Ace for barrel horses

Ace for barrel horses DEFAULT


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2 cc of ace on the tongue, how long will that last?

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Neat Freak


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chicks2 - 2015-12-01 7:36 AM 2 cc of ace on the tongue, how long will that last?


What are you trying to do? They make a gel that is so much better for calming one down if you have vet or farrier work that needs done. Dormesedon or something similar to that name. 

Elite Veteran



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On the tongue takes about 30 minutes to an hour to work first off, and then it lasts for a few hours depending on the horse. Ace is not a heavy drug, I;ve raced a few horses on it to take the edge off of their nerves over the years (and they still ran just as well).

So unless you just need a bit of an edge taken off, I would go for rompin IM or ketamine IM for real sedation, or the cocktail with all three for real sedation (We use the cocktail to live breed mares). But it all depends on what you need it for, of course.

Military family

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Location: Where the pavement ends and the West begins UtahJust to calm down B 1 and magnesium and take off grain unless competing.


A Barrel Of Monkeys


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Location: TexasI've used Ace quite a bit on a nervous horse when first starting to haul one out.  1-2 cc on the tongue will calm them enough to get them tired and used to the environment.

I will warn though, Ace has some risk factors when giving to a gelding, so keep that in mind.  

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Fun2Run - 2015-12-02 11:51 AM

I've used Ace quite a bit on a nervous horse when first starting to haul one out.  1-2 cc on the tongue will calm them enough to get them tired and used to the environment.

I will warn though, Ace has some risk factors when giving to a gelding, so keep that in mind.  


What kind of risk?


Expert


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We've put it under the tongue. Like someone said it could take an hour or so for it to start working but in my experience I only had good luck with it working for an hour to an hour and a half.

I had just as good of luck if not better with Essential Oils Lavender Oil. A few drops on the palm of your hand and then rub it on their nose. I would recommend trying this at home first only because some horses are sensitive to the smell and will do funny things with their head after it is applied.

I had great luck with a feed through call RelaxSaver Equine by Figuerola Labs.



Best of the Badlands


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KPwuvsOliver - 2015-12-02 1:55 PM

Fun2Run - 2015-12-02 11:51 AM I've used Ace quite a bit on a nervous horse when first starting to haul one out.  1-2 cc on the tongue will calm them enough to get them tired and used to the environment.



I will warn though, Ace has some risk factors when giving to a gelding, so keep that in mind.  

What kind of risk?

It can cause  a gelding or stallion's penis to prolapse and become paralyzed.   

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Thanks for the feedback, all good. I was using this on a gelding that has become more and more anxious when I haul him. It was going to be a trailer ride that was aabout 2 1/2 hours. Only gave it about 15 minutes before we left, so he was moving around some and pawing a little for the first few miles of the trip, but when we checked him at the half way point and when we got there, he was pretty chilaxed. So, for what I needed it for, it worked like a charm.

However, I had never heard the side effect mentioned. Any stats on the frequency for this, or other factors that could impact that outcome?

Miss Southern Sunshine



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chicks2 - 2015-12-02 3:30 PM Thanks for the feedback, all good. I was using this on a gelding that has become more and more anxious when I haul him. It was going to be a trailer ride that was aabout 2 1/2 hours. Only gave it about 15 minutes before we left, so he was moving around some and pawing a little for the first few miles of the trip, but when we checked him at the half way point and when we got there, he was pretty chilaxed. So, for what I needed it for, it worked like a charm. However, I had never heard the side effect mentioned. Any stats on the frequency for this, or other factors that could impact that outcome?


I've used it for a mare with extreeme nervous problems.  But I would never give it to a gelding..or well, a male.  There are other drugs that will do the same thing, with out that issue.  So if you have to do it again, I would ask vet for what else is available with out the risk of the penis issue.

Expert



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Location: CaliforniaDo you have to get ace through a vet?


I know, dumb question. Never used it, don't need it, just curious.


A Barrel Of Monkeys


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*almost there* - 2015-12-02 11:03 PM Do you have to get ace through a vet? I know, dumb question. Never used it, don't need it, just curious.


Yes 

Extreme Veteran



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animal element makes a paste called in the zone and it really helps calm - I give it to my boy before I put him hin the trailer about 15-20 min out- and its good for their belly too- if they tend to be ulcer prone I also use it before runs sometimes if I feel like mine is getting to nervous

The Advice Guru



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chicks2 - 2015-12-02 2:30 PM

Thanks for the feedback, all good. I was using this on a gelding that has become more and more anxious when I haul him. It was going to be a trailer ride that was aabout 2 1/2 hours. Only gave it about 15 minutes before we left, so he was moving around some and pawing a little for the first few miles of the trip, but when we checked him at the half way point and when we got there, he was pretty chilaxed. So, for what I needed it for, it worked like a charm.

However, I had never heard the side effect mentioned. Any stats on the frequency for this, or other factors that could impact that outcome?


Not sure about the stats, but I have seen where the penis is paralyzed the horse constantly dribbles as well.

My vet said it is like Russian roulette, your horse may be good the first dozen times then the 13th the effects are irreversible

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Swannranch - 2015-12-02 5:58 PM

chicks2 - 2015-12-02 3:30 PM Thanks for the feedback, all good. I was using this on a gelding that has become more and more anxious when I haul him. It was going to be a trailer ride that was aabout 2 1/2 hours. Only gave it about 15 minutes before we left, so he was moving around some and pawing a little for the first few miles of the trip, but when we checked him at the half way point and when we got there, he was pretty chilaxed. So, for what I needed it for, it worked like a charm. However, I had never heard the side effect mentioned. Any stats on the frequency for this, or other factors that could impact that outcome?


I've used it for a mare with extreeme nervous problems.  But I would never give it to a gelding..or well, a male.  There are other drugs that will do the same thing, with out that issue.  So if you have to do it again, I would ask vet for what else is available with out the risk of the penis issue.

What I'm surprised with is that the vet knew I was giving it to a gelding, so I'm surprised she didn't give me a heads up on this, I think I'll ask her about that.


Expert


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Location: Piedmont, OKAnimal Element has a paste called In the Zone which helps to calm and relax a horse. If they are really high strung I give them a 20cc dose before I put them on the trailer and then 10 cc when we get to the race. It works well unless you are dealing with a pain issue and in that case nothing will work until it is fixed.
Sours: http://forums.barrelhorseworld.com/forum/forums/thread-view.asp?tid=467891&start=1

Calm Down! Part 4

Part 3 of a series

Pharmaceuticals

In part 1 we talked about how certain minerals, vitamins and dietary changes can calm a horse.
In part 2 we discussed amino acids and the role they play in calming
In part 3 we reviewed many herbal ingredients that have been shown to have a calming effect.
Now for the final issue in this series we focus on drugs and products for calming.

Let’s start with pharmaceuticals that have been used for calming.

Acepromazine

Probably the most famous is Acepromazine or “Ace”. Acepromazine is a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic drug. It was first used in humans in the 1950’s. Acepromazine is frequently used in horses as a sedative. It has been widely used in horses as a pre-anesthetic sedative. However, it should be used with caution in stallions due to the risk of paraphimosis (penile paralysis). Its potential for cardiac effects, namely hypotension (low blood pressure) due to peripheral vasodilation, can be profound and as such is not recommended for use in geriatric, debilitated patients or in horses with large volume blood loss.

Acepromazine acts as a blacking agent on different postsynaptic receptors in the nervous system. Acepromazine is available as an injectable solution and as a tablet. Acepromazine can be administered by the intramuscular route, taking effect within 20-30 minutes, or may be given intravenously, taking effect within minutes. Acepromazine will cross mucous membranes and can be given orally. The length of sedation is variable depending on the dose, route and patient but sedation usually lasts for 1–4 hours.

Additionally, acepromazine is used as a vasodilator in the treatment of laminitis (founder). It is also sometimes used to treat horses experiencing Equine Exertional Rhabdomyolysis (Tying up Syndrome).

Acepromazine lowers blood pressure, and should therefore be used with caution in horses that are experiencing anemia, dehydration, shock, or colic.

Sours: https://equineservices.com/calm-down-part-4/
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Exercise‐induced pulmonary hemorrhage in barrel racing horses in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States

J Vet Intern Med. 2018 Mar-Apr; 32(2): 839–845.

Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15066

Jenifer R. Gold

1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

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Donald P. Knowles

2 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

3 Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Services, USDA, Pullman, Washington,

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Todd Coffey

4 Center for Interdisciplinary Statistical Education and Research, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

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Warwick M. Bayly

1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

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Author informationArticle notesCopyright and License informationDisclaimer

1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

2 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

3 Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Services, USDA, Pullman, Washington,

4 Center for Interdisciplinary Statistical Education and Research, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

Jenifer R. Gold, Email: [email protected]

corresponding authorCorresponding author.

*Correspondence Jenifer R. Gold, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, 100 Grimes Way, ABDF 1020, Pullman, WA. 99164. Email: [email protected]

Received 2017 Jul 10; Revised 2017 Dec 12; Accepted 2018 Jan 16.

Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Background

Exercise‐induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) refers to bleeding from the lungs in association with strenuous exercise. It has been documented in race horses but little information exists on EIPH in barrel racing horses.

Hypothesis/Objectives

Our goals were to evaluate the presence of EIPH in barrel racing horses and estimate its prevalence in the Pacific Northwest.

Animals

149 barrel racing horses enrolled at events in WA (11), ID (3), and MT (33).

Methods

Observational cross‐sectional study. Data collected included signalment, history of illness, respiratory disease, race division, and pre‐race medications. Endoscopy was performed and tracheobronchoscopic (TBE) EIPH score was assigned based on quantity of blood in the trachea (0 = no blood to 4 = abundance of blood within the trachea). After TBE, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) counts were obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Statistical analysis included linear and logistic regression, Fisher's exact t test, and calculation of correlation coefficient. Significance was set at P < .05.

Results

The prevalence of EIPH based on TBE EIPH score was 54%. When based on BALF RBC count >1,000 cells, EIPH prevalence was 66%. Race time did not significantly affect the presence of EIPH. A significant (P < .0001) positive linear relationship between the TBE and BAL erythrocyte count was identified, but its strength was poor (r2 = .15).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

EIPH occurs in over 50% of barrel racing horses in the Pacific Northwest. Precise determination of the impact of EIPH on health of barrel racers requires further study.

Keywords: bronchoalveolar lavage, endoscopy, equine, respiratory

Abbreviations

BAL
bronchoalveolar lavage
BALF
bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
EIPH
exercise‐induced pulmonary hemorrhage
IAD
inflammatory airway disease
PBS
phosphate buffered 0.9% sodium chloride
RBC
red blood cell
TBE
tracheobronchoscopic EIPH exam
WBC
white blood cell

1. INTRODUCTION

Exercise‐induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is bleeding that occurs in the lungs during exercise, after exercise or both and can have a negative impact on performance.1, 2 It is diagnosed by detecting the presence of blood in the airways during the post‐exercise period by either tracheobronchoscopy (TBE), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or both.2 Despite the fact that this condition occurs in a large number of performance horses1 and is associated with substantial economic losses, its pathogenesis and impact on athletic performance and the long‐term health of the horse still needs clarification.2

Barrel racing horses (predominantly American Quarter Horses or related breeds) are required to run for short periods of time (usually <20 seconds/run) at maximal intensity. This exercise is similar to that of sprinting Thoroughbreds or Quarter Horses, which are breeds known to experience performance‐limiting EIPH.2 Surprisingly, only 1 peer‐reviewed report describes the incidence and severity of EIPH in barrel racing horses.3 In the population studied, prevalence of EIPH was high (77/170 horses [45.3%]) but the study design did not allow thorough evaluation of effect on performance. Poor performance is a primary presenting complaint to veterinarians in 39%‐41% of clinical cases involving barrel racing horses.4, 5 The purpose of our study was to assess the presence of EIPH in barrel racing horses, estimate its prevalence in the Pacific Northwest, and determine if relationships exist between EIPH and barrel racing performance.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

In this observational study, veterinary researchers travelled to different barrel races in Washington, Idaho, and Montana in 2016. The events typically were 2–4 days long with a variety of levels of competition. The races were run in designated divisions, 1D through 6D, which reflected the competitive abilities of the horses. The 1D classes were for the fastest horses. The National Barrel Racing Association uses increments of 0.5 seconds to determine individual divisions or classes. The fastest time is a 1D. The 2D cut‐off time is 0.5 seconds slower than 1D time, and so on until all 6 divisions are established for an event. The 6D class typically is for horse and rider that run the course more slowly, or for schooling young horses. A booth was set up at the races, and announcements at the event and via social media encouraged participation in the study.

Interested horse owners filled out a questionnaire requesting information regarding age, breed, barrel racing division, history of any illness, respiratory disease, previous diagnosis with EIPH, cough at rest or with exercise, and medications administered before racing. To be included in the study, horses must have run at least once on the day of evaluation. Some of the horses had a reported history of EIPH, whereas others had no history of previous bleeding. Horses were not excluded from the study if they had a history of EIPH nor were they excluded for use of race day medications or nasal flare strips. The owners had the risks and benefits of the evaluative procedures explained before participation in the study and consent forms were signed before performing TBE and BAL. The study was approved by Washington State University Animal Care and Use Committee, ASAF # 04778‐002, 01/06/2016.

All horses received a complete physical examination after they ran followed immediately by a TBE and BAL. The physical examination was performed at least 45 minutes post‐race with some being performed > 90 minutes post‐race. Heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, and elapsed time since the race were recorded. The horses were sedated with xylazine (0.5‐1 mg/kg IV) and acepromazine (0.02‐0.6 mg/kg IV) after the physical examination and just before TBE and BAL. Both TBE and BAL were sequentially performed immediately after sedation.

2.1. Endoscopic procedure and scoring

Tracheobronchoscopy, including recording of videos was performed using a 12.9 mm diameter 3‐meter video‐endoscope (Vetel Diagnostics, San Luis Obispo, California) as previously described.3, 6, 7 Horses were considered positive for EIPH if the TBE EIPH score was ≥ 1. The TBE EIPH score was based on the quantity of blood in the trachea: Grade 0 = no blood; Grade 1 = 1 or more flecks of blood or 2 or fewer short narrow streams of blood in the trachea or mainstem bronchi; Grade 2 = 1 long stream of blood or more than 2 short streams of blood occupying less than a third of the tracheal circumference; Grade 3 = multiple distinct streams of blood covering more than a third of the tracheal circumference, with no blood pooling at the thoracic inlet; and Grade 4 = multiple, coalescing streams of blood covering more than 90% of the trachea with blood pooling at the thoracic inlet.3, 6, 7 Tracheobronchoscopy and BAL were performed as close to 60 minutes‐post racing as possible. Scores were assigned for the presence of blood in the trachea after review of the videos (Figure ​1).6

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Figure 1

Images of tracheobronchoscopic scores grading exercise‐induced pulmonary hemorrhage: A: Grade 1, B: Grade 2, C Grade 3, D Grade 4. Grade 1 = 1 or more flecks of blood or 2 or fewer short narrow streams of blood in the trachea or mainstem bronchi; Grade 2 = 1 long stream of blood or more than 2 short streams of blood occupying less than a third of the tracheal circumference; Grade 3 = multiple distinct streams of blood covering more than a third of the tracheal circumference, with no blood pooling at the thoracic inlet. Grade 4 = multiple, coalescing streams of blood covering more than 90% of the trachea with blood pooling at the thoracic inlet. Grading system used according to Hinchcliff8

2.2. Bronchoalveolar lavage

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through the endoscope immediately after TBE. The purpose of using the endoscope was to select the bronchi in which blood was visible. The endoscope was passed into the right or left main stem bronchus depending upon whether blood was noted in the right, left, both, or neither bronchus. When blood was noted in each mainstem bronchus, the bronchus exhibiting the greatest amount of blood was entered. If blood was not observed, typically the right mainstem bronchus was selected. The endoscope was advanced until it was wedged in a smaller bronchus. Three hundred milliliters of phosphate buffered 0.9% sodium chloride (PBS) was instilled through a 2.3 mm diameter 320 cm catheter (Endoscopy Support Services, Brewster, New York) which had been passed down the biopsy channel of the endoscope. The initial 60 cc syringe of PBS also contained 15 mL of lidocaine to anesthetize the airways. Once all of the fluid was infused, fluid was aspirated through the catheter. The initial 10 mL of retrieved bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was discarded and the rest of the fluid was aspirated until negative pressure was obtained. A portion of the retrieved PBS was saved in a 5 mL EDTA tube for red blood cell (RBC) count; the remainder of the fluid was stored in sterile 50 mL containers on ice until processing.

2.3. Bronchoalveolar lavage red cell count

The number of erythrocytes (RBC) in the BALF was determined using a hemocytometer and a microscope under ×40 power. If there were initially too many RBCs to count on the hemocytometer, the BALF was diluted and the dilution factor incorporated into calculation of the total number of RBCs. The exact number RBCs considered positive for EIPH has not been definitively established, and RBC >1,000/μL was utilized to classify horses as positive for EIPH in accordance with a previous recommendation.8

2.4. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytology

The BALF was centrifuged for 10 minutes at 300g for cytologic evaluation and standard cytologic analysis of a stained slide was performed by a board‐certified veterinary clinical pathologist. Cell type percentages were calculated and presence of hemosiderin or hemosiderophages was noted. Prussian blue stain was used to quantify presence of iron in hemosiderin (classified as percentage of iron‐containing cells/sample).

2.5. Statistical analysis

The statistical analysis was based on the 158 barrel races performed by 149 horses enrolled in the study. Where appropriate, data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The association between TBE EIPH score, BALF RBC count, and potential predictor variables was assessed using linear (BALF RBC count versus numeric variables) or logistic (TBE EIPH score ≥ 1 versus numeric or categorical variables) regression analysis of variance (ANOVA; BALF RBC versus categorical variables), or Fisher's exact test (TBE EIPH score ≥ 1 versus categorical variables).

A logarithmic transformation was applied to the BALF RBC count to satisfy normality and homogeneity of variance assumptions. All statistical analyses and descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and frequency were performed using SAS v9.4 (Washington State University, Pullman Washington). The significance level was P < .05.

3. RESULTS

A total of 8 barrel racing events was attended during the 2016 summer and fall barrel racing season. The lengths of the barrel races were: 1 event utilized a short pattern (230 feet), 3 events utilized medium patterns (260 and 287 feet), and 4 events utilized long patterns (330 feet and 335 feet). Two of the events were outdoors, and 6 events were indoors. There were 128 TBE EIPH scores and BALs performed after indoor races and 30 evaluations after outdoors races (Table 1).

Table 1

Number of horses with TBE and BAL performed at barrel racing events.

Event # and PlaceNumber of horses enrolled
Event 1 Pasco, WA20
Event 2 Walla Walla, WA32
Event 3 Deer Park, WA3
Event 4 Pasco, WA37
Event 5 Lewiston, ID3
Event 6 Kennewick, WA11
Event 7 Kalispell, MT33
Event 8 Kennewick, WA19

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One‐hundred forty‐nine horses (mean age, 8.0 ± 11.5 years; range, 3–23 years) were enrolled in the study and they collectively completed 158 runs. Eight horses had TBEs and BALs performed at 2 different events. One horse had TBE and BAL performed at 3 different events. There were 2 stallions, 92 geldings, and 55 mares. There were 133 Quarter Horses, 7 Appendix Quarter horses, 7 Paint horses, and 2 Appaloosas.

With 2 exceptions, horses were assessed on the same day after they performed at least 1 barrel race. Two horses had TBE and BAL performed 12 hours after they ran, because of a late‐night performance and evidence of epistaxis the night they ran. Three horses ran twice on the same day before TBE and BAL were performed. The horses that ran twice had similar TBE EIPH scores and similar RBC/μL as horses that ran once, but because only 3 horses ran twice, no comparison could be made between horses that ran twice in 1 day and horses that ran once.

The prevalence of EIPH using TBE EIPH score ≥1 was 54% (85/158) of runs and when using a BALF RBC count of > 1,000 RBCs/μL was 66% (104/158) of runs. Some horses that were EIPH positive on TBE EIPH score (n = 17 horses) were not positive on BALF RBC count. Conversely, some horses that were BALF RBC positive were not EIPH positive with TBE EIPH score (n = 37 horses). The relationship between the 2 scoring systems was linear and significant (P < .0001) but the correlation was weak (r2 = .15, Figure ​2). The distribution of EIPH positive horses (n = 84) by TBE EIPH score was: grade 1 = 37%, grade 2 = 39%, grade 3 = 18%, and grade 4 = 6% (Table 2). For the 104 horses with BALF RBC counts > 1,000 cells/μL, 83 horses had between 1,000 and 25,000 RBC/μL; 6 horses had from 25,000 to 50,000 RBC/μL; 3 horses had between 50,000 and 100,000 RBC/μL; and 12 horses had >100,000 RBC/μL (Table 3).

Table 2

Tracheobronchoscopic positive EIPH scores in 85 barrel racing horses compared to those reported in thoroughbred racehorses.2, 8

Tracheal scoreTBE EIPH score for racehorses (%)TBE EIPH score for barrel racing horses (%)
13737
23839
31918
466

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Table 3

BALF RBC count for the 104 horses/149 horses with RBCs > 1,000 cells/μL

# of Horses‐104Red blood cells/μLMean + Standard Deviation
831,000–25,0004,336 ± 4,177
625,000–50,00035,817 ± 6,928
350,000–100,00054,953 ± 4,524
12>100,000823,655 ± 1,259,274

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Table 4

Number of horses that coughed at rest or with exercise and pre‐race medication.

Cough/Pre‐race treatment# of Horses
Coughed at rest48
Coughed during exercise74
Coughed during rest and exercise40
Pre‐race furosemide37
Pre‐race clenbuterol16
Pre‐race other32
No pre‐race medication75

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Horses had the TBE and BAL performed as close to 60 minutes post‐race as possible, but variation still occurred in the exact time post‐exercise when they were performed mainly because of the time when owners presented their horses for physical examination and EIPH evaluation. Twenty‐seven runs performed by horses had TBE and BALs performed 45–60 minutes post‐race. One‐hundred and twenty runs performed by horses had TBE and BALs performed between 60–90 minutes post‐race. Eleven runs performed by horses had TBE and BALs performed > 90 minutes post‐race. A significant relationship was found between the actual time post‐exercise when BAL was performed and the BALF RBC numbers (P = .0004), but the correlation (r2 = .10) was poor. No relationship was found between the elapsed post‐exercise time of the TBE and TBE EIPH score (P = .07; r2 = .03; Figure ​3).

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Figure 3

Relationship of time to perform BAL and TBE with TBE EIPH score and BALF RBC numbers/μL, respectively. The BALF RBC count is expressed on a log10 scale. A significant relationship was seen between post‐exercise time of performing the BAL and BALF RBC count (P = .004), but the correlation was poor (r2 = .09). There was no significant relationship between post‐exercise time of TBE and TBE EIPH score (P = .07) and the correlation was very weak (r2 = .00)

No significant associations were found between the race time or distance of races with respect to TBE EIPH score (P = .15) or BALF RBC >1,000/μL (P = .94), or if the race was inside versus outside (TBE EIPH score, P = .11; BALF RBCs/μL, P = .67).

Thirty‐seven horses competed on various IV dosages of furosemide (150–500 mg) administered 1–4 hours before racing. Of these, 25/37 (67%) had a TBE EIPH score ≥ 1, BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL, or both. Sixteen horses received clenbuterol PO, with a range of doses from 362.5 μg to 725 μg before racing. Thirty‐two horses had other drugs administered which included firocoxib, phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, chlorpromazine, albuterol, dexamethasone, acepromazine, ketoprofen, glycopyrrolate, aspirin, zylekene, omeprazole, and interferon before racing. Seventy‐five horses received no pre‐race medications. Medications before competition had no significant effect on BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL (P = .31), but a significant relationship was found in the TBE EIPH score of horses that received clenbuterol. These horses had higher TBE EIPH scores ≥ 1 (P = .002).

Thirty‐two percent (49/149) of the horses reportedly coughed at rest and 51% (77/149) of the horses coughed with work. Twenty‐seven percent (40/149) of horses coughed both at work and during rest. Coughing, whether during exercise or while at rest, had no correlation with either TBE EIPH score ≥ 1 (r2 = .00, for exercise; r2 = .00, at rest) or BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL, (r2 = .02 during exercise; r2 = .001, at rest).

A board‐certified veterinary clinical pathologist evaluated BALF slides from 83 of the 158 BALF samples. Evaluation of results of the BALF cytologic examination of WBC on 83 horses found no correlation between EIPH (using both TBE EIPH score and BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL) and the percentages of eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and hemosiderophages or the presence of inflammatory airway disease (IAD) but, 39/83 (47%) of these BALF had signs of chronic bleeding as indicated by the presence of hemosiderophages on Prussian blue‐stained slides. Inflammatory airway disease was classified according to the ACVIM consensus statement of 2016 wherein > 10% neutrophils, > 5% mast cells and > 5% eosinophils were considered consistent with IAD.8

4. DISCUSSION

Our study describes the prevalence of EIPH in a selected population of actively competing barrel racing horses in the Pacific Northwest using 2 different methods of detecting EIPH. Interestingly, 37 (17%) of the runs performed by horses would not have been considered positive for EIPH if determined by TBE EIPH score alone. On the other hand, 17 (11%) runs made by horses would not have been regarded as positive for EIPH if using BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL. Classically, TBE EIPH score has been the preferred method for detecting EIPH because of ease of performance and its less invasive nature compared to BAL. Further studies are needed to determine the best method of diagnosing EIPH as well as the best post‐exercise time period in which to perform TBE, BAL or both for diagnosing EIPH.

The prevalence rate in our study was higher (54% by TBE EIPH score and 66% by BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL) than that in another study that found a prevalence of 45.3% in barrel racers in Alberta Canada.3 The prevalence rates obtained in our study24, 25, 26 and the previous study3 were similar to those of large studies of Thoroughbred24, 25, 26 racehorses in which prevalence ranged from 43 to 75%.6, 7 Results as high as 85% have been reported with repeated TBE EIPH scores.9, 10 Thus, the results for the barrel racers are similar to those of other strenuously exercising horses despite the very short duration of exercise associated with barrel racing.

The pathophysiologic cause of EIPH currently is thought to be stress failure of the pulmonary capillaries caused by excessive transmural pressure resulting from a combination of high pulmonary intracapillary blood pressure and high negative peak inspiratory pressure during exercise.11 During maximal exercise on a treadmill at speeds ≥ 14 m/s on a 5% incline, mean pulmonary arterial pressures in horses increased from 25 mmHg to > 95 mmHg.11, 12, 13 Peak inspiratory pressures can approach −60 cm H2O (approximately 45 mmHg).11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 We could find no reports regarding heart rate during barrel racing. However, given the speeds at which these horses compete in 1D and 2D races (mean speeds in 10 horses in another study ranged from 17.99 ± 2.05 ft/s to 19.15 ± 1.23 ft/s depending upon length of race),3 barrel racing clearly constitutes strenuous exercise, with horses reaching maximal heart rate and rapidly developing high pulmonary vascular pressure while competing.10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 In keeping with the belief that all strenuously exercising horses experience EIPH to some extent,1, 2, 6, 16 the prevalence findings in our study are not surprising.

Pre‐race administration of furosemide was not associated with differences in the severity of EIPH based on TBE EIPH score or BALF RBC count. This finding appeared contrary to evidence from several studies of Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses indicating that pre‐exercise administration of furosemide decreases frequency of EIPH and mitigates the post‐exercise TBE EIPH score.1, 9, 10, 18, 19, 20, 21 However, we did not perform a controlled cross‐over study and examined no horses that competed with and without receiving furosemide before racing. Therefore, whether furosemide affects the frequency or severity or both of EIPH in barrel racing horses has yet to be determined.

Administration of clenbuterol before racing was associated with a higher TBE EIPH score when compared to scores for horses that did not receive the drug. Why clenbuterol was associated with increased TBE EIPH score in some of the barrel racing horses in our study is unclear. We could find no data regarding clenbuterol and EIPH although it has been shown to have no effect on ventilatory mechanics, pulmonary vascular pressures or maximal oxygen consumption in horses galloping on a treadmill.15, 16 Factors not taken into account in our study, such as the concomitant administration of other drugs, humidity, altitude, and depth of arena surface, could have contributed to the more severe EIPH in horse receiving clenbuterol.

Our study did not find any correlation between performance and TBE EIPH score (r2 = .01), BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL (r2 = .02), or pre‐exercise treatment with medications (P = .31) for BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL and TBE EIPH score (P = .14). The apparent lack of effect of these variables on performance may a consequence of the very short distance barrel racing horses must race when compared to that for Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds for which EIPH can be performance limiting.7, 15, 22

The prevalence of coughing ranged from 33% at rest to 49% during exercise. This finding was compatible with reports that 16%‐50% of racehorses27, 28 with IAD and EIPH or both cough while at rest or during exercise, with coughing occurring most frequently at the beginning of exercise.20, 21, 23 No evidence however was found that a history of coughing was associated with EIPH or its severity in our study. Similarly, no correlation was found between BALF cytology and evidence of IAD or correlation with EIPH either by TBE EIPH score or BALF RBC count > 1,000 cells/μL. Therefore, based on these findings, it does not appear that a relationship existed between IAD and EIPH in this study population. More information is needed however regarding the relationship among non‐specific inflammation, EIPH and IAD.

A limitation to our study was that horses were enrolled voluntarily, some with a known EIPH history, and others with unknown history. It also relied solely on information that was disclosed by the owners relating to previous history of respiratory illness, other illness, cough with work or at rest, and medications administered before running the barrels. This approach could have resulted in bias toward a higher prevalence of EIPH, with owners enrolling in the study if their horse had any respiratory signs or previous bouts of EIPH although not every horse enrolled in the study had a history of EIPH.

Another potential limitation was the time post‐exercise when the TBE and BAL were performed. In the majority of horses, these procedures were performed close to or at 60 minutes post‐exercise, but the exact time varied. The owners were told to report with their horses no sooner than 45 minutes post‐race, but not all complied. In some instances, the need to obtain owner consent or having multiple horses waiting at the same time for TBE and BAL or both may have caused variation in the actual timing of the TBE. Two of the horses had TBE and BAL performed 12 hours after running and both were EIPH positive with both methods. The most appropriate time for performing TBE or BAL to determine EIPH has not been established and the time the diagnostics tests were performed could have affected determination of the prevalence of EIPH because not every horse that had a TBE EIPH score ≥ 1 had an BALF RBC count > 1,000 cell/μL, and not every horse that had an BALF RBC count >1,000 cells/μL had a TBE EIPH score ≥ 1.

We found a high prevalence of EIPH in barrel racing horses in the Pacific Northwest during indoor and outdoor races using TBE EIPH scoring and BALF RBC count. The post‐exercise performance of BAL and TBE played a role in determining EIPH in horses, but the most appropriate post‐exercise time at which to undertake these evaluations has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to determine if other factors such as footing, humidity, hauling, and IAD influence the prevalence and severity of EIPH in barrel racing horses.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST DECLARATION

Authors declare no conflict of interest

OFF‐LABEL ANTIMICROBIAL DECLARATION

Authors declare no off‐label use of antimicrobials.

INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) OR OTHER APPROVAL DECLARATION

IACUC Approval ASAF # 04778‐002 01/06/2016.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors thank Dr. Cleverson Souza for analysis of the BALF slides

Notes

Gold JR, Knowles DP, Coffey T, Bayly WM. Exercise‐induced pulmonary hemorrhage in barrel racing horses in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32:839–845. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15066[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

The work was performed at barrel racing events in Idaho, Montana and Washington State. A synopsis of the work described in this manuscript was presented at the ACVIM Forum 2017.

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Articles from Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine are provided here courtesy of Wiley-Blackwell


Sours: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866954/
Ace-trotting barrel pattern

Ace Is Not Valium

If you ask the average horseperson what a tranquilizer is they will likely tell you it is a drug that calms, sedates or quiets a horse. No distinction is drawn between a tranquilizer, sedative, hypnotic or any other class of drug affecting the horse’s brain.

Even among pharmacologists and veterinarians, there is a gray line between all the centrally acting drugs, and even antidepressants sometimes get lumped in with the tranquilizing drugs. However, the distinction between drugs is more than just an academic question. Different drugs have different actions on the brain, and while you may think you’re getting the same result, the changes in the horse may be deceiving.

Acepromazine
The most widely used tranquilizer in horses is acepromazine or “ace,” a member of the phenothiazine group of tranquilizers. In human medicine, these drugs are reserved for the most severe cases of psychosis and are responsible for the zombie-like, blank-staring state portrayed in movies about mental hospitals. Ace does not make a horse happy, peaceful or calm — it makes him dull and flat.

An important characteristic of ace is its effect on learning. With both people and experimental animals, the learning of new tasks is greatly blocked by ace. If you use it to make a horse more manageable during schooling you are wasting your time — he won’t remember most of what you try to teach him.

Ace also has a direct effect on the muscular system, causing relaxation. It decreases spontaneous motor activity, which means horses that fidget, pace or paw are likely to stop this behavior even at relatively low doses. The lack of coordination and stumbling that occur with ace are a result of a combination of effects on the brain and the muscular relaxation.

Ace Side Effects
Acepromazine has potent side effects. We all know ace will cause the penis to drop. Although rare, ace can result in a permanent paralysis of the muscles that retract the penis. There is no particular dose more likely to do this and no way to predict what horse may be affected.

Heart and circulation are affected by ace, which always causes a drop in blood pressure. In the initial stages after administration, irregular heart beat and blocked conduction of impulses through the heart are common. These effects make the use of ace in electrolyte-depleted, exhausted, injured, colicked, or otherwise stressed/shock horses potentially dangerous.

Ace also affects the blood. Even low doses cause a drop in red-blood-cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit. The effect increases with dosage so that at full dose (0.1 mg/kg or about 50 to 55 mg for average adult horse), there is as much as a 20% drop in red-cell parameters.

Ace also interacts with medications used to achieve general anesthesia. If you used ace to facilitate emergency treatment of an injury or colic, and the horse is found to require surgery, it is imperative that the anesthesiologist be informed.

Few users realize ace accumulates in the body. Ace is distributed widely throughout the tissues. While blood levels drop off quickly, a slower elimination phase follows before all the drug is cleared. If a horse is given ace daily, he will eventually need smaller doses for the same effect. Horses receiving ace regularly may test positive at competitions for as long as three weeks after the drug has been stopped.

Ace Misconceptions
Most people think ace makes a horse safer to work on, safer to ride, less likely to “flip out” in a trailer, etc. This is not necessarily true. Ace is useful in abolishing conditioned/learned responses, but it will not abolish self-defense mechanisms. For example, if a horse had a bad experience loading or an irrational fear of the sound of clippers, ace will help suppress his usual responses to those circumstances. However, he will still react to pain, loud noises or even an unexpected touch — often with surprising speed and strength. And there are more misconceptions:

Myth: Getting ace on your own skin can cause problems.

Reality: There are no special safety precautions when using ace, and no special toxicity to people compared to animals. Overexposure may cause eye or skin irritation. If you get it on your skin, flush with water. If you get it in your eye, flush with water and call your doctor. Do not ingest it.

Myth: Adrenaline can overide the effects of ace. If your horse is already upset about clipping giving him ace won’t do any good.

Reality: Giving ace after the horse is agitated may mean you need a slightly higher dose to get the same effect, but it will work. As with the initial dose, you must allow adequate time for the drug to take effect. The horse should be left undisturbed for this time period. When you come back, the horse will be calmer.

Adrenalin is metabolized in a matter of seconds to minutes and will not affect the response to ace, even if you give it after the horse is worked up. Regardless of the dose used or whether or not the horse was agitated to begin with, a sufficiently strong stimulus can still cause the horse to react. A combination of common sense, working quietly and using low/moderate doses of acepromazine to “take the edge off” will get the job done just as well as high doses and will avoid dangerous incoordination.

Rompun
Xylazine (Rompun/TranquiVet) is another common tranquilizer. Properly classified as a sedative and muscle relaxant — both effects occurring through interference with activity in the brain — xylazine also has some analgesic effects, but these last only for 15 to 30 minutes, tops, and are highly unpredictable. It is generally not safe to do painful procedures under the effects of xyalazine alone, although it may make the injection of a local anesthetic easier.

Like ace, xylazine has side effects. Xylazine slows breathing, an effect described as similar to the breathing depression seen with sleep. Xylazine also has a profound effect on the intestinal tract, causing marked slowing of motility, particularly in the small intestine.

A horse under the effects of xylazine will usually drop its head farther than with acepromazine and is generally less likely to react to procedures being done around the head. This makes the horse appear to be more sedated than he really is. As with ace, any loud noise, pain, sudden movement or unexpected touch can cause the horse to react quickly and violently.

Because of the effects on intestinal motility, problems could be encountered if xylazine is given to a horse that has just completed a large meal. Exactly how much of a problem this could be is still a matter of debate, but it would be wise to avoid xyalzine under those circumstances.

Because of the intestinal-tract effects, mild analgesic effects and lack of significant effects on blood pressure, xylazine is a favorite to use in the treatment of colic. However, some colics can be made worse by this drug. If the horse is experiencing discomfort because a section of intestine is damaged and not propelling intestinal material properly, xylazine could make matters worse.

Right And Wrong Uses
Too many people approach the use of tranquilizers with a casual attitude, thinking it is the equivalent of a person taking a Valium to “mellow out.” These are potent drugs with potentially serious side effects.

The main indication for tranquilizers is for the safe performance of medical procedures that can’t be accomplished by other methods of restraint. In all other cases, the risks and benefits should be carefully weighed. Avoid using tranquilizers for routine tasks, such as braiding or pulling manes. The horse should be trained to stand or, if absolutely necessary, twitched a few times until he learns he must behave.

More often than not, horses that put up excessive resistance to routine procedures have learned they can get away with it. Having the horse handled and restrained by someone who knows how to proper ly deal with the behavior is likely to cure the problem in short order. Tranquilizers will not.

Tranquilizing for trailering is another common abuse. For the handful of horses that go bonkers in a trailer, either because they can’t overcome their fear of being restrained in a small spot or because of a prior bad experience, low-dose tranquilization may be necessary in a pinch.

However, it is nearly always possible to overcome the “anxiety” by devoting time to repeatedly loading and unloading, feeding in the trailer, having the horse stand with the trailer not moving, repeatedly shipping for short distances, etc.

It is also important to identify exactly what it is that upsets the horse. If the sound of engines, horns or other stimuli, such as lights flashing, are causing the problem, tranquilizers won’t help and may make the situation worse as the horse will still react to these things but will be off balance because of the tranquilizer.

Using ear plugs on your horse when shipping is effective with many horses, blocking out or muffling the rattling and banging of the trailer as well as upsetting traffic noises. Yoiu can buy equine ear plugs or you can make some yourself using rolled-up gauze covered by nylon stockings.

The use of tranquilizers, especially acepromazine, during breaking and training of young horses is completely counterproductive. All the fears and behavior patterns are likely to recur as soon as you stop using the drug, unless the horse is worked with for a long-enough period after giving the drug so that he has recovered from the effects (this means hours!) and is responding when not under the influence. If you do not have the expertise to handle a young, unbroken horse turn him over to a professional.

Similarly, there is no place for tranquilizers when hacking, foxhunting, showing or otherwise riding. Even light tranquilization interferes with the horse’s muscular functioning and coordination, greatly increasing the risk of injury for both rider and animal. If you aren’t skilled enough to ride the horse you’re assigned, decline the invitation to go.

We have all seen horses, usually at unrated competitions, that are obviously tranquilized. They go around the ring in a daze, nose almost on the ground. It doesn’t take an expert to spot these horses as tranquilized. The sad thing is that often these horses will get pinned if they can manage to make it over a course of jumps cleanly. It’s tempting for people to take the “easy way out” to make a less-than-perfect horse look bombproof. If your trainer uses tranquilizers to help you show your horse, question why.

A proper use of tranquilizers is when a horse has been stall bound for a prolonged period as a result of an injury and is being brought back. No one can reasonably expect these horses to behave. If they had their way, they would break loose immediately and run until they were too tired to run anymore. Proper tranquilization facilitates initial stages of handwalking and turn-out in small quarters, such as a bull pen. Done properly, the tranquilized state lessens the chance of injury compared to if the horse were simply allowed to carry on.

We realize there are situations, especially with a new horse, where you find out unexpectedly that the horse acts badly for some simple routine task, like clipping. If you don’t have time to properly reschool the horse, low-dose tranquilization may help with the immediate problem but should not be used repeatedly as a substitute for proper training.

Tranquilizers are also appropriate when dealing with an injured horse that is agitated and will not submit to emergency care. However, before reaching for a tranquilizer, allow the horse to calm down, take vital signs (temperature, pulse and respiration) when the horse is quieted and give it one more try. If you still cannot work with the horse, contact the veterinarian with a detailed description of the horse’s current condition and vital signs and follow advice for tranquilization before you give any drugs. Even horses in impending shock may be agitated because of pain and fear. Giving a tranquilizer under those circumstances can have disastrous consequences.

Correct Dosages
Tranquilizers are controlled drugs, so you must obtain them through your veterinarian, who will instruct you on appropriate dosages for your horse and in what situations. In reality, however, some barns have a bottle of tranquilizer ready to use by whoever “needs it” for their horse.

It’s important to realize the dosage of tranquilizer that appears on a label is the appropriate dose to use for full tranquilizing effect, as in premedicating a horse before surgery. There are almost no around-the-barn situations that would call for this high a dose. Horses vary quite widely in their sensitivity to tranquilizers.

For almost all uses around the barn (except possibly colic), ace is the tranquilizer of choice. It is possible to get behavior modification from this drug at doses that have minimal sedating effects and minimal lack of coordination. Unfortunately, people often use a standard dose, such as “I always give 3 cc to ship,” that is not only too high but also ignores the fact that each horse is different.

As little as 25 mg (0.5 cc of the 50 mg/ml acepromazine) will allow you to clip, braid or load most horses with little difficulty — if you give it time to work. Intravenous dosing is not recommended for non-veterinarians. When given intramuscularly, allow 20 to 30 minutes for the full effect of the drug. If insufficient, you can give increasing 25 mg increments until the desired effect. Be sure to follow the correct skin preparation techniques for the injection.

When using oral preparations of acepromazine (granules), the effective dose will be about five times higher because of differences in absorption. Allow an hour for full effect. An advantage of the oral type is that side effects are greatly decreased to nonexistent.

Also With This Article
Click here to view "For Veterinary Use Only."
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Click here to view "Worries With Reserpine."

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For barrel horses ace

Let's go further. 35 Here is the university. Climbing out of a comfortable warm interior. Max reports that he is in constant contact.

Barrel Training, on \

With characteristic Huh?, What. She woke up. I asked where the toilet was. She pointed me straight down the corridor and she will be right away. Having thanked me, I moved on with the same unstable gait.

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I liked it, I started kissing her neck, my arms hugged and pressed her flat tummy to me, a slight groan came out of her. The member, sensing the proximity of his goal, began to get up and strain, she caught him between her legs with her ass. and started slightly move.



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