the Springfield firm's most successful models. Designed by Charles B. Franklin, the middleweight Scout and larger Chief shared a 42-degree V-twin engine layout. Both models gained a reputation for strength and reliability.

In 1930, Indian merged with Du Pont Motors.[12] DuPont Motors founder E. Paul DuPont ceased production of duPont automobiles and concentrated the company's resources on Indian.[12] DuPont's paint industry connections resulted in no fewer than 24 color options being offered in 1934. Models of that era had Indian's famous head-dress logo on the gas tank. Indian's huge Springfield factory was known as the Wigwam, and native American imagery was much used in advertising.

In 1940, Indian sold nearly as many motorcycles as its major rival, Harley-Davidson. At the time, Indian represented the only true American-made heavyweight cruiser alternative to Harley-Davidson. During this time, the company also manufactured other products such as aircraft engines, bicycles, boat motors and air conditioners.

Indian Chief

Main article: Indian Chief

The first 1922 model Chief had a 1,000 cc (61 cubic inches) engine based on that of the Powerplus; a year later the engine was enlarged to 1,200 cc (73 cubic inches). Numerous improvements were made over the years, including adoption of a front brake in 1928.

In 1940, all models were fitted with the large skirted fenders that became an Indian trademark, and the Chief gained a new sprung frame that was superior to rival Harley's unsprung rear end.[13] The 1940s Chiefs were handsome and comfortable machines, capable of 85 mph (137 km/h) in standard form and over 100 mph (160 km/h) when tuned, although their increased weight hampered acceleration.

The 1948 Chief had a 74 cubic inch engine, hand shift and foot clutch. While one handlebar grip controlled the throttle the other was a manual spark advance.

In 1950, the V-twin engine was enlarged to 1,300 cc (79 cubic inches) and telescopic forks were adopted. But Indian's financial problems meant that few bikes were built. Production of the Chief ended in 1953.

Indian Scout

Main article: Indian Scout (motorcycle)

The Indian Scout was built from 1920 to 1949. It rivaled the Chief as Indian's most important model.

The Scout was introduced for 1920. Designed by Charles B. Franklin, the Scout had its gearbox bolted to the engine and driven by gears instead of by belt or chain.[14] The engine originally displaced 37 cu in (610 cc); the Scout 45, with a displacement of 45 cu in (740 cc), became available in 1927 to compete with the Excelsior Super X.[7][15] A front brake became standard on the original Scout early in 1928.[15]

Later in 1928, the Scout and Scout 45 were replaced by the Model 101 Scout. Another Franklin design, the 101 Scout had a longer wheelbase and lower seat height than the original. The 101 Scout was well-known for its handling.[15][16][17][18]

The 101 Scout was replaced by the Standard Scout for 1932. The Standard Scout shared its frame with the Chief and the Four; as a result, the Standard Scout was heavier and less nimble than the 101.[17][18]

A second line of Scouts was introduced for 1933. Based on the frame of the discontinued Indian Prince single-cylinder motorcycle, the Motoplane used the 45 cubic inch engine from the Standard Scout while the Pony Scout had a reduced displacement of 30.5 cu in (500 cc). In 1934 the Motoplane was replaced by the Sport Scout with a heavier but stiffer frame better able to withstand the power of the 45 cubic inch engine, while the Pony Scout, later renamed the Junior Scout, was continued with the Prince/Motoplane frame.[19] Between the introduction of the Sport Scout in 1934 and the discontinuation of the Standard Scout in 1937 there were three Scout models (Pony/Junior, Standard, and Sport) with three different frames. The Sport Scout and the Junior Scout were continued until civilian production was interrupted in early 1942.

Indian Four

Main article: Indian Four

Indian purchased the ownership of the name, rights, and production facilities of the Ace Motor Corporation in 1927. Production was moved to Springfield and the motorcycle was marketed as the Indian Ace for one year.[20][21]

In 1928, the Indian Ace was replaced by the Indian 401, a development of the Ace designed by Arthur O. Lemon, former Chief Engineer at Ace, who was employed by Indian when they bought Ace.[22] The Ace's leading-link forks and central coil spring were replaced by Indian's trailing-link forks and quarter-elliptic leaf spring.[21][23]

By 1929, the Indian 402 would have a stronger twin-downtube frame based on that of the 101 Scout and a sturdier five-bearing crankshaft than the Ace, which had a three-bearing crankshaft.[22][24]

Despite the low demand for luxury motorcycles during the Great Depression, Indian not only continued production of the Four, but continued to develop the motorcycle. One of the less popular versions of the Four was the "upside down" engine on the 1936-1937 models. While earlier (and later) Fours had inlet-over-exhaust (IOE) cylinder heads with overhead inlet valves and side exhaust valves, the 1936-1937 Indian Four had a unique EOI cylinder head, with the positions reversed. In theory, this would improve fuel vaporization, and the new engine was more powerful. However, the new system made the cylinder head, and the rider's inseam, very hot. This, along with an exhaust valvetrain that required frequent adjustment, caused sales to drop. The addition of dual carburetors in 1937 did not revive interest. The design was returned to the original configuration in 1938.[22][25][26]

Like the Chief, the Four was given large, skirted fenders and plunger rear suspension in 1940. In 1941, the 18-inch wheels of previous models were replaced with 16-inch wheels with balloon tires.[22]

The Indian Four was discontinued in 1942.[22][27] Recognition of the historical significance of the 1940 four-cylinder model was made with an August 2006 United States Postal Service 39-cent stamp issue, part of a four panel set entitled American Motorcycles.[28] A 1941 model is part of the Smithsonian Motorcycle Collection on display at the National Museum of American History.[29]

World War II

Chiefs, Scouts, and Junior Scouts were all used in small numbers for various purposes by the United States Army in World War II, and extensively by overseas Commonwealth military forces under the Lend/Lease Program. However, none of these could unseat the Harley-Davidson WLA as the motorcycle mainly used by the US Army. The early version was based on the 750 cc (46 cu in) Scout 640 and compared directly with Harley's offer, the WLA, but was either too expensive or heavy, or a combination of both. Indian's eventual offer, the 500 cc (31 cu in) 741B, was underpowered and was not selected to gain a US Military contract. Indian also offered a version based on the 1,200 cc (73 cu in) Chief, the 344. Approximately 1,000 experimental versions mounting the 750 cc motor sideways and using shaft drive, as on a modern Moto Guzzi, the 841, was also tried.

Indian 841

Main article: Indian 841

During World War II, the US Army requested experimental motorcycle designs suitable for desert fighting.[30] In response to this request, Indian designed and built the 841. Approximately 1,056 models were built.

The Indian 841 was heavily inspired by the BMW R71 motorcycle used by the German Army at the time, as was its competitor, the Harley-Davidson XA.[31] However, unlike the XA, the 841 was not a copy of the R71. Although its tubular frame, plunger rear suspension, and shaft drive were similar to the BMW's, the 841 was different from the BMW in several aspects, most noticeably so with its 90-degree longitudinal-crankshaft V-twin engine and girder fork.[30][31]

The Indian 841 and the Harley-Davidson XA were both tested by the Army, but neither motorcycle was adopted for wider military use. It was determined that the Jeep was more suitable for the roles and missions for which these motorcycles had been intended.[30][32]

Post-war decline and demise

In 1945, a group headed by Ralph B. Rogers purchased a controlling interest of the company.[33] On November 1, 1945, duPont formally turned the operations of Indian over to Rogers.[12]

Under Rogers' control, Indian discontinued the Scout and began to manufacture lightweight motorcycles such as the 149 Arrow, the Super Scout 249, both introduced in 1949, and the 250 Warrior, introduced in 1950.[34] Production of traditional Indians was extremely limited in 1949, and no 1949 Chiefs are known to exist. Manufacture of all products was halted in 1953.

Corporate successors

Rebadged imported products

Brockhouse Engineering acquired the rights to the Indian name after it went under in 1953. They imported Royal Enfield motorcycles from England, mildly customized them in the US depending on the model, and sold them as Indians from 1955 to 1960.[33] Almost all Royal Enfield models had a corresponding Indian model in the USA. The models were Indian Chief, Trailblazer, Apache (all three were 700 twins), Tomahawk (500 twin), Woodsman (500 single), Westerner (500 single), Hounds Arrow (250 single), Fire Arrow (250 single), Lance (150 2-stroke single) and a 3-wheeled Patrol Car (350 cc single).[35]

In 1960, the Indian name was bought by AMC of England. Royal Enfield being their competition, they abruptly stopped all Enfield-based Indian models except the 700 cc Chief. Their plan was to sell Matchless and AJS motorcycles badged as Indians. However, the venture ended when AMC itself went into liquidation in 1962.

Floyd Clymer imports, 1963-1977

From the 1960s, entrepreneur Floyd Clymer began using the Indian name, apparently without purchasing it from the last known legitimate trademark holder. He attached it to imported motorcycles, commissioned to Italian ex-pilot and engineer Leopoldo Tartarini, owner of Italjet Moto, to manufacture Minarelli-engined 50 cc minibikes under the Indian Papoose name. These were so successful that Clymer also commissioned Tartarini to build full-size Indian motorcycles based on the Italjet Grifon design, but fitted firstly with Royal EnfieldInterceptor 750 cc parallel-twin engines, then with Velocette 500 cc single-cylinder Thruxton engines.[citation needed]

After Clymer's death in 1970 his widow sold the alleged Indian trademark to Los Angeles attorney Alan Newman, who continued to import minicycles made by ItalJet, and later manufactured in a wholly owned assembly plant located in Taipei (Taiwan). Several models with engine displacement between 50 cc and 175 cc were produced, mostly fitted with Italian two-stroke engines made either by Italjet or Franco Morini, but the fortunes of this venture didn't last long. By 1975, sales were dwindling, and in January 1977, the company was declared bankrupt.

Other attempts, 1977-1999

The right to the brand name passed through a succession of owners and became a subject of competing claims in the 1980s. By 1992, the Clymer claim to the trademark had been transferred to Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Co. Inc. of Berlin, a corporation headed by Philip S. Zanghi.[36]

In June 1994, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Wayne Baughman, president of Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Incorporated, presented, started, and rode a prototype Indian Century V-Twin Chief. Baughman had made previous statements about building new motorcycles under the Indian brand but this was his first appearance with a working motorcycle.[37]

Neither Zanghi nor Baughman began production of motorcycles.[38] In August 1997, Zanghi was convicted of securites fraud, tax evasion, and money laundering.[39]

In January 1998, Eller Industries was given permission to purchase the Indian copyright from the receivers of the previous owner. Eller Industries hired Roush Industries to design the engine for the motorcyle, and was negotiating with the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians to build a motorcycle factory on their tribal land.[40] Three renderings, one each of a cruiser, a sport cruiser, and a sport bike, on frames specified by suspension designer James Parker, were shown to the motorcycling press in February 1998.[41]

Eller Industries arranged a public unveiling of the cruiser prototype for November 1998, but was prevented from showing the prototype by a restraining order from the receiver, who said that Eller had failed to meet the terms of its obligations.[42] The contract was withdrawn after the company missed its deadline to close the deal and could not agree with the receiver to an extension on the deadline.[43] Other conditions, including payment of administrative costs and presenting a working prototype, were also not met by Eller Industries. Based on this, a Federal bankruptcy court in Denver, Colorado, allowed the sale of the trademark to IMCOA Licencing America Inc. in December 1998.[44]

Indian Motorcycle Company of America (1999–2003)

The Indian Motorcycle Company of America was formed from the merger of nine companies, including manufacturer California Motorcycle Company (CMC) and IMCOA Licensing America Inc., which was awarded the Indian trademark by the Federal District Court of Colorado in 1998.[45] The new company began manufacturing motorcycles in 1999 at the former CMC's facilities in Gilroy, California. The first "Gilroy Indian" model was a new design called the Chief. Scout and Spirit models were also manufactured from 2001. These bikes were initially made with off-the-shelf S&S engines, but used the 100-cubic-inch (1,600 cc) Powerplus engine design from 2002 to 2003. The Indian Motorcycle Corporation went into bankruptcy and ceased all production operations in Gilroy on September 19, 2003.[46]

Indian Motorcycle Company (2006-2011)

On July 20, 2006, the newly formed Indian Motorcycle Company, owned largely by Stellican Limited, a London-based private equity firm, announced its new home in Kings Mountain, North Carolina, where it has restarted the Indian motorcycle brand,[47] manufacturing Indian Chief motorcycles in limited numbers, with a focus on exclusivity rather than performance, like a "luxury" watch. Starting out exactly where the defunct Gilroy IMC operation left off in 2003, the "Kings Mountain" models were continuation models based on the new series of motorcycles developed in 1999. The 2009 Indian Chief incorporated a redesigned 105-cubic-inch (1,720 cc) Powerplus V-twin powertrain with electronic closed-loop sequential-port fuel injection,[48] and a charging system providing increased capacity for the electronic fuel injection.

Polaris Acquisition (since 2011)

In April 2011, Polaris Industries, the off-road and leisure vehicle maker and parent-company of Victory Motorcycles, announced its intention to acquire Indian Motorcycle. Indian's production facilities were moved to Spirit Lake, Iowa, where production began on August 5, 2011.[49] In March 2013, Indian unveiled their new 111-cubic-inch "Thunder Stroke" engine,[50] and began to sell their newly designed motorcycles based on it in August 2013.

Current production

On August 3, 2013, Polaris announced three all-new Indian-branded motorcycles based on the traditional styling of the marque and the Thunder Stroke 111 motor. The motor has a triple-cam design with a chain-driven center cam turning front and rear cams via gears, permitting parallel placement of the pushrods to give a similar appearance to older Indian designs. It is air cooled, with large traditional fins and an airbox in the cast aluminum frame.[51] All Indians share this aluminum frame design, though the wheelbase and front end rake vary depending on model. The integrated transmission is also gear-driven.

Indian Chief Classic

The base model Chief has the valanced fenders and the lighted "war bonnet" on the front fender that have been iconic throughout Indian's history. Cruise control, antilock braking system, keyless starting, and electronic fuel injection are standard on this and all other models. It has a six-speed transmission and manually-adjustable single-shock swingarm.

Indian Chief Vintage

The Indian Chief Vintage shares the chassis, drivetrain, and styling of the Chief Classic, and adds tan leather quick-release saddlebags, matching tan leather two-up seat, additional chrome trim, quick-release windshield, and a six-speed transmission.

Indian Chieftain

The Indian Indian Chieftain touring motorcycle is the first Indian model with front fairing and hard saddlebags. It has a stereo with speakers in the fairing, Bluetooth media players, tire pressure sensors, air-adjustable rear shock, and motorized windshield adjustment. Initial reports from the press were favorable for styling, performance, and handling.[52] The Chieftain was named 2013 Motorcycle of the Year by RoadRunner Motorcycle Touring & Travel magazine.[53]

Land speed records

Between 1962 and 1967, Burt Munro from New Zealand used a modified 1920s Indian Scout to set a number of land speed records, as dramatised in the 2005 film The World's Fastest Indian.

Indian had a custom streamliner built, Spirit of Munro, with similar dimensions to Munro's machine and using the new 111 cubic-inch engine, to challenge speed records in 2014.[54][55]

Bicycles

Both Hendee and Hedstrom had built bicycles before they met, and Hendee had marketed his under the Silver King and Silver Queen names. They continued to manufacture bicycles after their motorcycles became successful and even made bicycles designed to resemble their motorcycles.[56]

Preservation

Very few examples survive in the UK mainly in Museums and with a few private collectors. Template:PML Indian motorcycles

References

  1. 1.01.1Indian History Home[dead link]
  2. 2.02.1Spelling as per U.S. Supreme Court, 1929-31
  3. ↑Franklin's Indians: "Irish motorcycle racer Charles B Franklin, designer of the Indian Scout & Chief", by Harry V Sucher, Tim Pickering, Liam Diamond and Harry Havelin, pp. 46-50, Panther Publishing Ltd, 2011, ISBN 978-0-9564975-5-0
  4. ↑1906 & 1907 Hendee Mfg. Co. sales brochures
  5. 5.05.15.2Jacob DeRosier at The Motorcycle Hall of Fame
  6. ↑Johnstone, G. "Classic Motorcycles" p. 44 Tiger Books International PLC, 1993 ISBN 1-85501-731-8
  7. 7.07.1Johnstone, G. "Classic Motorcycles" p. 46-47 Tiger Books International PLC, 1993 ISBN 1-85501-731-8
  8. 8.08.18.2 [1997] (2002) "Chapter Six – The Model O and The Model WJ Sport Twin: The Little Engines That Couldn't", The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: MBI Publishing, 57. ISBN 0-7603-1353-9. 
  9. ↑"51: 1916 Indian 221cc Model K Featherweight Engine no. 23H180". Bonhams 1793 (27 Feb 2010). Retrieved on 2013-03-09.
  10. (2006-02-08) "I", Standard Catalog of American Motorcycles 1898-1981: The Only Book to Fully Chronicle Every Bike Ever Buil. Iola, WI USA: Krause Publications, 288. ISBN 978-0-89689-949-0. Retrieved on 2013-02-28. 
  11. ↑Franklin's Indians: "Irish motorcycle racer Charles B Franklin, designer of the Indian Scout & Chief", by Harry V Sucher, Tim Pickering, Liam Diamond and Harry Havelin, p. 147, p. 151, Panther Publishing Ltd, 2011, ISBN 978-0-9564975-5-0
  12. 12.012.112.2Motorcycle Hall of Fame: E. Paul DuPont
  13. ↑Phillip Tooth (March/April 2010). "1947 Indian Chief Roadmaster". Motorcycle Classics. Retrieved on 2010-05-21.
  14. [1997] (2002) "Chapter Seven – The Scout and The Model D: Indian Takes the Lead", The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing, 62. ISBN 0-7603-1353-9. “Franklin did the drivetrain as a rigid assembly, with engine, gearbox, and primary case as one, with drive from flywheels to input shaft done with three helical gears: three so the engine would revolve in the same direction as the motorcycles wheels.” 
  15. 15.015.115.2Wilson, Hugo (1995). "The A-Z of Motorcycles", The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle. London: Dorling Kindersley, 104–105. ISBN 0-7513-0206-6. “When Excelsior created the 45cu. in. class with the introduction of its Super X model in 1925 (see p.59), Indian responded with a bored and stroked 45cu. in. version of the Scout, introduced alongside the original model in 1927.” 
  16. [1997] (2002) "Chapter Ten – The 101 Scout and The Model D: Advantage, Indian", The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing, 83. ISBN 0-7603-1353-9. “It was a better frame, stiffer, and made of the best steel they could use, with a 2½-longer wheelbase, nominal—the wheelbase varies when you adjust the chain— 57⅛ inches.” 
  17. 17.017.1"1929 Indian 101 Scout". AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum. American Motorcyclist Association. Archived from the original on 2012-09-20. Retrieved on 2011-07-09. “It incorporated a number of changes prompted by real-world racetrack experience with the original Scout, including a stronger frame, better suspension and steering, a 3-inch increase in wheelbase, increased fork rake, a low, 26¼-inch seat height, and a front brake.”
  18. 18.018.1"1932 Indian Scout". AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum. American Motorcyclist Association. Retrieved on 2011-07-09.
  19. [1997] (2002) "Chapter Eleven – Indian on the Brink", The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing, 96–97. ISBN 0-7603-1353-9. “But the frame design and girder forks of the Prince single were revived, and into the lightweight chassis was stuffed a modified Scout 101 engine.” 
  20. ↑Wilson, H. The Ultimate Motorcycle Book p. 31 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1993 ISBN 0-7513-0043-8
  21. 21.021.1Wilson, H. The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle p. 11 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1995 ISBN 0-7513-0206-6
  22. 22.022.122.222.322.4Wilson, H. The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle p. 106 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1995 ISBN 0-7513-0206-6
  23. ↑Classic Motorcycle Archive – Indian 401
  24. ↑Johnstone, G. Classic Motorcycles p. 106 Tiger Books International PLC, 1995 ISBN 1-85501-731-8
  25. ↑"1936 Indian "Upside-Down" Four". Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum. American Motorcyclist Association (2010). Retrieved on 2011-01-13. “A dual-carb setup, offered in 1937, didn’t help, and by 1938, the “upside-down” Four was discontinued, replaced by a new “rightside-up” design.”
  26. Greg, Harrison, ed. (August 1991), "Classics: 1937 Indian Model 437", American Motorcyclist (Westerville, Ohio, USA: American Motorcyclist Association) 45(8): 71, ISSN02779358 
  27. ↑Wilson, H. The Ultimate Motorcycle Book p. 37 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1993 ISBN 0-7513-0043-8
  28. ed. William J. Gicker (2006), "American Motorcycles 39¢ (Self-Adhesive)" (print), USA Philatelic 11(3): 5. "Featured motorcycles are the 1940 Indian with its controversial skirted fenders....". 
  29. ↑"Indian motorcycle". America on the Move. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 10 January 2014. “A major competitor to Harley-Davidson was the Indian Motocycle Company, which began in 1901 and ceased manufacturing motorcycles for the public in 1953. By far the most individual and distinctive Indian models were produced in the 1940s; they are characterized by flared, skirted mudguards that convey a strong sense of speed even while standing still.”
  30. 30.030.130.2
Sours: https://tractors.fandom.com/wiki/Indian_(motorcycle)

Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Company

Motorcycle manufacturer

Indian Motorcycle is an American brand of motorcycles originally produced from 1901 to 1953 in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States.[1][2] Hendee Manufacturing Company initially produced the motorcycles, but the name was changed to the Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Company in 1923.[1][2]

The Indian Motorcycle factory team took the first three places in the 1911 Isle of Man Tourist Trophy. During the 1910s, Indian Motorcycle became the largest manufacturer of motorcycles in the world. Indian Motorcycle's most popular models were the Scout, made from 1920 to 1946, and the Chief, made from 1922 until 1953, when the Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Company went bankrupt. Various organizations tried to perpetuate the Indian Motorcycle brand name in subsequent years, with limited success.

In 2011, Polaris Industries purchased Indian Motorcycles and moved operations from North Carolina and merged them into their existing facilities in Minnesota and Iowa. Since August 2013, Polaris has marketed multiple modern Indian motorcycles that reflect Indian Motorcycle's traditional styling.

History[edit]

Early years – Hendee and Hedstrom[edit]

Oscar Hedstrom with the first prototype of Indian

The "Indian Motocycle Co." was founded as the Hendee Manufacturing Company by George M. Hendee in 1897 to manufacture bicycles. These were initially badged as "Silver King" and "Silver Queen" brands but the name "American Indian", quickly shortened to just "Indian", was adopted by Hendee from 1898 onwards because it gave better product recognition in export markets. Oscar Hedstrom joined in 1900. Both Hendee and Hedstrom were former bicycle racers and manufacturers, and after building three prototypes in Middletown, Connecticut,[3] they teamed up to produce a motorcycle with a 1.75 bhp, single-cylinder engine in Hendee's home town of Springfield. The motorcycle was successful and sales increased dramatically during the next decade.[4]

The first Indian prototype was then built and completed on May 25, 1901, by Hedström at the old Worcester Cycle Manufacturing Company in Middletown, Connecticut, and the first public demonstration was held on Cross Street in Springfield, Massachusetts at 12:00 noon on Saturday, June 1, 1901.

In 1901, a prototype and two production units of the diamond-framed Indian Single were successfully designed, built and tested. The first Indian motorcycles, having chain drives and streamlined styling, were sold to the public in 1902. In 1903, Indian's co-founder and chief engineer Oscar Hedstrom set the world motorcycle speed record of 56 mph.[citation needed] In 1904 the company introduced the deep red color that would become Indian's trademark. Annual production of Indian motorcycles then exceeded 500, rising to a peak of 32,000 in 1913. The engines of the Indian Single were built by the Aurora Firm in Illinois under license from the Hendee Mfg. Co. until 1906.

Aurora produced engines under license for Indian from about 1901 to 1907. Aurora was also allowed to sell Indian design engines to third parties and pay Indian a fee.[5] After 1907, Aurora could make its own complete motorcycles, which it did as Thor, and Indian began manufacturing its own engines.[5]

Competitive successes[edit]

In 1905, Indian built its first V-twin factory racer and in following years made a strong showing in racing and record-breaking. In 1907, the company introduced the first street version V-twin and a roadster styled after the factory racer. The roadster can be distinguished from the racers by the presence of twist grip linkages.[6][verification needed] One of the firm's most famous riders was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker, who set many long-distance records. In 1914, he rode an Indian across America, from San Diego to New York, in a record 11 days, 12 hours and ten minutes. Baker's mount in subsequent years was the Powerplus, a side-valve V-twin, which was introduced in 1916. Its 61ci (1000 cc), 42 degree V-twin engine was more powerful and quieter than previous designs, giving a top speed of 60 mph (96 km/h). The Powerplus was highly successful, both as a roadster and as the basis for racing bikes. It remained in production with few changes until 1924.

"Wouldn't You Like to Be With Them?" A 1915 advertisement for the Indian Motocycle.

Competition success played a big part in Indian's rapid growth and spurred technical innovation as well. One of the American firm's best early results came in the Isle of Man TT in 1911, when Indian riders Oliver Cyril Godfrey, Franklin and Moorehouse finished first, second and third. Indian star Jake DeRosier set several speed records, both in America and at Brooklands in Britain, and won an estimated 900 races on dirt and board tracks.[7] He left Indian for Excelsior and died in 1913, aged 33, of injuries sustained in a board track race crash with Charles "Fearless" Balke, who later became Indian's top rider.[7] Work at the Indian factory stopped as DeRosier's funeral procession passed.[7]

Oscar Hedstrom left Indian in 1913 after disagreements with the board of directors regarding dubious practices to inflate the company's stock value.[8] George Hendee resigned in 1916.[9]

Lightweights 1916–1919[edit]

Indian introduced the 221 cc single cylinder two-stroke Model K "Featherweight" in 1916.[10][11] The Model K had an open cradle frame with the engine as a stressed member[12] and a pivoting front fork that had been used earlier on single-cylinder motorcycles but had mostly been replaced on other Indian motorcycles by a leaf-sprung trailing link fork.[10]

The Model K was manufactured for one year and was replaced in 1917 by the Model O. The Model O had a four-stroke flat-twin engine and a new frame, but retained the pivoting fork at the front. The Model O was manufactured until 1919.[10]

World War I[edit]

As the US entered World War I, Indian sold most of its Powerplus line in 1917 and 1918 to the United States government, starving its network of dealers. This blow to domestic availability of the motorcycles led to a loss of dealers from which Indian never quite recovered.[13] While the motorcycles were popular in the military, post-war demand was then taken up by other manufacturers to whom many of the previously loyal Indian dealers turned. While Indian shared in the business boom of the 1920s, it had lost its Number One position in the US market to Harley-Davidson.

Inter-war era[edit]

Indian Scoutsin police service, 1920s

The Scout and Chief V-twins, introduced in the early 1920s, became the Springfield firm's most successful models. Designed by Charles Franklin, the middleweight Scout and larger Chief shared a 42-degree V-twin engine layout. Both models gained a reputation for strength and reliability.

1939 Indian Dispatch Tow, 3-wheeler

In 1930, Indian merged with Du Pont Motors.[14] DuPont Motors founder E. Paul DuPont ceased production of duPont automobiles and concentrated the company's resources on Indian.[14] DuPont's paint industry connections resulted in no fewer than 24 color options in 1934. Models of that era had Indian's famous war bonnet logo on the gas tank. Indian's huge Springfield factory was known as the Wigwam, and native American imagery was much used in advertising.

In 1940, Indian sold nearly as many motorcycles as its major rival, Harley-Davidson. During this time, Indian also manufactured other products such as aircraft engines, bicycles, boat motors and air conditioners.

Scout[edit]

Main article: Indian Scout (motorcycle)

The Indian Scout was built from 1920 through 1949. It rivaled the Chief as Indian's most important model.

The Scout was introduced for 1920. Designed by Charles B. Franklin, the Scout had its gearbox bolted to the engine and was driven by gears instead of by belt or chain.[15] The engine originally displaced 37 cu in (610 cc); the Scout 45, with a displacement of 45 cu in (740 cc), became available in 1927 to compete with the Excelsior Super X.[9][16] A front brake became standard on the original Scout early in 1928.[16]

In 1928, the Scout and Scout 45 were replaced by the Model 101 Scout. Another Franklin design, the 101 Scout had a longer wheelbase and lower seat height than the original. The 101 Scout was well known for its handling.[16][17][18][19]

The 101 Scout was replaced by the Standard Scout for 1932. The Standard Scout shared its frame with the Chief and the Four; as a result, the Standard Scout was heavier and less nimble than the 101.[18][19]

A second line of Scouts was introduced for 1933. Based on the frame of the discontinued Indian Prince single-cylinder motorcycle, the Motoplane used the 45 cubic inch engine from the Standard Scout while the Pony Scout had a reduced displacement of 30.5 cu in (500 cc). In 1934 the Motoplane was replaced by the Sport Scout with a heavier but stiffer frame better able to withstand the power of the 45 cubic inch engine, while the Pony Scout, later renamed the Junior Scout, was continued with the Prince/Motoplane frame.[20] Between the introduction of the Sport Scout in 1934 and the discontinuation of the Standard Scout in 1937 there were three Scout models (Pony/Junior, Standard, and Sport) with three different frames. The Sport Scout and the Junior Scout were continued until civilian production was interrupted in early 1942.

Chief[edit]

1928 Indian Big Chief with sidecar

Main article: Indian Chief (motorcycle)

Introduced in 1922, the Indian Chief had a 1,000 cc (61 cubic inches) engine based on the Powerplus engine; a year later the engine was enlarged to 1,200 cc (73 cubic inches). Numerous improvements were made to the Chief over the years, including the provision of a front brake in 1928.

In 1940, all models were fitted with the large skirted fenders that became an Indian trademark, and the Chief gained a new sprung frame that was superior to rival Harley's unsprung rear end.[21] The 1940s Chiefs were handsome and comfortable machines, capable of 85 mph (137 km/h) in standard form and over 100 mph (160 km/h) when tuned, although their increased weight hampered acceleration.

The 1948 Chief had a 74 cubic inch engine, hand shift and foot clutch. While one handlebar grip controlled the throttle the other was a manual spark advance.

In 1950, the V-twin engine was enlarged to 1,300 cc (79 cubic inches) and telescopic forks were adopted. But Indian's financial problems meant that few bikes were built. Production of the Chief ended in 1953.

Four[edit]

Main article: Indian Four

Indian purchased the Ace Motor Corporation in 1927 and moved production of the 4-cylinder Ace motorcycle to Springfield. It was marketed as the Indian Ace in 1927.[22][23]

In 1928, the Indian Ace was replaced by the Indian 401, a development of the Ace designed by Arthur O. Lemon, former Chief Engineer at Ace, who was employed by Indian when they bought Ace.[24] The Ace's leading-link forks and central coil spring were replaced by Indian's trailing-link forks and quarter-elliptic leaf spring.[23][25]

In 1929, the Indian 401 was replaced by the Indian 402 which received a stronger twin-downtube frame based on the 101 Scout frame and a sturdier five-bearing crankshaft than the Ace, which only had a three-bearing crankshaft.[24][26]

Despite the low demand for luxury motorcycles during the Great Depression, Indian not only continued production of the Four, but continued to develop the motorcycle. One of the less popular versions of the Four was the "upside down" engine on the 1936-37 models. While earlier (and later) Fours had inlet-over-exhaust (IOE) cylinder heads with overhead inlet valves and side exhaust valves, the 1936-1937 Indian Four had a unique EOI cylinder head, with the positions reversed. In theory, this would improve fuel vaporization, and the new engine was more powerful. However, the new system made the cylinder head, and the rider's inseam, very hot. This, along with an exhaust valvetrain that required frequent adjustment, caused sales to drop. The addition of dual carburetors in 1937 did not revive interest. The design was returned to the original configuration in 1938.[24][27][28]

Like the Chief, the Four was given large, skirted fenders and plunger rear suspension in 1940. In 1941, the 18-inch wheels of previous models were replaced with 16-inch wheels with balloon tires.[24]

The Indian Four was discontinued in 1942.[24][29] Recognition of the historical significance of the 1940 four-cylinder model was made with an August 2006 United States Postal Service 39-cent stamp issue, part of a four-panel set entitled American Motorcycles.[30] A 1941 model is part of the Smithsonian Motorcycle Collection on display at the National Museum of American History.[31] Single examples of both the 1931 and 1935 Indian Fours are in the ground vehicle collection of the Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome.[32]

World War II[edit]

1942 Indian Scout 500, the 741, not used by the US Army, but supplied under the Lend-Lease program to Commonwealth allies.

During World War II, Chiefs, Scouts, and Junior Scouts were used in small numbers for various purposes by the United States Army and were also used extensively by British and other Commonwealth military services, under Lend Lease programs. However, none of these Indian models could unseat the Harley-Davidson WLA as the motorcycle mainly used by the US military.

An early war military design by Indian was based on the 750 cc (46 cu in) Scout 640 (and was often compared to Harley-Davidson's WLA), but was either too expensive or heavy, or a combination of both. Indian's later offering, the 500 cc (31 cu in) 741B was not selected to gain a US Military contract. Indian also made a version based on the 1,200 cc (73 cu in) Chief, the 344. Approximately 1,000 experimental versions mounting the 750 cc motor sideways and using shaft drive, as on a modern Moto Guzzi, the 841, were also tried.

Indian made a prototype of a lightweight bike, called the M1 light motorcycle for the World War 2 Airborne forces. The lightweight design could be airdropped with the troops. The design never made it past prototype.[33]

841[edit]

Main article: Indian 841

During World War II, the US Army requested experimental motorcycle designs suitable for desert fighting.[34] In response Indian designed and built the 841. Approximately 1,056 models were built.

The Indian 841 was heavily inspired by the BMW R71 motorcycle (which, though not used by the German Army later was the basis for the Soviet M72, which is the basis for the Ural and Chiang Jiang motorcycle) as was its competitor, the Harley-Davidson XA.[35] However, unlike the XA, the 841 was not a copy of the R71. Although its tubular frame, plunger rear suspension, and shaft drive were similar to the BMW's, the 841 was different from the BMW in several aspects, most noticeably so with its 90-degree longitudinal-crankshaft V-twin engine and girder fork.[34][35]

The Indian 841 and the Harley-Davidson XA were both tested by the Army, but neither motorcycle was adopted for wider military use. It was determined that the Jeep was more suitable for the roles and missions for which these motorcycles had been intended.[34][36]

Post-war decline and demise[edit]

1950 Indian Chief Black Hawk

In 1945, a group headed by Ralph B. Rogers purchased a controlling interest of the company.[37] On November 1, 1945, duPont formally turned the operations of Indian over to Rogers.[14] Under Rogers' control, Indian resumed production with only one model, the Chief, for 1946 and ‘47. 1947 was also the year the Indian-head fender light, also known as the "war bonnet", was introduced.[38] In 1948, they added two rebadged import models, the Czech built CZ125b, and the Brockhouse Engineering produced Corgi Scooter. The Scooter, a novel 100cc vehicle developed for paratroopers during World War II, was rebadged the Papoose. Indian also produced a limited number (appx. 50) 648 model Scouts for racing.

In 1949, they discontinued the Chief, as they began domestic manufacture of two lightweight motorcycles, the single-cylinder 220 cc 149 Arrow and the twin-cylinder 440 cc 249 Scout. The Scout was offered in various trim levels. The initial shipment of lightweights developed a reputation for unreliability, often associated with a rush to market. Later shipments were reported by publications of the time to have resolved most reliability issues by the following year.

The 1950 lineup brought back the Chief, with telescopic forks. It also saw the introduction of the twin-cylinder 500 cc Warrior model, which received both a standard and high pipe sporting TT trim. On the Corporate side, Rogers would step down as CEO of Indian to take employment at Texas Instruments. Replacing Rogers was hand-picked successor John Brockhouse, President and owner of Brockhouse engineering. Unfortunately, new management did not bring new fortune, and production of all models wound down in 1952, with most 1953 Chiefs built from remaining parts. All product manufacturing ended in 1953.

Corporate successors[edit]

Main article: List of Indian motorcycle import models

Brockhouse Engineering (1953-1960)[edit]

As Rogers liquidated Indian in 1953, Brockhouse Engineering acquired the rights to the Indian name. The Indian Sales Corp continued to support the rebranded Papoose Scooter (which would cease production in 1954) and the Brave, a European-styled 125 cc lightweight bike. All other models were abandoned after reducing inventory. The Brave had been designed prior to the acquisition, and produced by an English subsidiary owned by Brockhouse. Indian had imported these outsourced models since 1951, when Brockhouse was then-President of Indian under Rogers Ownership. Outside these two models that directly benefitted Brockhouses umbrella industries, ISC also sold a variety of rebadged imports, including Vincent, AJS, and Matchless from various dates until solidifying their import models line-up to a single manufacturer.

From 1955 through 1960, they imported English Royal Enfield motorcycles, mildly customized them in the United States,[citation needed] and sold them under Indian branding.[37] Almost all Royal Enfield models had a corresponding Indian model in the US. The models were Indian Chief, Trailblazer, Apache (all three were 700 cc twins), Tomahawk (500 cc twin), Woodsman (500 cc single), Westerner (500 cc single), Hounds Arrow (250 cc single), Fire Arrow (250 cc single), Lance (150 cc 2-stroke single) and a 3-wheeled Patrol Car (350 cc single).[39]

Associated Motor Cycles (1960-1963)[edit]

In 1960, the Indian name was bought by AMC of the UK. Royal Enfield being their competition, they abruptly stopped all Enfield-based Indian models except the 700 cc Chief. In 1962 AMC, facing financial issues, withdrew from all marketing of the Indian Brand name, as the company chose to focus exclusively on their Norton and Matchless Brands.

Floyd Clymer (1963-1970)[edit]

1972 Indian MM-5A minibike

From the 1960s, entrepreneur Floyd Clymer began using the Indian name. He attached it to imported motorcycles, commissioned to Italian ex-pilot and engineer Leopoldo Tartarini, owner of Italjet Moto, to manufacture Minarelli-engined 50 cc minibikes under the Indian Papoose name. These were successful so Clymer commissioned Tartarini to build full-size Indian motorcycles based on the Italjet Griffon design, fitted with Royal Enfield Interceptor 750 cc parallel-twin engines.

A further development was the Indian Velo 500, a limited-production run using a Velocette single-cylinder engine with various Norton, and Royal Enfield drivetrain components, and Italian Chassis parts. This included a lightweight frame from the Italjet company, Marzocchi front forks with Grimeca front hub having a twin-leading shoe brake, Borrani aluminium rims and quickly-detachable tank and seat, resulting in a weight-saving of 45 lb (20 kg) compared to the traditional Velocette Venom.[40]

The project ended abruptly due to Clymer's death and the failure of Velocette, with 200 machines shipped to US and a further 50 remaining in Italy, which were bought by London Velocette dealer Geoff Dodkin. When roadtesting, UK monthly magazine Motorcycle Sport described it as "British engineering and Italian styling in a package originally intended for the American market", reporting that Dodkin would supply his bikes with either a standard Venom engine specification, or, at higher cost, a Thruxton version.[40]

Alan Newman Ownership (1970-1977)[edit]

After Clymer's death in 1970 his widow sold the alleged Indian trademark to Los Angeles attorney Alan Newman, who continued to import minicycles made by ItalJet, and later manufactured in a wholly owned assembly plant located in Taipei (Taiwan). Several models with engine displacement between 50 cc and 175 cc were produced, mostly fitted with Italian two-stroke engines made either by Italjet or Franco Morini.

In 1974, Newman planned to revive large-capacity machines as the Indian 900, using a Ducati 860 cc engine and commissioned Leo Tartarini of Italjet to produce a prototype. The project failed, leaving the prototype as the only survivor.[41][42]

Sales of Newman's Indians were dwindling by 1975. The company was declared bankrupt in January 1977.

American Moped Associates & DMCA (1977-1984)[edit]

The Indian Trademark was purchased from bankruptcy court for $10,000 in late 1977 by American Moped Associates, who would employ the Taiwanese manufacturing plant to make a new moped using licensed patents from Honda's discontinued PC50-K1. The result was the Indian AMI-50 Chief. This moped was offered from 1978 until late 1983, as the trademark was purchased by Carmen DeLeone’s DMCA (Derbi) group in 1982, who discounted the remaining moped stock, and discontinued manufacture. Derbi-Manco would offer Badge engineered go-carts utilizing the ‘4-stroke Indian’ moniker, before the Indian name disappeared from all motorized vehicles in 1984. The right to the brand name then passed through a succession of owners and became a subject of competing claims in the late 1980s.[43]

Other attempts at revivification (1984-1999)[edit]

By 1992, the Clymer claim to the trademark had been transferred to Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Co. Inc. of Berlin, a corporation headed by Philip S. Zanghi.[44]

In June 1994, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Wayne Baughman, president of Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Incorporated, presented, started, and rode a prototype Indian Century V-Twin Chief. Baughman had made previous statements about building new motorcycles under the Indian brand but this was his first appearance with a working motorcycle.[45]

Neither Zanghi nor Baughman began production of motorcycles.[46] In August 1997, Zanghi was convicted of securities fraud, tax evasion, and money laundering.[47]

In January 1998, Eller Industries was given permission to purchase the Indian copyright from the receivers of the previous owner. Eller Industries hired Roush Industries to design the engine for the motorcycle, and was negotiating with the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians to build a motorcycle factory on their tribal land.[48] Three renderings, one each of a cruiser, a sport cruiser, and a sport bike, on frames specified by suspension designer James Parker, were shown to the motorcycling press in February 1998.[49]

Eller Industries arranged a public unveiling of the cruiser prototype for November 1998, but was prevented from showing the prototype by a restraining order from the receiver, who said that Eller had failed to meet the terms of its obligations.[50] The contract was withdrawn after the company missed its deadline to close the deal and could not agree with the receiver to an extension on the deadline.[51] Other conditions, including payment of administrative costs and presenting a working prototype, were also not met by Eller Industries. Based on this, a Federal bankruptcy court in Denver, Colorado, allowed the sale of the trademark to IMCOA Licensing America Inc. in December 1998.[52]

Indian Motorcycle Company of America (1999–2003)[edit]

The Indian Motorcycle Company of America was formed from the merger of nine companies, including manufacturer California Motorcycle Company (CMC) and IMCOA Licensing America Inc., which was awarded the Indian trademark by the Federal District Court of Colorado in 1998.[53] The new company began manufacturing motorcycles in 1999 at the former CMC's facilities in Gilroy, California. The first "Gilroy Indian" model was a new design called the Chief. Scout and Spirit models were also manufactured from 2001. These bikes were initially made with off-the-shelf 88 cubic inch S&S engines, but later used the 100-cubic-inch (1,600 cc) Powerplus (bottlecap) engine design from 2002 to 2003. The Indian Motorcycle Corporation went into bankruptcy and ceased all production operations in Gilroy on September 19, 2003.[54]

Indian Motorcycle Company (2006-2011)[edit]

Stellican Indian in characteristic Indian red color in Brighton(UK)

On July 20, 2006, the newly formed Indian Motorcycle Company, owned largely by Stellican Limited, a London-based private equity firm, announced its new home in Kings Mountain, North Carolina, where it restarted the Indian motorcycle brand,[55] manufacturing Indian Chief motorcycles in limited numbers, with a focus on exclusivity rather than performance. Starting out where the defunct Gilroy IMC operation left off in 2003, the "Kings Mountain" models were continuation models based on the new series of motorcycles developed in 1999. The 2009 Indian Chief incorporated a redesigned 105-cubic-inch (1,720 cc) Powerplus V-twin powertrain with electronic closed-loop sequential-port fuel injection,[56] and a charging system providing increased capacity for the electronic fuel injection.

Stellican Indian at the Ace Cafe, London (UK)

Polaris Acquisition (since 2011)[edit]

In April 2011, Polaris Industries, the off-road and leisure vehicle maker and parent company of Victory Motorcycles, announced its intention to acquire Indian Motorcycle. Indian's production facilities were moved to Spirit Lake, Iowa, where production began on August 5, 2011.[57] In March 2013, Indian unveiled their new 111 cubic inches (1.82 l) "Thunder Stroke" engine,[58] and began to sell their newly designed motorcycles based on it in August 2013.

Current production[edit]

On August 3, 2013, Polaris announced three all-new Indian-branded motorcycles based on the traditional styling of the Indian marque, along with the Thunder Stroke 111 V-twin engine. The motor has a triple-cam design with a chain-driven center cam turning front and rear cams via gears, permitting parallel placement of the pushrods to give a similar appearance to older Indian designs. It is air cooled, with large traditional fins and an airbox in the cast aluminum frame.[59] All Indians using the Thunder Stroke 111 engine share this aluminum frame design, though the wheelbase and front end rake vary depending on model. The integrated transmission is also gear-driven.

Since 2013, Indian has expanded its line up to five models, currently offered in 23 trim levels. Of these, twelve have the Thunderstroke 111 engine. Five offerings use the smaller engine displacement, liquid-cooled Scout engines. The Scout has four trims in its line featuring the 69.14 cu in (1,133.0 cm3) engine, while the Scout 60 has its eponymous 61 cu in (1,000 cm3) variant. Indian offers 3 distinctions of their FTR 1200, a sportier cycle introduced in 2019. And as of 2020, the Challenger Bagger featuring the all-new Indian PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin has been introduced, with three variations.

Chief Classic (2014–2018 )[edit]

The standard Chief Classic has the valanced fenders and the lighted "war bonnet" on the front fender. Cruise control, antilock braking system, keyless starting, and electronic fuel injection are standard on this and all other models. It has a six-speed transmission and manually-adjustable single-shock swingarm.

Chief Vintage (2014– )[edit]

2014 Indian Chief Vintage

The Indian Chief Vintage shares the chassis, drivetrain, and styling of the Chief Classic, and adds tan leather quick-release saddlebags, matching tan leather two-up seat, additional chrome trim, quick-release windshield, and a six-speed transmission.

Springfield (2016– )[edit]

The Springfield was introduced in March 2016 during Daytona Bike Week. It is named after the birthplace of Indian Motorcycles, Springfield, Massachusetts. The Springfield is a bit of a hybrid bike, sharing steering geometry and hardbags with the Chieftain and RoadMaster models but is equipped with a quick detach windshield like the Vintage. It also boasts an adjustable rear air shock like the other touring models.

Chieftain (2014– )[edit]

The Indian Chieftain touring motorcycle is the first Indian model with front fairing and hard saddlebags. It has a stereo with speakers in the fairing, Bluetooth media players, tire pressure sensors, air-adjustable rear shock, and motorized windshield adjustment. Initial reports from the press were favorable for styling, performance, and handling.[60] The Chieftain was named 2013 Motorcycle of the Year by RoadRunner Motorcycle Touring & Travel magazine.[61]

Scout (2015– )[edit]

The Indian Scout was introduced at the 2014 Sturgis Motorcycle Rally as a 2015 model. The 2015 Scout is a cruiser with a 1,133 cc (69.1 cu in) liquid-cooled, double overhead camshaft V-twin engine and a frame formed by multiple aluminum alloy castings bolted to each other and to the engine.[62] The Indian Scout was named 2015 Motorcycle of the year by Motorcycle.com.[63]

Scout Sixty (2016– )[edit]

The Indian Scout Sixty was introduced in November 2015 as a 2016 model. The Scout Sixty is a cruiser with a 999 cc (61.0 cu in) liquid-cooled, double overhead camshaft V-twin engine. The new Scout Sixty has many of the same features as the 2014 Scout, but with a smaller 999 cc engine.[64]

Roadmaster (2015– )[edit]

The Indian Roadmaster was introduced at the 2014 Sturgis Motorcycle Rally shortly before the Scout. The Roadmaster is a Chieftain with an added trunk, front fairing lowers, heated seats, heated grips, LED headlights, passenger floorboards, and a rear crash bar. The Roadmaster had been developed before the Chieftain.[65]Cycle World recorded 72.4 hp (54.0 kW) @ 4,440 rpm and 102.7 lb⋅ft (139.2 N⋅m) @ 2,480 rpm at the rear tire. They also recorded a tested 1/4 mile time of 13.91 seconds at 94.44 mph (151.99 km/h) and a 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) acceleration at 5.2 seconds, a 60 to 0 mph (97 to 0 km/h) braking distance of 125 ft (38 m), and fuel economy of 35.9 mpg‑US (6.55 L/100 km; 43.1 mpg‑imp).[66]

Chief Dark Horse (2016– )[edit]

The 2016 Indian Dark Horse was introduced on Valentine's Day 2015.[67] It is based on a Chief Classic painted in flat black, with the driving lights, oil cooler, analog fuel gauge, passenger pillion seat and passenger pegs removed.[67]

Chieftain Dark Horse (2016– )[edit]

The 2016 Indian Chieftain Dark Horse was introduced in May 2016.[68] It has a full fairing and hard saddlebags, but lacks other accessories in the Chieftain line. It has a claimed 119.2 lb⋅ft (161.6 N⋅m) @ 3000 rpm and a dry weight of 803 lb (364 kg).[69]

Chieftain Limited (2017- )[edit]

The 2017 Indian Chieftain Limited adds more of a bagger style to the Chieftain. The front fender was opened up to show off 19" custom wheels, and a limited coloring scheme. This model also boasts the full ride command touch screen display that the Roadmaster also uses. It has the upper fairing with power windscreen and optional passenger seat.

RoadMaster Classic (2017-2018)[edit]

The 2017 Indian Roadmaster Classic was introduced in February 2017, and discontinued before the end of 2018. It has the traditional styling tan leather bags and trunk along with heated seats, heated grips, LED headlights, passenger floorboards, and rear crash bars. It does not have the hard front lowers found on the original Roadmaster.

Springfield Dark Horse (2018- )[edit]

For 2018 Indian offers the Springfield in Dark Horse flavor. Open front fender with 19" cast front wheel.

Scout Bobber (2018- )[edit]

The Scout Bobber is a factory-modified version of the Scout that features style components taken from the “bobber” community of motorcycles, hence the name. These modifications include chopped front and rear mud guards, bar end mirrors, low seat, low handlebars, and a side-mounted license plate holder.

FTR1200 (2019- )[edit]

The FTR1200 takes its inspiration from the flat track racing heritage of Indian. It is considered a “street tracker”, a street-legal motorcycle with flat track bike styling.

Challenger (2020- )[edit]

The Challenger is the first bagger crafted by Indian Motorcycle. It embeds the new Indian PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin engine that produces 122 horsepower and 128 foot-pounds of torque. The front suspension uses an inverted 43mm fork, which provides 5.1 inches of travel and rear suspension is provided by a hydraulically adjustable rear shock.

Challenger Dark Horse (2020- )[edit]

The Indian Challenger with the Dark Horse flavor is powered by the PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin engine that produces 122 horsepower and 128 foot-pounds of torque. The front suspension uses an inverted 43mm fork, which provides 5.1 inches of travel and rear suspension is provided by a hydraulically adjustable rear shock.

Land speed records[edit]

Between 1962 and 1967, Burt Munro from New Zealand used a modified 1920s Indian Scout to set a number of land speed records, as dramatised in the 2005 film The World's Fastest Indian.[70][71] In 2014 Indian had a similar custom streamliner built, the Spirit of Munro, to promote their new 111 cubic-inch engine and challenge speed records.[72][73]

Bicycles[edit]

Both Hendee and Hedstrom had built bicycles before they met, and Hendee had marketed his under the Silver King and Silver Queen names. They continued to manufacture bicycles after their motorcycles became successful and even made bicycles designed to resemble their motorcycles.[74]

References[75][edit]

  1. ^ abIndian History HomeArchived September 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ abSpelling as per U.S. Supreme Court, 1929-31
  3. ^Olivia Drake (2017-08-16). "First Indian Motorcycle Prototypes Built on Wesleyan's Campus". [email protected]. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  4. ^Franklin's Indians: "Irish motorcycle racer Charles B Franklin, designer of the Indian Scout & Chief", by Harry V Sucher, Tim Pickering, Liam Diamond and Harry Havelin, pp. 46-50, Panther Publishing Ltd, 2010, ISBN 978-0-9564975-5-0
  5. ^ ab"Bonhams : 1913 Thor 61ci Model U Twin Engine no. 13U2102". www.bonhams.com.
  6. ^1906 & 1907 Hendee Mfg. Co. sales brochures
  7. ^ abcJacob DeRosier at The Motorcycle Hall of FameArchived 2008-12-16 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^Johnstone, G. "Classic Motorcycles" p. 44 Tiger Books International PLC, 1993 ISBN 1-85501-731-8
  9. ^ abJohnstone, G. "Classic Motorcycles" p. 46-47 Tiger Books International PLC, 1993 ISBN 1-85501-731-8
  10. ^ abcGirdler, Allan (2002) [1997]. "Chapter Six – The Model O and The Model WJ Sport Twin: The Little Engines That Couldn't". The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: MBI Publishing. p. 57. ISBN .
  11. ^"51: 1916 Indian 221cc Model K Featherweight Engine no. 23H180". bonhams.com. 27 Feb 2010. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
  12. ^Hatfield, Jerry (2006-02-08). "I". Standard Catalog of American Motorcycles 1898-1981: The Only Book to Fully Chronicle Every Bike Ever Buil. Iola, WI USA: Krause Publications. p. 288. ISBN . LCCN 2005922934. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
  13. ^Franklin's Indians: "Irish motorcycle racer Charles B Franklin, designer of the Indian Scout & Chief", by Harry V Sucher, Tim Pickering, Liam Diamond and Harry Havelin, p. 147, p. 151, Panther Publishing Ltd, 2011, ISBN 978-0-9564975-5-0
  14. ^ abcMotorcycle Hall of Fame: E. Paul DuPontArchived 2007-04-17 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^Girdler, Allan (2002) [1997]. "Chapter Seven – The Scout and The Model D: Indian Takes the Lead". The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing. p. 62. ISBN .
  16. ^ abcWilson, Hugo (1995). "The A-Z of Motorcycles". The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle. London: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 104–105. ISBN .
  17. ^Girdler, Allan (2002) [1997]. "Chapter Ten – The 101 Scout and The Model D: Advantage, Indian". The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing. p. 83. ISBN .
  18. ^ ab"1929 Indian 101 Scout". motorcyclemuseum.org. American Motorcyclist Association. Archived from the original on 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
  19. ^ ab"1932 Indian Scout". motorcyclemuseum.org. American Motorcyclist Association. Archived from the original on 2011-07-30. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
  20. ^Girdler, Allan (2002) [1997]. "Chapter Eleven – Indian on the Brink". The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing. pp. 96–97. ISBN .
  21. ^Phillip Tooth (March–April 2010). "1947 Indian Chief Roadmaster". Motorcycle Classics. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
  22. ^Wilson, H. The Ultimate Motorcycle Book p. 31 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1993 ISBN 0-7513-0043-8
  23. ^ abWilson, H. The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle p. 11 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1995 ISBN 0-7513-0206-6
  24. ^ abcdeWilson, H. The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle p. 106 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1995 ISBN 0-7513-0206-6
  25. ^Yesterdays, Martijn Best. "Classic Motorcycle Archive". motorarchive.com.
  26. ^Johnstone, G. Classic Motorcycles p. 106 Tiger Books International PLC, 1995 ISBN 1-85501-731-8
  27. ^"1936 Indian "Upside-Down" Four". motorcyclemuseum.org. American Motorcyclist Association. 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-01-11. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
  28. ^Greg, Harrison, ed. (August 1991). "Classics: 1937 Indian Model 437". American Motorcyclist. Westerville, Ohio, USA: American Motorcyclist Association. 45 (8): 71. ISSN 0277-9358.
  29. ^Wilson, H. The Ultimate Motorcycle Book p. 37 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1993 ISBN 0-7513-0043-8
  30. ^ed. William J. Gicker (2006). "American Motorcycles 39¢ (Self-Adhesive)". USA Philatelic (print). 11 (3): 5. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  31. ^"Indian motorcycle". America on the Move. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  32. ^"Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome Collection - Ground Vehicles 2". oldrhinebeck.org. Rhinebeck Aerodrome Museum. Archived from the original on August 22, 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
  33. ^motorcyclepediamuseum, M1 light motorcycle
  34. ^ abc"Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum – 1941 Military Model 841". Motorcyclemuseum.org. Archived from the original on 2010-12-30.
  35. ^ abTharp, Dave. "The Soldier that Never Was – Indian Military Model 841". Motorcycle Online. Archived from the original on 1996-12-19. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
  36. ^"Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum – 1942 Harley-Davidson XA". Motorcyclemuseum.org. Archived from the original on 2010-10-22.
  37. ^ abWilson, H. The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle p. 271 Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 1995 ISBN 0-7513-0206-6
  38. ^"Indian Motorcycle History". Motorcycle.com. 2014-04-19. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016. (retrieved 27 January 2016)
  39. ^Indian Model Chart (retrieved 21 April 2010)
  40. ^ abMotorcycle Sport, July 1971 pp.253-255, 262-263, 271-272. Road Test - Indian Velo 500 Accessed 2014-05-14
  41. ^Motorcycle News, (UK weekly newspaper) 22 December 1993, p.2 Ducati-Indian prototype unearthed [img]. Accessed and added 2014-09-28
  42. ^Ducati-Indian prototype image at Indian Chief Motorcycles Retrieved 2014-09-28
  43. ^"The Fall [of Indian]". Retrieved 2020-05-24.
  44. ^Tofig, Dana (June 21, 1993). "Indian's Dusty Trail". Hartford Courant. Hartford, CT USA. ISSN 1047-4153. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  45. ^Roger T., Young (September 1994). Wood, Bill (ed.). "Road – The Story of the Century". American Motorcyclist. American Motorcyclist Association. 48 (9): 43. ISSN 0277-9358. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  46. ^Catterson, Brian, ed. (August 2007). "Whatever Happened to Indian Motorcycles?". Motorcycling. Los Angeles, CA USA: Source Interlink. ISSN 0027-2205. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  47. ^"O.C. Man Found Guilty of Indian Motorcycle Scam". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA USA. August 13, 1997. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  48. ^"Indian band may rebuild Indian motorcycle legacy". Ludington Daily News. Associated Press. October 10, 1998. p. 3. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  49. ^Staab, Doug (2008-11-24). "American Sportbike – The Eller Industries Story". thekneeslider.com. Archived from the original on 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  50. ^McCraw, Jim (1998-11-15). "Revival of Indian Cycle Runs Into a New Barrier (page 2 of 2)". The New York Times. New York, NY USA. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  51. ^Shore, Sandy (November 27, 1998). "Judge to rule on Indian motorcycle". The Daily Courier. Prescott, AZ USA: Prescott Newspapers. Associated Press. p. 1D. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  52. ^Paulson, Stephen K. (1988-12-08). "Judge approves company bid to resurrect Indian Motorcycle". The Daily Courier. Prescott, AZ USA: Prescott Newspapers. Associated Press. p. 11. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  53. ^Indian Motorcycle Rights Awarded To IMCOAArchived 2006-02-23 at the Wayback Machine Coleman Powersports News, 8 December 1998
  54. ^Haefele, Fred (August–September 2005). "The Lost Tribe of Indian". American Heritage Magazine. American Heritage Publishing. Archived from the original on October 20, 2007.
  55. ^Indian Motorcycle Company Announces New HomeArchived 2008-09-11 at the Wayback Machine Press Release, 20 July 2006, on official website
  56. ^Alan Cathcart (November–December 2009). "Road-testing the 2009 Indian Chief". Motorcycle Classics. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
  57. ^Harley, Bryan (August 30, 2011). "First Pics of Polaris 2012 Indian Chief Released"(aspx). motorcycle-usa.com. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  58. ^"LA Times: Indian Unveils Massive 111-Cubic-Inch Thunder Stroke". Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  59. ^Harley, Bryan (August 5, 2013). "2014 Indian Chieftain First Ride". MotorcycleUSA.com. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  60. ^Garrett, Jerry (August 3, 2013). "First Ride: The Reborn 2014 Indian Motorcycles". New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  61. ^"RoadRunner's Motorcycle of the Year: The Indian Chieftain", RoadRunner Motorcycle Touring & Travel, October 30, 2013, ISSN 1939-7976, OCLC 168133066
  62. ^Jones, Peter (October 30, 2014). "2015 Indian Scout – Road Test Review". Cycle World. Bonnier.
  63. ^"2015 Motorcycle of the Year". 2015-08-19. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
  64. ^Barrow, Olivia (19 November 2015). "Polaris introduces affordable Indian Scout Sixty motorcycle for 2016". bizjournals.com. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  65. ^Hoyer, Mike (July 27, 2014). "2015 Indian Roadmaster – First Ride". Cycle World. Bonnier.
  66. ^Catterson, Brian (December 16, 2016). "Heavenly rides to a town called Hell prove you can take it with you". Cycle World. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  67. ^ ab"2016 Indian Chief Dark Horse Unveiled: Blackened Boldness". Ultimate MotorCycling. 2015-02-14. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
  68. ^Times, Los Angeles. "Indian rolls out big bagger Dark Horse Chieftain". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
  69. ^Catterson, Brian (June 15, 2016). "2016 Indian Chieftain Dark Horse - FIRST RIDE REVIEW". Cycle World. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  70. ^Harley, Bryan. "Burt Munro Breaks Record 36 Years After Death". Motorcycle USA. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  71. ^"Burt Munro: Inducted 2006", AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame
  72. ^"The "Spirit of Munro" — A moving tribute to Burt Munro and Indian's new Thunder Stroke 111 engine", Cycle World, March 9, 2013
  73. ^Wil Randolph (March 12, 2013), "The Fastest Indian, redux: Indian builds a new old streamliner", Road & Track
  74. ^"Online Museum for Indian Bicycles". Retrieved 2011-06-05.
  75. ^"Indian's Oscar Hedstrom, Ormond Beach, FL., March 1903". Archive Moto. Retrieved 2018-07-29.

Further reading[edit]

  • "Motor Bicycles for Medical Men". The Medical World. Roy Jackson. XXIII (10). October 1905. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  • "Advertising: Indian Motorcycles, Tricars And Vans Carry One, Two Or Three Passengers And Merchandise". Western Field. 8 (1): XVII. February 1907. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  • "Mail Collection By Motor Van". The Commercial Vehicle. Chilton Class Journal Co. III (7). July 1908. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  • Hastings, T.K. (August 15, 1908). "Through The End-To-End Trials On An Indian". Motorcycle Illustrated. Motorcycle Publishing Co. III (10): 3–5. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  • (lansing, American School; ), Ill (1909). "Care And Operation Of Motorcycles: List of "Dont's" Published By The Hendee Mfg. Co". Cyclopedia of Automobile Engineering. American school of correspondence. III: 219–220. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  • "Advertising: 61-1/5 Miles In One Hour By The Indian". Motorcycle Illustrated. Motorcycle Publishing Co. III (15). November 1, 1908. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  • "Advertising: More Indian Motorcycles Made Perfect Scores". Motorcycle Illustrated. Motorcycle Publishing Co. IV (17). September 1, 1909. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  • "Advertising: 1089 Miles, 199 Yards: World's 24 Hour Record By The Indian". Motorcycle Illustrated. Motorcycle Publishing Co. IV (20). October 15, 1909. Retrieved 2009-08-15.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Motocycle_Manufacturing_Company
  1. Awkward birthday gif
  2. Indian movies comedy
  3. 25 complex text passages

With the purchase of the Indian Motorcycle brand name by Polaris and the release of the new line of Indian Chief motorcycles there has been lots of discussions as to whether or not it is still an Indian Motorcycle or a new Polaris line using an old name.  Well if you want to be a true traditionalist there has not been an Indian Motorcycle manufactured by original Indian Motorcycle Company since 1953.

The Indain Motorcycle brand name has been taken, fought over and purchased a number of times by a number of companies since Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Company went bankrupt and ceased ALL operations in 1953.

 

Here is a brief history of the Indian Motorcycle name...

 

1901-1953

Indian motorcycles were manufactured from 1901 to 1953 by a company in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, initially known as the Hendee Manufacturing Company but which was renamed the Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Company in 1928. The Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Company went bankrupt and ceased ALL operations in 1953.

 

1953-1960

Brockhouse Engineering acquired the rights to the Indian name after it went under in 1953. They imported Royal Enfield motorcycles from England, mildly customized them in the US depending on the model, and sold them as Indians from 1955 to 1960.

 

1960-1962

In 1960, the Indian name was bought by AMC of England. Royal Enfield being their competition, they abruptly stopped all Enfield-based Indian models except the 700 cc Chief. Their plan was to sell Matchless and AJS motorcycles badged as Indians. However, the venture ended when AMC itself went into liquidation in 1962.

 

1963-1977

From the 1960s, entrepreneur Floyd Clymer began using the Indian name, apparently without purchasing it from the last known legitimate trademark holder. He attached it to imported motorcycles, commissioned to Italian ex-pilot and engineer Leopoldo Tartarini, owner of Italjet Moto, to manufacture Minarelli-engined 50 cc minibikes under the Indian Papoose name. These were so successful that Clymer also commissioned Tartarini to build full-size Indian motorcycles based on the Italjet Grifon design, but fitted firstly with Royal Enfield Interceptor 750 cc parallel-twin engines, then with Velocette 500 cc single-cylinder Thruxton engines.[citation needed]

After Clymer's death in 1970 his widow sold the alleged Indian trademark to Los Angeles attorney Alan Newman, who continued to import minicycles made by ItalJet, and later manufactured in a wholly owned assembly plant located in Taipei (Taiwan). Several models with engine displacement between 50 cc and 175 cc were produced, mostly fitted with Italian two-stroke engines made either by Italjet or Franco Morini, but the fortunes of this venture didn't last long. By 1975, sales were dwindling, and in January 1977, the company was declared bankrupt.

 

1977-1999

The right to the brand name passed through a succession of owners and became a subject of competing claims in the 1980s. By 1992, the Clymer claim to the trademark had been transferred to Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Co. Inc. of Berlin

In June 1994, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Wayne Baughman, president of Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Incorporated, presented, started, and rode a prototype Indian Century V-Twin Chief. Baughman had made previous statements about building new motorcycles under the Indian brand but this was his first appearance with a working motorcycle.

In January 1998, Eller Industries was given permission to purchase the Indian copyright from the receivers of the previous owner. Legal battles kept a motorcycle from this owner from ever going to market.

 

1999-2003

The Indian Motorcycle Company of America was formed from the merger of nine companies, including manufacturer California Motorcycle Company (CMC) and IMCOA Licensing America Inc., which was awarded the Indian trademark by the Federal District Court of Colorado in 1998.[38] The new company began manufacturing motorcycles in 1999 at the former CMC's facilities in Gilroy, California. The first "Gilroy Indian" model was a new design called the Chief. Scout and Spirit models were also manufactured from 2001. These bikes were initially made with off-the-shelf S&S engines, but used the 100-cubic-inch (1,600 cc) Powerplus engine design from 2002 to 2003. The Indian Motorcycle Corporation went into bankruptcy and ceased all production operations in Gilroy on September 19, 2003

 

2006-2011

On July 20, 2006, the newly formed Indian Motorcycle Company, owned largely by Stellican Limited, a London-based private equity firm, announced its new home in Kings Mountain, North Carolina, where it has restarted the Indian motorcycle brand, manufacturing Indian Chief motorcycles in limited numbers, with a focus on exclusivity rather than performance, like a "luxury" watch. Starting out exactly where the defunct Gilroy IMC operation left off in 2003, the "Kings Mountain" models were continuation models based on the new series of motorcycles developed in 1999. The 2009 Indian Chief incorporated a redesigned 105-cubic-inch (1,720 cc) Powerplus V-twin powertrain with electronic closed-loop sequential-port fuel injection, and a charging system providing increased capacity for the electronic fuel injection.

 

2011-Present

In April 2011, Polaris Industries, the off-road and leisure vehicle maker and parent-company of Victory Motorcycles, announced its intention to acquire Indian Motorcycle. Indian's production facilities were moved to Spirit Lake, Iowa, where production began on August 5, 2011. In March 2013, Indian unveiled their new 111-cubic-inch "Thunder Stroke" engine, and began to sell their newly-designed motorcycles based on it in August 2013.

On August 3, 2013, Polaris announced three all-new Indian-branded motorcycles based on the traditional styling of the marque and the Thunder Stroke 111 motor.

 

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_motorcycle

Sours: https://www.cyclefish.com/
Indian Motorcycle History.m4v

Indian Scout (motorcycle)

Motorcycle

The Indian Scout is a motorcycle built by the Indian Motocycle Company from 1920 to 1949. It rivaled the Chief as Indian's most important model. The 101 Scout, made from 1928 to 1931, has been called the best motorcycle Indian ever made. A second line of Scouts, with heavier frames, was introduced in 1932 alongside the Standard Scout, which replaced the 101 Scout and shared its frame with the Chief and the Four. The small-displacement Scout and the Sport Scout, introduced in 1934, were continued until the end of civilian production in 1942. Military versions of both models were used by US and other Allied forces during World War II.

Apart from fifty examples of the 648, a special racing version of the Sport Scout, the Scout was not continued after World War II. In 1949 an all-new motorcycle, with an overhead valve straight-twin engine, was called the Scout; it was enlarged and renamed the Warrior in 1950.

Between 2001 and 2003, the Indian Motorcycle Company of America, based in Gilroy, California, built a Scout model using proprietary engine and transmission parts.

The first Scouts (1920–1927)[edit]

Designed by Charles B. Franklin, the Scout was introduced in October 1919 as a 1920 model. The Scout had a sidevalve V-twin engine with its transmission bolted to the engine casing, allowing a geared primary drive - the only American v-twin to use this maintenance-free system. The Scout engine initially displaced 606 cc (37 cu in), but the engine size was increased to 745 cc (45 cu in) in 1927 in response to the popularity of the Excelsior Super X. In early 1928, a front brake was added to the Scout.

101 Scout (1928–1931)[edit]

ZweiRadMuseumNSU Indian Scout.JPG
ManufacturerIndian Motocycle Manufacturing Company
Predecessor1927 Indian Scout (original frame)
Successor1932 Indian Scout (Chief frame)
Engine37 cu in (610 cc) or 45 cu in (740 cc) 42° V-twin
Bore / stroke
  • 37 cu in: 2+3⁄4 in × 3+1⁄16 in (70 mm × 78 mm)
  • 45 cu in: 2+7⁄8 in × 3+1⁄2 in (73 mm × 89 mm)
Power37 cu in: n/a
45 cu in: 18 bhp (13 kW)
TransmissionThree-speed
SuspensionFront: Trailing arm, leaf spring
Rear: None, rigid
BrakesFront: Internal expanding shoes
Rear: 1928-30 External contracting bands, 1931 internal expanding shoes
Tires18" on clincher rims 1928,
drop center rims 1929-31
Wheelbase57+1⁄8 in (1,450 mm)

In mid 1928 the Scout Series 101 replaced the original Scout. Designed by Charles B. Franklin, who had designed the original Scout, the 101 Scout had a new frame with more fork rake, a longer wheelbase, and a lower seat height. The geometry of the 101 Scout wheelbase, steering head angle and rear sub-frame were all adopted from the new Indian 401 model which was under development at the same time. The standard Scout 101 was available with a 45 cu in (740 cc) engine, but it was also available with a 37 cu in (610 cc) engine from the original Scout, although this was rarely advertised.

The 101 Scout was noted for its handling and was popular with racers, hillclimbers, and trick riders.

The economic hardship of the Great Depression pushed Indian to the brink of bankruptcy, and the company was purchased by the DuPont family. In 1931, it was decided to rationalize production by designing a new frame that, with some detail variations, would be used across their entire, new-for-1932 model range of Scout, Chief and Four. Thus the 101 Scout was discontinued, as its unique chassis was as expensive to produce as the 74 cu in (1,210 cc) Chief, and therefore had a small profit margin.

Legacy of the 101[edit]

The 101 Scout has been called the best motorcycle Indian ever made.

Enthusiasts have differing views on the replacement of the 101 Scout. Fans of Indian's technical achievements acclaim the 101 Scout as the pinnacle of Indian technology, while fans of classic Indian styling hail its replacement for bringing classic Chief styling to the Scout line. The 101 is still used in wall of death stunt exhibitions.[13]

Standard Scout (1932-1937)[edit]

Cost cutting led to Indian designing a new basic frame for 1932 that would form the basis for the Scout, Chief, and Four frames. The 1932 Standard Scout that was based on this new frame was heavier and bulkier than the 101 frame, and was less successful as a result. The Standard Scout remained in production until 1937.

"Thirty-Fifty" Scout (1932-1941)[edit]

In 1933, to appease the sporting motorcyclists offended by the replacement of the 101 with the Standard Scout, Indian introduced the Motoplane. This had a Scout engine fitted into the frame of the discontinued Indian Prince single cylinder motorcycle. The Motoplane was also sold as the Pony Scout with the engine displacement reduced to 30.50 cu in (499.8 cc).

The power of the Scout engine was too much for the Prince-derived frame and the Motoplane was discontinued. The less powerful Pony Scout remained in production and was later renamed the Junior Scout. The Pony Scout and the Junior Scout were collectively known as the "Thirty-Fifty" after their engine displacement in cubic inches.

Sport Scout (1934-1942)[edit]

The negative reaction to the Standard Scout and the failure of the Motoplane led to the creation of the Sport Scout of 1934, with a light frame, girder forks, improved carburation and alloy cylinder heads. The two-piece frame, with the front and rear halves bolted to each other to the top and to the engine at the bottom, was heavier than the Motoplane's Prince-derived frame, but also stronger and stiffer. The Sport Scout was still 15 pounds heavier than the 101 Scout. A specially-tuned Sport Scout won the first Daytona 200 in 1937.

In 1940 the Sport Scout gained full-skirt fenders, a lower seat height and increased fork rake, and in 1941 Indian added plunger-style rear suspension.

Military Scouts during World War II[edit]

The most common Indian motorcycle made for military use in World War II was the 741, a military version of the Thirty-Fifty. These were primarily used by British and Commonwealth forces. Around 5000 were sent to USSR under Lend-Lease Program. Indian sold more than 30,000 units of the 741.

The 640-B, a military version of the Sport Scout, was tested by the US Army and used on bases within the United States, but was not shipped overseas. Approximately 2,500 were built.

Postwar Scouts: 648 and 249[edit]

When Indian restarted civilian production in 1946 they produced the Chief only; the Junior Scout, Sport Scout, and Four were discontinued. Engineering work being done on a Model 647 Scout was abandoned in favor of developing a completely new line of lightweight single-cylinder and vertical-twin motorcycles.

In 1948, Indian built 50 units of the 648 Sport Scout. The 648, also called the "Big Base" Scout, was a homologation special built to qualify the type for racing; as such, it was sold primarily to motorcycle racers. Floyd Emde rode a 648 to victory in the 1948 Daytona 200. The 648 was the last traditional Indian Scout.

Introduced in 1949, Indian's line of modular-engined standard motorcycles included the straight-twin 249 Scout. The 249 Scout was replaced by the larger-engined 250 Warrior the next year. The 1949 Scout Model 249 had a 436 cc (26.6 cu in) vertical twin, with a bore and stroke of 2+3⁄8 in × 3 in (60 mm × 76 mm). To better compete with European 500 cc (31 cu in) class twins, the same engine was enlarged to 500 cc, introduced in 1951 as the Warrior.

Land speed records[edit]

Replica of Burt Munro's 1920 Indian Scout as modified for his record attempts in 1962

Between 1962 and 1967, New Zealander Burt Munro used a modified 1920 Indian Scout to set flying mile land speed records at the Bonneville Salt Flats. His records were:[29]

  • 20 August 1962: 54 cu in (880 cc) class record of 178.971 mph (288.026 km/h).
  • 22 August 1966: 61 cu in (1,000 cc) class record of 168.066 mph (270.476 km/h).
  • 26 August 1967: 61 cu in (1,000 cc) class record of 183.586 mph (295.453 km/h).

Munro's efforts were dramatized in the 2005 film The World's Fastest Indian.

"Gilroy" Scout[edit]

The Indian Motorcycle Company of America, based in Gilroy, California, built a Scout model from 2001 to 2003. The 2001 Scout had an 88 cubic inch engine and a five-speed transmission; these were assembled at Indian's factory from engine parts made by S&S Cycle and transmission parts made by RevTech. The Scout was available in different versions, including Centennial, Springfield and Deluxe editions.[citation needed]

The Indian Motorcycle Company of America ended production of motorcycles in 2003 and went into liquidation. The Indian brand was revived by the Indian Motorcycle Company, based in Kings Mountain, North Carolina, in 2006, but the Scout name was not used.[citation needed]

2015 Scout[edit]

2015 Indian Scout 1.jpg
ManufacturerIndian Motorcycle International, LLC
Parent companyPolaris Industries
ProductionScout: 2015-current
Scout Sixty: 2016-current
EngineScout: 69 cu in (1,130 cc) liquid cooled 60° V-twin
Scout Sixty: 60 cu in (980 cc) liquid cooled 60° V-twin
Bore / stroke
  • Scout: 99 mm × 73.6 mm (3.90 in × 2.90 in)
  • Scout Sixty: 93 mm × 73.6 mm (3.66 in × 2.90 in)
PowerScout: 100 hp (75 kW)(claimed)[34]
86.1 hp (64.2 kW)(rear wheel)
Scout Sixty: 78 hp (58 kW)(claimed)[36]
TorqueScout:72 lb⋅ft (98 N⋅m) (claimed)[34]
63.8 lb⋅ft (86.5 N⋅m) (rear wheel)
Scout Sixty: 65 lb⋅ft (88 N⋅m) (claimed)[36]
TransmissionGear drive primary, multi plate wet clutch, belt final drive
Scout: 6-speed gearbox
Scout Sixty: 5-speed gearbox
SuspensionFront: Telescopic forks
Rear: Dual shocks
BrakesFront: Single 11.7 in (298 mm) disc, twin piston caliper
Rear: Single 298 mm (11.7 in) disc, single piston caliper
TiresFront: 130/90, Rear: 150/80
Wheelbase61.5 in (1,562 mm)
DimensionsL: 91.0 in (2,311 mm)
W: 35 in (880 mm)
H: 47.5 in (1,207 mm)
Seat height25.3 in (643 mm)
Weight528 lb (239 kg)(without fuel)[34](dry)
Scout Sixty:524 lb (238 kg)(without fuel)[36] (dry)
550 lb (250 kg)[34](wet)
Scout Sixty: 546 lb (248 kg)[36] (wet)
Fuel capacity3.3 US gal (12 l; 2.7 imp gal)

In 2011, Polaris Industries bought the Indian Motorcycle Company. For the 2015 model year, under Polaris's ownership, Indian introduced a new Scout model. The 2015 Scout is a cruiser with a 1,133 cc (69.1 cu in) liquid-cooled, double overhead camshaft V-twin engine and a frame formed by multiple aluminum alloy castings bolted to each other and to the engine. The Scout came with braided brake lines and a belt instead of a chain which reduced maintenance as well as costs.

A lower cost version of the Scout was introduced in 2016 called the Scout Sixty. It is essentially identical to the Scout and uses the same frame, brakes and suspension, but has a smaller 999 cc (61.0 cu in) engine mated to a 5-speed gearbox with a blacked out design.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Doyle, David (Feb 28, 2011). Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles (2nd ed.). Krause Publications. p. 14. ISBN . Retrieved Feb 4, 2014.
  • Hatfield, Jerry (2001). Indian Scout. Motorbooks International. pp. 32, 106–108. ISBN .
  • Girdler, Allan (2002) [1997]. The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing. ISBN .
  • Hatfield, Jerry (2006-02-08). "I". Standard Catalog of American Motorcycles 1898-1981: The Only Book to Fully Chronicle Every Bike Ever Built. Iola, WI USA: Krause Publications. ISBN . LCCN 2005922934. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
  • Johnstone, Gary (1995) [1993]. "Union Pacific Meets Roy Rogers". Classic Motorcycles. Twickenham, UK: Tiger Books International. pp. 46–47. ISBN .
  • Jones, Peter (October 30, 2014). "2015 Indian Scout – Road Test Review". Cycle World. Bonnier. p. 1.
  • Sucher, Harry V; Pickering, Tim; Diamond, Liam; Havelin, Harry (2011). Franklin's Indians: Irish motorcycle racer Charles B Franklin, designer of the Indian Scout & Chief. Panther Publishing. ISBN .
  • Wanchena, Victor; Pearman, Sev (May 2001). "The Indian Scout - Reborn". Minnesota Motorcycle Monthly. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  • Williams, Greg (March–April 2013). "The Star Power of Steve McQueen's 1942 Indian Sport Scout". Motorcycle Classics. Vol. 8 no. 4. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  • Wilson, Hugo (1993). "Indian". The Ultimate Motorcycle Book. London: Dorling-Kindersley. p. 37. ISBN .
  • Wilson, Hugo (1995). "The A-Z of Motorcycles". The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 108. ISBN .
  • Wong, Edward (23 September 2003). "Business: High Costs Bring Indian Motorcycle to a Halt". New York Times. New York, NY USA. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  • Wood, Bill, ed. (November 2001). "Classics: 1932 Indian Scout". American Motorcyclist. Vol. 55 no. 11. ISSN 0277-9358. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  • Wood, Bill, ed. (June 2002). "Museum Classic: 1929 Indian 101 Scout Possibly the best bike Indian ever built". American Motorcyclist. Vol. 56 no. 6. ISSN 0277-9358. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  • "2018 Indian Scout Specifications".
  • "2018 Indian Scout Sixty Specifications".

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Scout_(motorcycle)

Wikipedia indian motorcycles

Indian Four

The Indian Four was a motorcycle built by the Indian Motocycle Company from 1928 to 1942. It was based on the Ace motorcycle, which Indian bought as part of the assets of the Ace Motor Corporation in 1927.[2]

For 1940, the Four frame was modified to include plunger rear suspension. In the same year, all Indian models were restyled with large, decorative fenders.

The Four was discontinued with the rest of civilian production in 1942 and was not returned to production after World War II ended.

History[edit]

Indian purchased the ownership of the name, rights, and production facilities of the Ace Motor Corporation in 1927. Production was moved to Springfield and the motorcycle was marketed as the Indian Ace for one year.

In 1928, the Indian Ace was replaced by the Indian 401, a development of the Ace designed by Arthur O. Lemon, former Chief Engineer at Ace, who was employed by Indian when they bought Ace. The Ace's leading-link forks and central coil spring were replaced by Indian's trailing-link forks and quarter-elliptic leaf spring.

Manifold side of Indian 4 engine, showing manifolds and spark plugs at the IOE"pockets"

By 1929, the Indian 402 would have a stronger twin-downtube frame based on that of the 101 Scout and a sturdier five-bearing crankshaft than the Ace, which had a three-bearing crankshaft.

Despite the low demand for luxury motorcycles during the Great Depression, Indian not only continued production of the Four, but continued to develop the motorcycle. One of the less popular versions of the Four was the "upside down" engine on the 1936-1937 models. While earlier (and later) Fours had inlet-over-exhaust (IOE) cylinder heads with overhead inlet valves and side exhaust valves, the 1936-1937 Indian Four had a unique EOI cylinder head, with the positions reversed. In theory, this would improve fuel vaporization, and the new engine was more powerful. However, the new system made the cylinder head, and the rider's inseam, very hot. This, along with an exhaust valvetrain that required frequent adjustment, caused sales to drop. The addition of dual carburetors in 1937 did not revive interest. The design was returned to the original configuration in 1938.[8]

1940 Indian Four (Model 440), with plunger rear suspension and large fenders

For 1940, the Four frame was modified to include plunger rear suspension. In the same year, all Indian models were restyled with large, decorative fenders.[10] In 1941, the 18-inch wheels of previous models were replaced with 16-inch wheels with balloon tires.

The Indian Four was discontinued in 1942.

Legacy[edit]

Recognition of the historical significance of the 1940 four-cylinder model was made with an August 2006 United States Postal Service 39-cent stamp issue, part of a four panel set entitled American Motorcycles. A 1941 model is part of the Smithsonian Motorcycle Collection on display at the National Museum of American History.[14] In 1999 as a homage to the original Indian 4, Alan Forbes a Scottish business man based in Edinburgh began production of the Indian Dakota 4. Made to order and hand built the machines have an air cooled, 2 valve, 4 cylinder engine displacing 1845cc. This was possible because Forbes held the rights to the Indian brand name in the United Kingdom. https://www.motorcyclistonline.com/dakota-four-wiking-indian-four-replica

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Print
  • Gicker, William J., ed. (2006). "American Motorcycles 39¢ (Self-Adhesive)". USA Philatelic (print). 11 (3): 5.
  • Girdler, Allan (2002) [1997]. The Harley-Davidson and Indian Wars. St. Paul, MN US: Motorbooks International Publishing. ISBN .
  • Harrison, Greg, ed. (August 1991). "Classics: 1937 Indian Model 437". American Motorcyclist. Westerville, Ohio, USA: American Motorcyclist Association. 45 (8): 71. ISSN 0277-9358.
  • Hatfield, Jerry (2006-02-08). "I". Standard Catalog of American Motorcycles 1898-1981: The Only Book to Fully Chronicle Every Bike Ever Built. Iola, WI USA: Krause Publications. ISBN . LCCN 2005922934. Retrieved 2013-03-02.
  • Johnstone, Gary (1995). Classic Motorcycles. Tiger Books International. ISBN .
  • Wilson, Hugo (1995). "The A-Z of Motorcycles". The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN .
  • Wilson, Hugo (1993). "The World's Motorcycles: America". The Ultimate Motorcycle Book. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN .
Online
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Four
Indian FTR 1200 S Motorcycle Review

I felt ashamed of my appearance, and I decided to break this depraved couple. As it turned out, I was not the only one who decided this: Seryoga also went with invitations and with his hooked, erect penis. For some reason I invited, in the end, not my wife, just like Seryoga.

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It was impossible to get close, it turned out to hide only about fifty meters away. there was practically nothing to be seen, it upset me. but the general joy that they still say the truth that such maniacs can be found here overpowered that grief. I was not in the mood, not in the one I would like, at least, and somehow indifferently watched him.

I decided to shoot a video on my phone to caress myself in the evening, if the mood appears.



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