Ford ltd 1986

Ford ltd 1986 DEFAULT

Vintage Reviews: 1983 – 1986 Ford LTD, LTD/LX & LTD Brougham – Lethargic, Tuned or Dutiful?

Last week, Paul covered the 1983 generation Fairmont-based LTD and its challenging mission of bridging between the “Brougham” and “Aero” eras at Ford.  The resulting car did not set the world on fire, though it wound up as a decent success during a tumultuous period for U.S. automakers.  However, engine and equipment choice played a huge role in determining how good the car was for everyday transportation—period reviews from Consumer Guide Auto Test and Car and Driver help pinpoint the good, the bad and the ugly when it came to the “Fairmont LTDs.”

The brief for the Ford LTD (and companion Mercury Marquis) was a tough one.  The 2nd Oil Shock had thrown a monkey wrench into Motown’s product planning machine, and suddenly makers were scrambling to flee big cars while still retaining big car customers.  It was common knowledge around Detroit that GM would once again be downsizing its full-sized fleet and converting to front-wheel-drive—the originally expected timing was 1983 (GM missed that by a mile as deep corporate rot set in).  So for 1983, FoMoCo would have wanted to be ready with “smaller full-sized” rivals—hence the reskinning and rebadging of the former “compact” Fairmont.

Plus, the precedent had already been set.  Pontiac, for example, dumped its full-sized B-Body Catalina/Bonneville and gave a nose job to the mid-sized LeMans to create the “new” Bonneville Model G for 1982.  It wasn’t really a full-sized car, but it carried a full-sized name, so maybe fuel-price-shocked buyers would take the bait.

Chrysler deployed the same strategy with the New Yorker by applying the storied name to the former rear-wheel-drive LeBaron line for 1982.  Voila!  Instant big car!  But in a more rational size, in keeping with the tone of the energy-conscious times.

Aero-fever had taken hold at Ford, so the “new” LTD would get its dose of the new look.  The design was not as comprehensively well-executed as on the Thunderbird (which effectively masked its Fox-Body origins by deploying a redesigned cowl with hidden wipers, aircraft style doors and a very slick body), the LTD was nonetheless a move in a more modern direction, though it did still look quite a lot like the outgoing “compact” Fairmont, especially around the greenhouse.

So where to place the ’83 LTD in the competitive set?  That was the challenge facing Consumer Guide.  Despite the “big car” name on a platform originally marketed as a “compact,” the LTD was lumped in with mid-sized rivals (mostly fwd).  Reflecting this schizophrenia between large and small, the car evaluated in Auto Test 1983 carried an odd mix of equipment.

That’s right, Consumer Guide drove an LTD with Brougham trim, wire wheel covers and the woefully underpowered 2.3L I4 and 3-speed auto.  As you would expect, this powertrain combo was terrible for the car, being very sluggish but not offering the sort of fuel efficiency that would have been expected from a 4-cylinder.  Calling it “lethargic” was a compliment.  Proof that with the technology available in the early 1980s, larger cars with smaller, normally-aspirated engines were not a satisfactory combination. And I can only image how the propane-fueled 4-cylinder worked out….

But stuffing a bigger engine in a reasonably sized car was always a Detroit favorite, and the LTD got that treatment as well.  However, rather than just offering the 4.9L V8 (known as the 5.0L V8 in Ford marketing-speak) as an option on any LTD, it only came with the “Euro-inspired” performance model introduced in mid-1984 as the LTD LX.  Naturally, Car and Driver had to spend some wheel time with this one.

There was “like” but not “love.”  The compromises that went into creating the “Fairmont LTD” were still on display, though FoMoCo was given credit for making a lot out of a little.  However, the car looked almost clichéd with the blackout trim, satisfying neither the European crowd nor the American crowd.  Though the anticipated price of $12,000 ($29,388 adjusted) was aggressive, Ford may have been better served by offering both the V8 and the LX package as standalone options.  The brutal truth was the market was not interested in the “performance” LTD, as only 3,260 were produced for 1984 and 1985 combined.  The Mercury Marquis LTS mentioned in the article turned out to be a Canadian offering only, and a mere 134 were produced (thanks to mercury6768 and VinceC (Bill Mitchell) for this data).  These “tuned” old-school family cars just weren’t what the market wanted in the mid-1980s.

But there was one variant of the LTD that was “just right” for the car’s mission as unassuming middle class “quasi-brougham, quasi-modern” transportation.  Consumer Guide Auto Test 1985 took a spin in a more “typical” LTD of the period and found a lot to like (enough to even bestow the LTD with a “Best Buy” designation).

The 1985 test LTD came in Brougham trim (this time with the “sail cloth canvas” roof covering—so much “classier” than vinyl…but note the CG content error: this roof treatment was optional on any LTD, but not standard on the Brougham.) and finally the right engine for most of the car’s owners: the 3.8L V6.  This “dutiful” engine provided enough pep for the average buyer, with decent (but not outstanding) fuel economy.  Basically “just right” for traditional customers easing into the expectations of the 1980s.  Without a doubt, the majority of the 647,509 Fox-Body LTDs (plus 307,950 Marquis) sold from 1983 through 1986 carried this engine.

So there you have it, from back in the day, the best way to have your Fox LTD—a transitional car at its finest!

Sours: https://www.curbsideclassic.com/vintage-reviews/vintage-reviews-1983-1985-ford-ltd-lethargic-tuned-or-dutiful/

1986 Ford (USA) LTD Brougham 4-Door Sedan
all versions specifications and performance data

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Sours: https://www.automobile-catalog.com/make/ford_usa/ltd_usa_5gen/ltd_usa_5gen_brougham_4-door_sedan/1986.html
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Another example today from the Blue Oval folks, this time a Midnight Canyon Red Metallic 1986 Ford LTD Crown Victoria LX. Ford may have downsized their big cars a few years back for model year 1979, making them shorter, but nobody said the names couldn’t still continue to grow. The LX model was a Crown Vic with the 112A option package, which consisted of a slew of comfort/convenience equipment including (but not limited to): pivoting front vent windows; power windows, driver’s seat, and door locks; cornering lamps; wire wheel covers; tilt wheel; and electronic digital clock. A two-door Crown Vic was also still offered, but would be discontinued after the 1987 model year. Saw this red four-door last year in Hamburg.

Jim Corbran, RRofWNY

Got a RealRide you'd like to see featured here? Drop us a line at [email protected]

The post “RealRides of WNY” appeared first on Buffalo Cars

Sours: https://buffalocars.com/realrides-1594-122218
Présentation de ma Ford Ltd Crown Victoria 1986, from New-York City 🇺🇲 ™ Mars 2021

Ford LTD Crown Victoria

This article is about the 1980-1991 version of the model line. For the 1992–2012 retail model car, see Ford Crown Victoria. For the version used by law enforcement, see Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor.

Motor vehicle

Ford LTD Crown Victoria
Ford LTD Crown Victoria sedan 1.jpg
ManufacturerFord
Also calledFord LTD Landau (1979)
Model years1980-1991
AssemblyAtlanta Assembly (Hapeville, Georgia)
Los Angeles Assembly (Pico Rivera, California)
Louisville Assembly Plant (Louisville, Kentucky)
Oakville Assembly (Oakville, Ontario)
St. Louis Assembly (Hazelwood, Missouri)
St. Thomas Assembly (Southwold, Ontario, Canada)
ClassFull-size
Body style2-door sedan
4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
PlatformFord Panther platform
RelatedMercury Grand Marquis
Lincoln Town Car
Continental Mark VI
Engine4.2 L (255 cu in) WindsorV8
4.9 L (302 cu in) WindsorV8
5.8 L (351 cu in) Windsor V8
Transmission4-speed AODautomatic
Wheelbase114.3 in (2,903 mm) (sedan)
Length211 in (5,359 mm) (sedan)
215.7 in (5,479 mm) (1990–91 wagon)
216 in (5,486 mm) (1988–89 wagon)
Width77.5 in (1,968 mm) (sedan)
79.3 in (2,014 mm) (wagon)
Height55.6 in (1,412 mm) (sedan)
56.5 in (1,435 mm) (wagon)
Predecessor Ford LTD Brougham, LTD Landau (1969 Ford)
SuccessorFord Crown Victoria

The Ford LTD Crown Victoria is a line of full-size cars that was manufactured and marketed by Ford from the 1980 to 1991 model years. Deriving its name from the Ford Fairlane coupe of 1955-1956, the LTD Crown Victoria served as the flagship of the Ford LTD model range in North America. Serving as the Ford counterpart of the Mercury Grand Marquis, the model line was offered as a two-door and a four-door sedan and a five-door station wagon (including the woodgrained LTD Country Squire).

For 1983, Ford revised its full-size and mid-size product ranges across all three of its divisions; the LTD Crown Victoria remained the sole full-size Ford sedan with the mid-size Granada taking on the LTD name. Following a minor update for the 1988 model year, the LTD Crown Victoria was discontinued after the 1991 model year, replaced by the redesigned Ford Crown Victoria (dropping the station wagon body style and retiring the LTD prefix).

Through its production, the LTD Crown Victoria was produced by Ford at several different facilities. At launch, it was built at the Louisville, Los Angeles, Atlanta, and Oakville plants. By 1982, Oakville was the sole assembly location, and the following year production was added alongside the Mercury Grand Marquis at St. Louis Assembly in Hazelwood, Missouri. Canadian production shifted from Oakville to St. Thomas Assembly in Southwold, Ontario for 1984 models; the facility would become the exclusive production site a year later, producing the LTD Crown Victoria until 1991.

Name etymology[edit]

Taking its name from the Ford Fairlane Crown Victoria of 1955-1956, the 1980 LTD Crown Victoria borrowed a distinctive styling feature from its Fairlane counterpart: a targa-style band across the roof atop the B-pillars. For the Fairlane, the band was bright chrome; to modernize its appearance, the LTD Crown Victoria adopted a band of brushed aluminum.

In the landaulet-style of the Lincoln Town Car, the LTD Crown Victoria was fitted with a half-length padded vinyl roof, with the brushed-aluminum band covering the B-pillars (in place of the "coach lamps" of the Mercury Grand Marquis). In the style of the original 1965 Ford LTD, the LTD Crown Victoria featured a "crested" hood ornament.

The first time Ford used "Victoria" as a naming convention was 1932, for both Ford Victoria and Lincoln Victoria 2-door coupes.

Overview[edit]

1981 Ford LTD Crown Victoria two-door sedan

For 1980, Ford introduced the LTD Crown Victoria nameplate to replace the LTD Landau as its top-level trim for its year-old Ford LTD. As with the previous generation LTD Landau and LTD Brougham, the LTD Crown Victoria directly challenged the Chevrolet Caprice and Pontiac Bonneville (both downsized for 1977) and the Dodge St. Regis (discontinued in 1981).

Originally slated for replacement by the Ford Taurus in the early 1980s, the model line saw relatively little change throughout its production. As the decade progressed, fuel prices stabilized, leading to increased demand and further development of the model line. For 1988 and 1990, the LTD Crown Victoria underwent multiple revisions and updates.

In early 1991, Ford introduced the Ford Crown Victoria as a 1992 model. Dropping the LTD prefix, the Crown Victoria underwent extensive body, chassis, and powertrain upgrades over its predecessor, remaining in production through 2011.

Chassis[edit]

The Ford LTD Crown Victoria uses the rear-wheel drive Ford Panther platform architecture. As part of a major downsizing over the 1973-1978 LTD Brougham/Landau, the LTD Crown Victoria shed 18 inches of length and nearly 1000 pounds of curb weight. While the Panther chassis was all-new, the basic suspension layout was carried over, adopting a double wishboneindependent front suspension and a coil-sprung live rear axle. The front brakes were vented discs with rear drums.

Powertrain[edit]

For its 1980 introduction, Ford produced the LTD Crown Victoria with two engines (both of them V8s). In place of six-cylinder engines as standard equipment, a 130hp 4.9L V8 (the previous 302, rounded up to 5.0L by Ford) was standard, with a 140hp 5.8L V8 (351) as an option.[1] The Ford C4 3-speed automatic transmission was paired to both V8 engines.[2]

For 1981, Ford took additional steps to increase the fuel efficiency of its full-size vehicles. A smaller-displacement V8 became the standard engine, with Ford adding a 120 hp 4.2L V8. Following its introduction on the Lincoln Town Car and Continental Mark VI, the LTD Crown Victoria received throttle-body "electronic central fuel injection" for the 4.9L V8, replacing the carburetor. From Lincoln, the AOD overdrive 4-speed automatic transmission was paired with the 4.2L V8 and was an option with the two larger V8s.[2] For 1982, the AOD replaced the 3-speed automatic entirely.[2]

For 1983, the engine line was revised, as Ford ended production of the 4.2L V8 across all model lines. The 5.0L effectively became the only engine available, as the 5.8L carbureted V8 became restricted to fleet sales (particularly police vehicles); in Canada, the 5.8L V8 remained an option through 1991. For 1984, the engine received an OBD-1 compliant Ford EEC-IV computer, raising output to 140 hp (155 hp optional).[1][2]

For 1986, the 5.0L V8 underwent further revision, replacing the throttle-body fuel injection intake with a redesigned multiport "Sequential-Fire" system (distinguished by its large cast-aluminum air intake manifold), raising output to 150 hp.[1] A dual-exhaust system was introduced for 1990 as an option (adding 10 hp).[1]

For 1991, the 150 hp 5.0L V8 remained standard with the 180 hp 5.8L V8 offered for fleet sales (subject to gas-guzzler taxes) and in Canada; the final American-assembled vehicles sold with a carbureted engine, the latter V8 included the Motorcraft 7200 variable-venturi carburetor in use since 1979.[2]

Body[edit]

1984 Ford LTD Crown Victoria four-door sedan
1987 Ford LTD Crown Victoria two-door sedan

When introduced for the 1980 model year, the LTD Crown Victoria was offered in two-door sedan and four-door sedan body styles; a five-door station wagon was offered as the wood-paneled LTD Country Squire. The body underwent a minor roofline revision over the 1979 LTD Landau, distinguished by a brushed-aluminum band covering the B-pillars. A half-length vinyl roof was standard; on fleet vehicles (such as police cars), the vinyl roof was a delete option.[1]

For 1981, the sideview mirrors were remounted and relocated rearward. For 1982, Ford phased out FORD lettering on both the grille and trunklid, phasing in the Ford Blue Oval emblem (the grille emblem was offset to the drivers' side).[2] For 1983, the exterior received a revised grille design; the taillamp lenses were also redesigned (distinguished by the deletion of the LTD script).

For 1984, a station wagon without woodgrain paneling was introduced, joining the Country Squire.[3] For four door sedans, a "Brougham" full-length vinyl roof with a more formal roofline profile (including a "frenched" rear window) was introduced as an option.[4]

For 1985, the dashboard underwent multiple updates. The climate and audio controls were redesigned (the latter, to fit a single-DIN slot); the change led to the retirement of the 8-track cassette and CB radio options. In a major functional upgrade, the controls for the horn were relocated from the turn-signal stalk to the steering-wheel hub.[2] As a running change by the end of the model year, a center brake light was added (on the rear parcel shelf of sedans, below the rear window of station wagons).[2] For 1987, Ford standardized an electronic dashboard clock, tinted glass, and air conditioning (the latter remained offered as a delete option on fleet vehicles).[2]

Following the 1987 model year, the two-door LTD Crown Victoria sedan was discontinued (only 5,527 were sold in comparison to 105,789 four-door sedans in 1987, down from 6,291 in 1986[5][6]). Demand for two-door vehicles had shifted towards sportier designs (such as the Thunderbird and the Mustang), leaving the compact Tempo as the only 1988 Ford model line sold as both a two-door and a four-door sedan.

1988 update[edit]

1989 Ford LTD Crown Victoria LX
1989 Ford LTD Crown Victoria LX, rear

After nine years in the marketplace, the LTD Crown Victoria underwent its first mid-cycle revision for 1988. To (nominally) improve the aerodynamics of the exterior, the front and rear fascias were restyled, rounding the edges of the fenders slightly; while still protruding outward substantially, the bumpers were better integrated within the body. While the roofline and doors were carried over, other changes sought to modernize the design. Coinciding with enlarged taillamps (wrapping into the fenders), the trunklid was changed in shape (with a larger license-plate opening). The grille was lowered in height and widened, integrating the headlamps and turn signal lenses into a single assembly (the Ford Blue Oval emblem was enlarged and centered). The interior underwent a separate revision; the interior received an increase of wood trim (on LX-trim models), redesigned seats, and a more legible speedometer.[2]

For 1990, the model line received further interior updates, necessitated by passive-safety regulations. For the first time since 1979, the dashboard and steering wheel underwent a complete redesign (reversing the placement of the audio and climate controls); a driver-side airbag was introduced as standard equipment (for all versions). To comply with federal safety regulations, three-point seatbelts were added to the outboard rear seats.[2] Ford standardized many previously optional features to streamline production costs and increase the market appeal of the decade-old model line, including power windows and locks, tilt steering, and automatic headlights (AutoLamp); air conditioning was no longer a delete option. To further reduce production costs, the LTD Crown Victoria and Mercury Grand Marquis shared a nearly identical interior (with only detail changes distinguishing the two).

For its final year, relatively few changes were made to the LTD Crown Victoria for 1991. Ford changed the parking light lenses in color from amber to clear, last seen on the 1979 base-trim Ford LTD.

Trim[edit]

1986 Ford LTD Crown Victoria S four-door sedan

From 1980 to 1982, Ford marketed the LTD Crown Victoria name as the highest-trim version of the Ford LTD. For 1983, Ford enacted an extensive revision of its full-size and mid-size vehicles, affecting both Ford and Lincoln-Mercury in North America. The Ford brand split the LTD nameplate into two product ranges, with the 1979-1982 full-size LTD renamed the LTD Crown Victoria and the LTD nameplate adopted for its mid-size sedan, replacing the Granada (updated and renamed for 1983).

The standard-trim LTD Crown Victoria was intended for retail markets, coming with the 5.0L V8 engine as standard. In addition to the landau-style vinyl padded roof with targa-style trim and wire wheel covers, the model featured full carpeting, reclining cloth bench seat, and AM/FM radio.

Inheriting the trim range from the 1979-1982 LTD, the LTD Crown Victoria was initially sold in a single trim level, with the previous LTD Crown Victoria repackaged as an Interior Luxury Group option, including upgraded seats, door panels, and upgraded interior features.[7][8] For 1986, the option package was reintroduced as the LTD Crown Victoria LX.[9] Effectively serving as a direct Ford counterpart of the Grand Marquis, the LX offered split-bench seats (cloth or leather), upgraded interior carpet, additional sound insulation and power-operated features, and upgraded stereo systems.[10] The exterior of the LX offered cornering lamps, two-tone paint, and standard aluminum-alloy wheels.

While the model had previously been sold for fleet sales, the S model returned for 1987 as a dedicated fleet-sales model.[2] Sold primarily for police and taxi sales, the S trim was externally distinguished by its vinyl roof delete, steel wheels and partial wheel covers, and the lack of a hood ornament and aluminum B-pillar trim. The interior of S trim vehicles were spartan, including vinyl full bench seats, manual windows/locks, AM radios; features such as AM/FM radios and air conditioning were options. Alongside fleet sales, the S trim was the standard trim of the LTD Crown Victoria station wagon; it is the only version sold directly to the general public (without woodgrain sides; also offered in standard and LX trim).

From 1988 onward, the LTD Crown Victoria was offered in a namesake standard trim, the LX, and the fleet-oriented S trims.       

Variants[edit]

Station wagon[edit]

See also: Ford Country Squire

1991 Ford LTD Country Squire (woodgrain trim)
1990 Ford LTD Crown Victoria LX, rear (non-woodgrain trim)

From 1979 to 1991, a five-door station wagon was offered as part of the LTD/LTD Crown Victoria model line. Offered in equivalent trim as sedans, the flagship version remained the wood-trimmed LTD Country Squire, trimmed nearly identically to the LTD Crown Victoria (and the subsequent LTD Crown Victoria LX). On hiatus for the 1983 model year, a non-woodgrain station wagon returned for 1984 under the LTD Crown Victoria nameplate (the previous LTD station wagon); this version was offered in fleet (S) trim, standard trim, and LX trim.

While smaller than its 1970s predecessor, the LTD Crown Victoria/Country Squire wagon returned many of its functional features. The rear door was dual-hinged, allowing it to function as a tailgate or swing outward; other features included a standard roof rack and optional side-facing rear seats (expanding capacity from six to eight). The fleet-oriented S trim lacked the roof rack and the third-row seating (reducing capacity to six).

From the late 1980s into the early 1990s, consumer demand for family vehicles transitioned from large station wagons to minivans and full-size vans, and to four-door sport-utility vehicles. Within Ford, the role of the model line was largely overtaken by the Ford Aerostar and the Ford Econoline/Club Wagon; the Country Squire also struggled to compete with the newer Ford Taurus station wagon (also sold with optional third-row seating). After the 1991 model year, the station wagon body style was dropped from the model line, as the 1992 Ford Crown Victoria was introduced only as a four-door sedan.

Fleet use[edit]

Marketed primarily for fleet usage, including law enforcement, taxi, and other fleet markets, the LTD Crown Victoria S was base trim of the model line, slotted below the standard trim sold to retail markets (under the production code P72). To lower production costs, a number of convenience features were removed from the S trim, distinguished by its lack of a vinyl roof. Along with most bodyside chrome trim, other exterior and interior trim was decontented, including lower-grade carpeting, a standard AM radio, and single-piece front bench seat.[11]

In the United States, the 5.8L V8 was restricted to fleet sale after 1980 (outside of law enforcement sales, examples were subject to gas-guzzler taxes[11]).

Law enforcement use (Police Package)[edit]

Through its entire production, Ford produced option packages for the LTD Crown Victoria, optimizing it for usage as a police car. Competing against the Chevrolet Impala/Caprice 9C1 and the Dodge Diplomat/Plymouth Gran Fury, the LTD Crown Victoria with the Police Package was upgraded for heavy-duty use, including a reinforced frame, upgraded suspension and brakes, larger wheels and tires, and improved engine cooling.[12] Other changes were made to accommodate police equipment, including heavy-duty interior materials, provisions for additional lights and sirens, and a 140mph speedometer.[12][11][13]

The option package was offered for any sedan trim; while primarily offered on the fleet-oriented S trim, police cars were also offered in the LX trim (including interior carpeting, cloth seats, full wheel covers, and whitewall tires).[12][13] Other options allowed for multiple vehicles to share a common key.[13] The standard engine was the 5.0L V8, with a 5.8L V8 (with up to 180 hp) offered as an option; to avoid "gas guzzler" taxes, customers who ordered the 5.8L engine option were required to prove to the IRS that the vehicle was for law enforcement use.[11]

For the 1992 model year, the option became known as the Ford Crown Victoria P71 (later the Crown Victoria Police Interceptor), with Ford replacing both the 5.0L and 5.8L OHV engines (the latter, its final carbureted engine in North America) with a single 210 hp 4.6L SOHC V8.   

Production[edit]

YearProduction Total[14]
1979356,535 (116,913)[a]
1980141,292 (29,687 LTD Crown Victoria)
1981132,363 (50,200 LTD Crown Victoria)
1982128,053 (50,692 LTD Crown Victoria)
1983113,616[b]
1984173,489
1985185,437
1986124,037
1987128,878
1988125,189
1989134,103
199077,395
199182,433
Total1,902,820

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Production numbers are for predecessor LTD Landau
  2. ^All Ford full-size production numbers after 1983 are grouped by bodystyle (sedan/wagon), not nameplate/trim

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_LTD_Crown_Victoria

Ltd 1986 ford

Ford LTD (Americas)

Model range of automobiles

This article is about the domestic (U.S.) model. For the Australian-built vehicle of the same name, see Ford Fairlane (Australia).

Motor vehicle

The Ford LTD (pronounced el-tee-DEE) is a range of automobiles manufactured by Ford Motor Company for the 1965 to 1986 model years. Introduced as the highest trim level of the full-size Ford model range, then the Galaxie, the LTD introduced options and features normally reserved for more luxurious Lincoln and Mercury models. The largest vehicle produced by Ford in North America for most of its production, the LTD was joined by the intermediate Ford LTD II from 1977 to 1979; the LTD II served as the replacement for the Torino/Gran Torino range. At various times throughout its production, the LTD range included two- and four-door pillared and hardtop sedans, a two-door convertible, and the Country Squire five-door woodgrain station wagon.

For the 1979 model year, the LTD was downsized, becoming externally smaller than the LTD II, and for 1983, it became a mid-size car. The Ford Granada was discontinued, with the LTD nameplate moving to a restyled version of that car; the full-size LTD then became LTD Crown Victoria. The mid-size LTD was replaced by the 1986 Ford Taurus, as Ford continued its shift towards front-wheel drive vehicles.

Outside of North America, the 1966 Ford Galaxie 500 was manufactured in South America into the 1980s and marketed as the Ford LTD.

Etymology[edit]

The LTD designation has been speculated by some to be an abbreviation of "Luxury Trim Decor" and by others as a "Limited" trim designation for the Galaxie. There is evidence in early 1970s Australian LTD sales brochures, that "Lincoln Type Design" was adapted by Ford's Australian marketing, as the meaning of the LTD nameplate to play up Lincoln-like exclusitivity and design influence of its Falcon-based LTD luxury car, since actual Lincoln models were not sold in that country.[1][2] However, there is no evidence of "Lincoln Type Design" nor any other meaning ever being used in brochures or advertising copy of North American sales literature. The original Car Life review at the time the first Galaxie 500 LTD was released suggests that "LTD" stood for nothing and was ambiguous in meaning.

First generation (1965–1968)[edit]

Motor vehicle

For the 1965 model year, Ford introduced an all-new design for its full-size model range. To further expand its flagship Galaxie 500 series, the 500 LTD was introduced. Sharing top billing within the Galaxie series with the performance 500XL, the 500 LTD was designed as a luxury-oriented vehicle, offering many features of more expensive vehicles under the lower price of the Ford nameplate. In contrast with other full size Ford models, the LTD featured a luxurious, plush cloth interior with woodgrain accents, along with contoured seats and door panels. In line with Cadillac and Imperial (and its own Lincoln-Mercury offerings), the LTD offered features and options such as power windows, power driver's seat, power brakes, power steering, air conditioning, and a full or half-vinyl top (called a landau or brougham interchangeably by the same manufacturers).[3] Ford offered the Galaxie 500 LTD in two body styles: a two-door hardtop and a four-door hardtop.[4]

The launch of the LTD would lead to several responses from other American manufacturers. As a mid-year introduction, Chevrolet introduced the Caprice (its closest rival), with 1966 bringing the AMC Ambassador DPL, Plymouth Fury VIP, and Dodge Monaco. As with the LTD, all of these model lines were full-size sedans/hardtops offered with higher-trim features and content.

For 1966, the Galaxie name was dropped from the LTD, making it a nameplate in its own right. Along with the rest of the Galaxie line, the LTD received a minor exterior revision, including a split grille. Front disc brakes became an option.[5]

For 1967, the LTD underwent several changes, with a four-door pillared sedan joining the model range.[6] To comply with federally-mandated safety regulations, the LTD received a padded steering wheel, non-protruding instrument panel knobs, a dual-circuit brake master cylinder, four-way hazard flashers, and front outboard shoulder belt mounting points. While the roofline of the four-door hardtop saw minor styling revisions, the two-door hardtop saw extensive changes, giving it a formal profile. The front seats saw a new option, Twin Comfort Lounge Seats (a 50/50 split bench seat).[6] In various forms, the configuration would be adopted by American automakers into the early 2000s. For the first time, the LTD was produced with a direct Lincoln-Mercury counterpart, as Mercury introduced the Marquis two-door hardtop.

Serving largely as a preview of the upcoming major redesign, the 1968 LTD adopted several minor revisions of its own. The 1965-1967 LTD was repackaged as the optional LTD Brougham trim, with a newly base LTD slotted between the Brougham and Galaxie 500. For the first time, the LTD badge was added to the wood-trimmed Country Squire station wagon[7] (as part of the distinct Ford station wagon series, it did not fully adopt the LTD name until 1969).

While the two-door hardtop saw slight changes to its roofline, four-door hardtops were restyled to more closely match their two-door counterparts, with the rear doors receiving more curves to their greenhouse design. The vertically-stacked headlamps introduced in 1965 were replaced by a hidden headlamps; shared with Lincoln-Mercury, the configuration would be a design feature denoting the top-trim LTD for the next decade. The hidden-headlamp system was operated by engine vacuum; if the system were to fail, the headlamp doors retracted up to ensure the headlamps were visible.

The model year also saw further changes to comply with safety regulations. Along with the addition of side marker lights and reflectors, the parking lights illuminated with the headlights; front outboard shoulder belts were fitted to cars built effective January 1, 1968. The padded steering wheel was replaced, following the addition of an energy-absorbing steering column.

  • First-generation Ford LTD (1965-1968)
  • 1965 Ford Galaxie 500 LTD 2-Door Hardtop

  • 1966 Ford LTD four-door hardtop

  • 1967 Ford LTD four-door hardtop

  • 1968 Ford LTD Brougham four-door hardtop

  • 1968 Ford LTD Country Squire

Limousine[edit]

A limousine version of the car was also considered, with the extra length at the C-pillar and the rear doors. At least one example was built by Lehmann-Peterson. This car does not appear to have a B-pillar or a division window.[8]

Andy Hotton Associates also built about 10 examples of an LTD limo, in which the extra length was added at the B-pillar and C-pillar.[9]

Second generation (1969–1978)[edit]

Motor vehicle

Second generation
1971 Ford LTD Brougham 2-door hardtop front right.jpg

1971 Ford LTD Brougham 2-Door Hardtop

Production1968–1978
Model years1969–1978
AssemblyCanada: Oakville, Canada (Oakville Assembly)
United States: Hazelwood, Missouri (St. Louis Assembly Plant)
Mahwah, New Jersey (Mahwah Assembly)
Pico Rivera, California (Los Angeles Assembly)
Hapeville, Georgia (Atlanta Assembly)
Venezuela: Valencia, Carabobo,
Body style4-door hardtop
4-door sedan
2-door coupe
2-door convertible (1971-1972)
4-door station wagon
RelatedMercury Marquis
Mercury Monterey
Mercury Colony Park
Ford Galaxie
Ford Custom
Ford Country Squire
Engine302 cu in (4.9 L) WindsorV8
351 cu in (5.8 L) ClevelandV8
351 cu in (5.8 L) 351MV8
390 cu in (6.4 L) Thunderbird Special (FE) V8
400 cu in (6.6 L) 335V8
429 cu in (7.0 L) 385V8
460 cu in (7.5 L) 385V8
Transmission3-speed Toploader manual
4-speed Toploader manual
3-speed FMX automatic
3-speed C6 automatic
3-speed C4 automatic
Wheelbase121.0 inches (3,070 mm)
Length224.1 inches (5,690 mm) (coupe, sedan)
225.7 inches (5,730 mm) (wagon)

For the 1969 model year, the LTD was given a major redesign. Based on a largely carryover chassis, the wheelbase of all full-size Ford sedans now stretched to 121 inches.

Timeline[edit]

1969:Ford LTD is given a redesign on a longer (121-inch) wheelbase chassis; the hidden headlights and formal roofline introduced in 1967 are retained. An all-new body features a split grille with a horizontal center divider (shared with XLs and Country Squires).[10]

  • 1970: The split grille was discontinued; while its Mercury Marquis counterpart continues its Lincoln-style fascia, Ford redesigned the front end of the LTD with a three-segment grille with a prominent center section[10] (a toned down version of the Ford Thunderbird (fifth generation)). All LTDs got a new Federally-mandated locking steering column and wheel, with the ignition switch located on the right side of the column.
  • 1971: The LTD was given a styling update. In the rear, the long-running Ford styling tradition ended as the twin round or square "jet exhaust" taillights were replaced by horizontal taillights on all full-size Fords.[10] In between the two tail lamps was a center "third" brakelight; on the Galaxie 500, this space was an alloy trim panel while Custom 500s had body-color trim. In front, the LTD lost its hidden headlamps to Lincoln-Mercury, but got a new front end treatment with a tall center grille section and "LTD" spelled out in block letters on the hood.

With the discontinuation of the XL series, the convertible was moved to the LTD line. These were produced with bucket seats and center consoles; the console was similar to the console in the XLs and Mercury Marauders of 1969–1970, with a "stirrup" style shift handle.[10]

A modified 1971 Ford Custom is featured prominently in the 1973 American film White Lightning. It is the car driven by the film’s lead character, portrayed by Burt Reynolds.[11]

  • 1972: 1972 models were virtually the same as the 1971s, although the bumper now stretched across the lower section of the grille. A new rear bumper integrated the taillights; also in the rear, the design of the trunklid was squared off. Due to decreased demand in the segment, 1972 was the final model year for the LTD convertible.[10]
  • 1973: In 1973, in order to comply with federal regulations, the LTD was given a major redesign for the model year. The requirements for 5-mph front bumpers had taken effect, with larger rear bumpers to be added in 1974. While the redesign slightly decreased the weight of the LTD, it still was far in excess of two tons, making agility and fuel economy both key weak points. The new styling was bulkier, making the car look significantly larger and heavier than previous models. Four-door models (sharing rooflines with Mercury) were given thin B-pillars for roof reinforcement and branded as "pillared hardtops" (frameless door glass remained on all Ford LTD models).[10] The 460 engine became an option for the first time in 1974.
  • 1974: Five-mph bumpers added to the rear. Mostly carryover from the 1973 model year. Mid-year, a non-woodgrain LTD wagon became available. A new Federal law required seat belts to be buckled before the starter would operate; public protests prompted the government to relax this requirement.[10] Subsequent models got a simple "Fasten Seat Belt" warning light and buzzer for 1975, and owners were now permitted to disable the starter interlock on their 1974s.
  • 1975: Following the discontinuation of the Galaxie series after 1974, Ford sought to fill its place by expanding the LTD trim lineup. Above the Custom 500 was the standard LTD, the LTD Brougham, and newly introduced for 1975, the LTD Landau.[10] In an effort to comply with pending rollover standards (as well as to differentiate it from the Mercury Marquis), the two-door was converted from a hardtop to a coupe with wide B-pillars and a tall, narrow "opera window" (Chevrolet did the same thing with the 1974 Caprice Coupe).[10] More or less the Ford counterpart to the Mercury Grand Marquis, the LTD Landau featured rear fender skirts and various decor packages for additional luxury; it was distinguished by the return of hidden headlamps (exclusive to its trim level). Hidden headlamps were also shared with the LTD Country Squire wagon. The 429 engine was replaced by the 460 V8 sourced from Lincoln-Mercury for 1975. A catalytic converter now required the use of unleaded fuel, and the gas gauge and fuel filler sported warnings to this effect.
  • 1976: Four-wheel disc brakes and 8-track were optional.[12] Last year for LTD Brougham trim level.[10]
  • 1977: Since the LTD Brougham had been discontinued, the LTD Landau received the former Brougham interior as the base offering. Optional interiors, including the LTD Landau Luxury Group, were still available.[10]
  • 1978: Final year for 121-inch wheelbase LTD, as it is replaced by the downsized Panther-platform generation LTD for 1979.[10]

1973-1978 Ford LTD Police Package & Police Interceptor Package: 1973-1978, Police Package contained a 351/400 CID motor for city patrol cars, while the 460 Police Interceptor was for heavy Duty and high Speed use. The 460 Police Interceptor motor was rated at 260 Net horsepower and capable of 0-60 times in the 8 second range. Quarter mile times in the upper 15 second bracket, and top speeds in excess of 135 Mph. 1975-1978 Ford LTD 460 Police Interceptor "C code"

Approximately 7,850,000 full-size Fords and Mercurys were sold over the 1969–1978 period.[13][14] This makes it the second best selling Ford automobile platform after the Ford Model T.[10]

  • 1969 Ford LTD 2-door hardtop

  • 1970 Ford LTD 4-Door Sedan

  • 1971 Ford LTD convertible

  • 1972 Ford LTD Brougham 2-Door Hardtop (with non-standard wheels)

  • 1974 Ford LTD 4-door pillared hardtop

  • 1975 Ford LTD Landau 2-door pillared hardtop

  • 1975 Ford LTD station wagon

  • 1977 Ford LTD 4-door pillared hardtop

  • Ford LTD Landau 4-door pillared hardtop

  • Ford LTD Landau 4-door pillared hardtop

  • 1978 Ford LTD Country Squire

Mechanical Details[edit]

For the first time since the 1940s, the full-size Ford line was powered exclusively by V8 engines. The base engine was the 302 cid V8. The next largest engine was Ford's 351 CID V8, the most common choice. Still larger was Ford's 400 CID V8. Topping the range was the 429 cid V8, which was replaced by the 460 CID V8 for 1974.[10] The full-sized Fords remained strong sellers each year during this period, due to their high comfort, powerful engines, good build quality and reasonable cost.

LTD II[edit]

Main article: Ford LTD II

When Ford updated its mid-size product line for 1977, they took on the LTD name as well. To differentiate them from the full-size product lineup, the mid-size cars were called the LTD II in an attempt to appeal to buyers as a downsized alternative to the full-sized LTD which had competition from GM's newly downsized full-sized cars. The LTD II was based on the Ford Torino and served as a restyled replacement for it. The LTD II styling was also adapted to update the final generation of the Ford Ranchero. The LTD II was discontinued after 1979 without being replaced, as the new Panther-platform LTD was nearly a foot shorter than an LTD II and the Granada became Ford's mid-size product line with its 1981 redesign.

Third generation (1979–1982)[edit]

Motor vehicle

Background[edit]

For the 1977 model year, General Motors became the first American auto manufacturer to introduce downsized full-size sedans, with its B/C full-size sedans having a smaller exterior footprint than their A-body intermediates.

As Ford remained in development with its downsizing of the LTD (and its Lincoln-Mercury counterparts), Ford touted the aspects of its larger sedans, comparing the LTD side-by-side with the GM flagship sedan Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham. Nearly matching the Chevrolet Caprice in size, Ford offered the "Trim Size" LTD II, a new generation of the Torino intermediate.

Trailing GM for nearly two years, Ford began production of the third-generation LTD on July 31, 1978 at Louisville Assembly; in August, production came online at Atlanta Assembly, Los Angeles Assembly, and Oakville Assembly.[15][16] The LTD marked the launch of the rear-wheel drive Ford Panther platform; in stark contrast to the Chrysler R platform, the Panther chassis was completely new from the ground up. In line with the GM B/C downsizing, the Panther design introduced trimmer body profiles, nimbler body handling (from smaller size), and better fuel economy (to better comply with CAFE standards).

For 1979, Ford introduced the Ford LTD sedans and LTD Country Squire station wagons; the Lincoln Continental was delayed until 1980, making Lincoln the final brand to introduce a downsized model range. In Canada, the Custom 500 nameplate continued on for the last time, serving as the base model through the 1981 model year.

Model overview[edit]

1979 Ford LTD sedan; standard trim with two headlamps. 1979 was the only year the standard LTD was fitted with a hood ornament.

In comparison to its 1978 predecessor, the 1979 LTD shed approximately 15 inches of body length and 7 inches of wheelbase; (dependent on powertrain) the Panther chassis shed over 700 pounds in curb weight.[16] While slightly narrower overall, the body design also led to increased interior and trunk space.[16] The lighter Panther chassis and body displaced the need for the big-block 400 and 460 V8s; Ford made the small-block 302 V8 standard and a 351 optional, now advertised in metric as 5.0 and 5.8 liters respectively. In contrast to Chrysler and General Motors, Ford Panther-chassis vehicles retained V8 engines as standard equipment. For 1981, to further improve its CAFE performance (while avoiding the use of 6-cylinder or diesel engines), a 255 cu in (4.2 L) variant of the 5.0L V8 became the standard engine, making the 5.0L optional; output decreased to only 115 hp (the lowest since the final Flathead V8 in 1953).

Adopting the sharp-edged styling of the (smaller) Ford Fairmont, the 1979 LTD would shed its optional hidden headlamps, with all versions adopting exposed rectangular headlights (besides a much wider grille). Base-trim examples were fitted with dual headlamps and clear parking lamp lenses; higher-trim versions used quad headlamps with amber lenses.

For 1980, trim levels were revised, with the base trim becoming the LTD S and the LTD Landau replaced by the LTD Crown Victoria, with the standard LTD in between.[16] The Ford equivalent of the Mercury Grand Marquis, the LTD Crown Victoria drew its name from a styling element, a brushed aluminum band covering the B-pillar and the roof, influenced by its 1955-1956 Ford Fairlane namesake. Intended largely for fleet sales, the LTD S was sold as both a sedan and a station wagon (without wood trim). A 4-speed overdrive automatic transmission became an option for the 5.0L V8 (exclusive to the Panther chassis at the time).[16] The Lincoln-style hood ornament of 1979 was replaced by a horizontal design; fitted only to the LTD Crown Victoria, the design would be used unchanged through 1987.[16]

For 1981, alongside the addition of the 4.2L V8, the body underwent minor revisions to improve fuel economy. The vents in the front bumpers were removed (shifting the license plate mount under the left headlamp) and the sideview mirrors were repositioned (leading to the return of vent windows as an option).

For 1982, the LTD saw the addition of the Ford Blue Oval emblem on the grille and trunklid (replacing "FORD" badging).[16] To aid in tracking fuel consumption, a trip computer was added as an option.[16][17] While standard, the 4.2L engine was offered for the final time. The 5.8L engine was dropped from retail sale, becoming exclusive to police car use; alongside the Motorcraft 7200VV two-barrel variable venturi carburetor; a conventional carburetor was available with the police option high-output 351. Introduced as an option with the 5.0L engine for 1980, the AOD overdrive transmission became paired with all three engines.[16]

Fourth generation (1983–1986)[edit]

Motor vehicle

Fourth generation (Ford Fox)
Ford LTD - Flickr - dave 7 (1).jpg

1983–1984 Ford LTD sedan

Also calledMercury Marquis
Ford Granada (Venezuela)
Ford Cougar (Venezuela)
Production1982–1986
Model years1983–1986
AssemblyChicago, Illinois
Atlanta, Georgia
Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela
Body style4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
PlatformFord Fox platform
RelatedFord Fairmont
Ford Granada
Ford Thunderbird
Mercury Marquis
Mercury Cougar
Mercury Zephyr
Lincoln Continental
Lincoln Mark VII
Engine2.3 L LimaI4
3.3 L Thriftpower SixI6
3.8 L EssexV6
4.9L 5.0L WindsorV8
Transmission4-speed manual
3-speed C5 automatic
4-speed AOD automatic
Wheelbase105.6 in (2,682 mm)
Length196.5 in (4,991 mm)
Width71.0 in (1,803 mm)
Height53.8 in (1,367 mm) (sedan)
54.4 in (1,382 mm) (wagon)
Curb weight3,001 lb (1,361 kg) (sedan)
3,108 lb (1,410 kg) (wagon)
PredecessorFord Granada (1981–1982)
SuccessorFord Taurus

From 1981 to 1983, Ford underwent a major revision of its full-size and mid-size product lines, involving all three of its divisions. For the 1983 model year, the LTD and LTD Crown Victoria split into distinct product lines. The latter became the full-size Ford sedan range (alongside the LTD Country Squire), with the LTD nameplate effectively replacing the Ford Granada in a mid-cycle model revision. In line with Ford, the Mercury Marquis and Grand Marquis were also split into distinct product lines; replacing the Cougar (sedan and wagon), the Marquis became the counterpart of the repackaged LTD.

Shedding nearly 13 inches of length, 9 inches of wheelbase, 7 inches of width, and over 600 pounds of curb weight (dependent on powertrain),[18][19] the 1983 LTD underwent nearly the same reduction in size as its 1979 predecessor, although the downsizing was the result of re-marketing a stronger-selling nameplate for a slow-selling model line. Ultimately, the LTD became the third-best selling automobile in the U.S. for 1983 and 1984.

Model overview[edit]

Sharing the mid-size version of the Fox platform with its Granada predecessor, the fourth-generation LTD has a 105.6-inch wheelbase. In contrast to both the Granada and the full-size LTD, the fourth-generation LTD was sold as a four-door sedan and a five-door station wagon (no two-door versions were offered). Alongside the base-trim sedan and wagon, the LTD Brougham trim made its return, along with a LTD Squire wood-trimmed wagon.

For its 1983 launch, the LTD retained two engines from the Granada: a 2.3L Lima inline-four (not available as a wagon) and a 3.3 L Falcon Six inline-six.[19] Also inherited from the Granada was a 3.8 L Essex V6, which replaced the inline-six entirely for 1984.[20] For 1984, both engines gained central point fuel injection in the United States[20] (the Canadian-market V6 remained carbureted until 1986). A rare option, seen only in 1982–1984, was an LPG (propane)-powered version of the four-cylinder engine; it was largely discontinued due to poor sales and lack of propane fueling infrastructure. The four-cylinder was a slow seller throughout; Ford kept offering it for the duration of production but in 1986 only 485 four-cylinder LTDs were sold, representing 0.7 percent of overall LTD/Squire sales for the year.[21]

For the first time since 1971, the LTD was offered with a manual transmission; a three-speed automatic was optional on the 2.3L engine and standard on the 3.3L engine (all 3.8L engines came with a 4-speed overdrive automatic).

For the 1985 model year, the LTD underwent a minor model revision. Along with minor changes to the taillamps, the LTD received a new grille, distinguished by a centered Ford Blue Oval emblem. 1986 models are identifiable by the addition of a federally-mandated CHMSL (center brake lamp).

  • Fourth generation Ford LTD (Fox platform)
  • interior image, 1984 Ford LTD

  • 1986 Ford LTD station wagon

LTD LX[edit]

From the mid-1984 model year and throughout the 1985 model year, Ford had a performance version of the LTD marketed as the LTD LX. It came standard with the high output 5.0L CFI V8 engine, four-speed automatic transmission with overdrive, 600 lb-in front and 270 lb-in rear coil springs, front and rear sway bars, 10 inch front disc and 10 inch rear drum brakes, and a 3.27:1 rear gear ratio with a Traction-Lok differential. The LX model was the only LTD to have a tachometer in the instrument cluster. The center console and floor-mounted shifter re-appeared, having last been available in the full-size 1972 model year.

Police Package editions were also produced alongside the LX. Notable for its bigger sway bars and brakes, it also included bench seats with an automatic trunk opener located underneath the steering wheel. They were a factory option and most were equipped with light bars and police accessories, although some came without. Mercury's sister car to the LX, the Marquis LTS, was available only in Canada and only in the 1985 model year, with only 134 produced that year.

Discontinuation[edit]

As the 1980s progressed, the use of front-wheel drive expanded out of the compact segment towards the mid-size segment. Following the success of the Chrysler K-Cars and the General Motors A-body sedans (along with the introduction of Honda Accord sedan and Toyota Camry), Ford was one of the last major manufacturers to introduce a mid-size front-wheel drive model line. For 1986, Ford introduced the Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable; originally developed as the replacements for the Panther-platform model lines, the mid-size Taurus and Sable would replace the LTD and Marquis product lines. Along with the transition to front-wheel drive, the exterior of the Taurus was designed to optimize fuel efficiency, replacing the boxy LTD with one of the most aerodynamic sedans in the world.

For the 1986 model year, Ford marketed the LTD alongside its replacement, transitioning potential buyers into the massive model change. Atlanta Assembly produced its final LTD on December 13, 1985 (13 days before the Taurus was unveiled); Chicago Assembly produced the final example on January 3, 1986.[citation needed]

Brazil[edit]

The LTD was built locally in Brazil between 1967 and 1981, based on the 1966 Galaxie platform. An upper version called Landau was assembled locally as well.[22][23]

Venezuela[edit]

The LTD was introduced to the Venezuelan market in 1966, aiming to compete with Chrysler's New Yorker, with the LTD performing much better than its rivals. Over 85,000 LTDs were assembled in the Ford plant of Valencia, Venezuela, some for export to Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru.

Versions of the North American Fox-body 1983–1986 LTD manufactured in Venezuela continued the use of the Granada name complete with uplevel Elite badged versions. There was also a Ford Cougar equivalent to the North American Mercury Marquis.[24][25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Australian Ford Register – Ford LTD". Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  2. ^"Australian Ford LTD Review and Specs". Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  3. ^"Directory Index: Ford/1965_Ford/1965_Ford_Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  4. ^"1966 Ford Full Size Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  5. ^"1966 Ford Full Size Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  6. ^ ab"Directory Index: Ford/1967_Ford/1967_Ford_Full_Size_Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  7. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-02-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^"Ford LTD Stretched Limousine in "Mission: Impossible"". imcdb.org. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02.
  9. ^"Daves Classic Limousine Pictures". my.net-link.net.
  10. ^ abcdefghijklmnOdin, L.C. A concise guide to the Ford and Mercury full-size automobile production 1969–1978. Belvedere Publishing, 2016. ASIN: B01HE91Y4K.
  11. ^"White Lightning (1973)". Archived from the original on 2018-05-13 – via www.imdb.com.
  12. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2016-10-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^Kowalke, Ron (1997). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause Publications. ISBN .
  14. ^Flammang, James Standard Catalog of American Cars 1976–1999 3rd Edition (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc. 1999)
  15. ^Stark, Harry A., ed. (1979). Ward's Automotive Yearbook 1979. Ward's Communications. p. 101.
  16. ^ abcdefghi"The Complete 'Box' Panther History". www.grandmarq.net. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  17. ^"Directory Index: Ford/1982_Ford/1982_Ford_LTD_Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  18. ^"Directory Index: Ford/1982_Ford/1982_Ford_LTD_Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
  19. ^ ab"Directory Index: Ford/1983_Ford/1983_Ford_LTD_Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. p. 13. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
  20. ^ ab"1984 Ford LTD Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
  21. ^Stark, Harry A., ed. (1987). Ward's Automotive Yearbook 1987. 49. Detroit, MI: Ward's Communications, Inc. p. 51. ISBN .CS1 maint: ignored ISBN errors (link)
  22. ^1976 Ford Full-Line Factory Sales BrochureArchived 2009-08-02 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^1979 Ford LTD Factory Sales BrochureArchived 2009-08-02 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^"1983 Ford Granada Elite (Venezuela)". Retrieved 2018-09-09.
  25. ^"1983 Ford Cougar Brougham (Venezuela)". Retrieved 2018-09-09.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ford LTD.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_LTD_(Americas)
1990 Ford LTD Crown Victoria Start Up, Exhaust, In Depth Tour, and Test Drive

Marinka had to work: she had to eat herself and feed the children. And so my wife and I, like the last time, so as not to wake up old and young, went to spend the night. With our sister.

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Because of people like you, our respectable city suffers. What if my girl sees someone like you on the way to school. Lie on the floor with your hands behind your head. Izaura fell to the floor and did as the warden said.



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